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Durham University

Institute of Medieval and Early Modern Studies (IMEMS)

Staff and Governance

Core Staff

The day-to-day running of IMEMS is the responsibility of the Core Executive Committee, comprising the Director and Associate Directors and the Administrator. 

Publication details for Dr Andrew R Millard

Afshar, Z., Roberts, C. & Millard, A. (2018). Interpersonal violence among the Chalcolithic and Bronze Ages inhabitants living on the Central Plateau of Iran: A voice from Tepe Hissar. Anthropologischer Anzeiger 75(1): 49-66.

Author(s) from Durham


The site of Tepe Hissar (Iran) experienced widespread cultural and economic changes during the Chalcolithic and Bronze Ages (5th to the 2nd millennium B.C.). The discovery of evidence of burning, including charred human remains, the destruction of buildings (Periods II and III), and the presence of several mass-burials with comingling of human skeletal remains consisting of ten or more individuals (Period III), suggests interpersonal violence during these periods. The original excavator of Tepe Hissar, Erich Schmidt, suggested that phenomena such as war, massacres, epidemics, or similar catastrophes, may have been responsible for the excavated archaeological evidence. This study tests the hypothesis that interpersonal violence was responsible for this evidence. Patterns of violence related head injury are explored among 129 adult men and women from the Chalcolithic and Bronze Ages. Sixty of the 129 (46.5%) crania examined presented with cranial trauma, with 25 (19.3%) having evidence of perimortem injury, and four (3.1%) and 31 (24%) individuals with signs of healing and healed head/facial trauma, respectively. Most of the injuries were located on the frontal or parietal bones of the cranium. Such findings may be interpreted as a result of the population experiencing a rise in social complexity and population increase that accompanied violence related to intra- or inter-group competition, often leading to lethal outcomes. These data support the hypothesis that the cultural and economic transitions and population changes that occurred at Tepe Hissar, and particularly in the Hissar II and III periods, were accompanied by tension and interpersonal violence.

Full Executive Committee

Our Full Executive Committee is made up of the Core Executive Committee, listed above, plus a number of executive members including:

International Advisory Board

We are extremely fortunate to have be able to call on the help and guidance of colleagues from around the world who help to shape and guide our direction, strategy and international reach. Our current Advisory Board members are: