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Durham University

Institute of Medieval and Early Modern Studies (IMEMS)


The list below shows Durham University research staff who are members of IMEMS. Click the member's name to see a more detailed biography and department.

We also welcome anyone from outside the University with an interest in our work to join. Membership is free of charge. You will receive invitations to our programme of events, with a weekly emails digest about what is happening in the Insitute and further afield. To join IMEMS contact:

Professor Nicole Reinhardt

Full Executive Committee Member in the Institute of Medieval and Early Modern Studies

Contact Professor Nicole Reinhardt (email at

Nicole Reinhardt researches on early modern European political culture, particularly in Italy, France, and the Iberian Peninsula. Her first book examined clientele and patronage in 17th century Bologna as a means of understanding the social mechanisms underlying state building. More recently she has focused on religious discourse in political contexts, and its roles in the representation and constitution of political power. These questions are explored in her second monograph Voices of Conscience (2016) which examines how moral theology and understandings of counsel of conscience shaped practices of political counsel in catholic monarchies during the 16th and 17th centuries. While she continues to work on norms, counsel and confession, she is also currently developing a new strand of research on the intellectual and political horizons of sixteenth and seventeenth-century Aristotelians in Bologna.

Nicole has wide interests in intellectual history, the history of political thought, moral theology and in questions of theory and historiography. 

Nicole was Fellow of the Max-Weber-Centre (Erfurt) and member of the research group on 'Religious individualisation in historical perspective' (2010-2011) financed by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft.
In 2010 she taught at the International PhD Summer School of the Herzog-August-Bibliothek in Wolfenbüttel, and in 2011 she was professeur invité at the Sorbonne (Paris I). In January 2013 Nicole participated in a conference at Versailles, which can be heard through an audio archive.

Nicole has held a research fellowship from the Leverhulme Foundation and in 2014/15 she was a Elizabeth and J Richardson Dilworth Fellow at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton.
In 2017 she held an Andrew Mellon Fellowship for research at the Harry Ransom Center in Austin (Texas) and was a Visiting Fellow at the Kolleg für Humanwissenschaften in Bad Homburg. In July 2018 she was a Visiting Fellow at the Center for Advanced Studies at the Ludwig-Maximilians University in Munich.

Nicole would be happy to supervise research students working on early modern European religious and political culture.

Research Interests

  • Interaction between religion and politics
  • Norms, ethics and institutions in early modern Europe

Teaching Areas

  • Burning Hearts: Mission and inquisition in a global age
  • Connected Histories: Early Modern Europe,, c. 1450-1750
  • Discipline and Modernity
  • Themes, Readings, Sources


Authored book

Chapter in book

  • Reinhardt, Nicole (2013). Das konigliche Gewissen in Prisma jansenistischer Kritik. In Der Jansenismus: Eine "katholische Häresie"? Das Ringen um Gnade, Rechtfertigung und die Autorität Augustins in der frühen Neuzeit?. Burkard, Dominik & Thanner, Tanja Stuttgart: Aschendorff, Munster. 349-371.
  • Reinhardt, Nicole (2012). Der Beichtvater in der Frühen Neuzeit als Berater, Richter und Prophet. In Machtfaktor Religion. Formen religiöser Einflussnahme auf Politik und Gesellschaft. Oberndorfer, B. & Waldmann, P. Köln-Weimar-Wien: Böhlau. 59-90.
  • Reinhardt, Nicole (2011). ‘Sotto il “mantello della religione” – Camillo Baldi, un proto-libertino nello stato della Chiesa?’. In La fede degli Italiani. Per Adriano. Dall’Olio, Guido & et al Pisa: Edizioni della Scuola Normale di Pisa. I: 81-95.
  • Reinhardt, Nicole (2009). ‘Y a-t-il une casuistique pour les rois?’. In La casuistique classique genèse, histoire, devenir. Boarini, Serge Saint-Etienne: Publications de l’Université de Saint-Etienne. 59-73.
  • Reinhardt, Nicole (2009). Correspondances, clientèle et culture politique dans l’État ecclésiastique au début du xvii e siècle. In La politique par correspondance: Les usages politiques de la lettre en Italie (XIVe-XVIIIe siècle). Boutier, Jean, Landi, Sandro & Rouchon, Olivier Presses Universitaires de Rennes. 131-151.
  • . (2007). Dissimulation, Politik und Moral. In Krumme Touren. Anthropologie kommunikativer Umwege. Wolfgang Reinhard Vienna: Vienna: Böhlau. 165-182.
  • . (2007). Juan de Mariana: Bibelexegese und Tyrannenmord. In Die Bibel als politisches Argument. Andreas Pecar & Kai Trampedach München: München: Beiheft der Historischen Zeitschrift. 273-294.
  • . (2007). The King’s confessor: changing images. In Monarchy and Religion: The Transformation of Royal Culture in Eighteenth Century Europe. Michael Schaich Oxford: Oxford: Oxford University Press. 153-185.
  • . (2005). Bolonais à Rome – Romains à Bologne? Carrières et stratégies entre centre et périphérie. Une esquisse. In Offices et papauté (XIVe-XVIIe siècle) Charges, hommes, destins. Armand Jamme & Olivier Poncet Rome: Rome: Ecole française de Rome. 237-249.
  • . (2002). Verflechtung – ein Blick zurück nach vorn. In Historische Anstöße. Festschrift für Wolfgang Reinhard zum 65. Geburtstag am 10. April 2002. Peter Burschel, Mark Häberlein, Volker Reinhardt, Wolfgang E.J. Weber & Reinhard Wendt Berlin: Berlin: Akademie Verlag. 235-262.

Edited Journal

  • Reinhardt, Nicole (2014). Journal of Early Modern History. 18

Journal Article