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Durham University

Institute of Medieval and Early Modern Studies (IMEMS)

Staff and Governance

Core Staff

The day-to-day running of IMEMS is the responsibility of the Core Executive Committee, comprising the Director and Associate Directors and the Administrator. 

Publication details for Dr Andrew R Millard

Millard AR (1998). Bone in the burial environment. In Preserving archaeological remains in situ. London. Corfield, M, Hinton, P & Pollard, M Museum of London Archaeological Services. 93-102.
  • Publication type: Chapter in book

Author(s) from Durham


The survival of bones, and the information about the past which they carry, is dependent upon the nature of the burial environment and its interaction with bones. This paper reviews our knowledge of the preservation of bone, on scales ranging from the macroscopic to the atomic, and how preservation is affected by: (i) the inherent properties of bone, deriving from its nature as a mineral-organic composite; (ii) the treatment bones receive before burial, such as defleshing, cooking, or cremation; (iii) the interaction of the burial environment with buried bone, mediated by groundwater, and depending on groundwater chemistry, but also involving a variety of other parameters, including soil microbiology. After reviewing the influence of these factors, possible directions for future research into the interaction of bones with their environment are mapped out.

Full Executive Committee

Our Full Executive Committee is made up of the Core Executive Committee, listed above, plus a number of executive members including:

International Advisory Board

We are extremely fortunate to have be able to call on the help and guidance of colleagues from around the world who help to shape and guide our direction, strategy and international reach. Our current Advisory Board members are: