The list below shows Durham University research staff who are members of IMEMS. Click the member's name to see a more detailed biography and department.
We also welcome anyone from outside the University with an interest in our work to join. Membership is free of charge. You will receive invitations to our programme of events, with a weekly emails digest about what is happening in the Insitute and further afield. To join IMEMS contact: firstname.lastname@example.org
Professor Len Scales
(email at email@example.com)
Len Scales studies the political culture of late medieval Europe, particularly the German-speaking lands. His current work is concerned with ideas about ‘German’ identity between the thirteenth and fifteenth centuries. His recent publications in this area have concentrated upon collective stereotypes (the ‘warrior’ Germans), the relationship between peoplehood and power, and the question of medieval German ‘exceptionalism’. He is also exploring the history of medieval ideas about ethnicity and common identity more broadly, across the whole of the c.500-c.1500 period. His current and forthcoming publications in this field examine medieval ideas about the destruction of peoples. For the future, he plans a comparative investigation of political communication and ‘propaganda’ in the late Middle Ages, concentrating on the development of popular and visual media. He would welcome the opportunity to supervise postgraduate research on late medieval German history, late medieval political culture, and medieval peoplehood and inter-ethnic and inter-cultural relations.
Areas of Postgraduate Supervision
- late-medieval Germany
- late-medieval European political culture
- pre-modern European ethnicity and nationhood
Indicators of Esteem
- 2015: Studies in German History (German History Society / Oxford University Press): Series editor (with Professor Neil Gregor, University of Southampton)
- 2014: German History Society: Committee member
- Politics, society and political ideas in later medieval Germany
- Late medieval cultural history
- Peoplehood and inter-cultural relations in the Middle Ages
- The late medieval history of Germany and western Europe
- Scales, Len (2012). The Shaping of German Identity: Authority and Crisis, 1245-1414. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Chapter in book
- Scales, Len (2020). Court and control: Sigismund in England, 1416. In Hof und Kanzlei Kaiser Sigismunds als politisches Zentrum und soziales System. Bárta, Stanislav, & Elbel, Petr Böhlau.
- Scales, Len (2016). The Empire in translation: English perspectives on imperium and emperors, 1220-1440. In The Plantagenet Empire, 1259-1453: Proceedings of the 2014 Harlaxton Symposium (Harlaxton Medieval Studies). Crooks, Peter, Green, David & Ormrod, W. Mark Donington: Shaun Tyas. 49-71.
- Scales, Len (2016). The parchment imperialists: texts, scribes, and the medieval western Empire, c.1250-c.1440. In Empire and Bureaucracy in World History: from Late Antiquity to the Twentieth Century. Crooks, Peter & Parsons, Timothy Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 221-249.
- Scales, Len (2015). Purposeful pasts: Godfrey of Viterbo and later medieval imperialist thought. In Godfrey of Viterbo and his Readers: Imperial Tradition and Universal History in Late Medieval Europe. Foerster, Thomas Farnham: Ashgate. 119-144.
- Scales, L. (2010). Central and late medieval Europe. In The Oxford Handbook of Genocide Studies. Bloxham, Donald & Moses, A. Dirk Oxford: Oxford University Press. 280-303.
- Scales, L. (2010). The illuminated Reich: memory, crisis and the visibility of monarchy in late medieval Germany. In The Holy Roman Empire, Reconsidered. Jason Coy, Benjamin Marschke & David Sabean New York Oxford: Berghahn. 73-92.
- Scales, L. E. (2005). Late medieval Germany: an under-Stated nation?. In Power and the Nation in European history. Len Scales & Oliver Zimmer Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 166-191.
- Chris Given-Wilson & Ann Kettle (2008). War, Government and Aristocracy in the British Isles, c.1150-1500: Essays in Honour of Michael Prestwich. Woodbridge: Boydell.
- Scales, L.E. & Oliver Zimmer (2005). Power and the Nation in European History. Cambridge University Press.
- Scales, Len (2019). Wenceslas looks out: monarchy, locality, and the symbolism of power in fourteenth-century Bavaria. Central European History 52(2): 179-210.
- Whaley, J. & Scales, L. (2018). Rewriting the history of the Holy Roman Empire. German History 36(3): 1-18.
- Scales, Len (2015). Before and after Nationes: accounting for medieval peoples in twenty-first-century Germany. German History 33(4): 624-645.
- Scales, Len (2012). Re-staging the Reich: the life and times of the Golden Bull (1356). Bulletin of International Medieval Research 17/18: 84-106.
- Len Scales (2009). Rose without thorn, eagle without feathers: nation and power in late medieval England and Germany. German Historical Institute London Bulletin 31(1): 3-35.
- Scales, L. E. (2007). Bread, cheese and genocide: imagining the destruction of peoples in medieval western Europe. History 92(307): 284-300.
- Scales, L. E. (2003). Germen militiae: war and German identity in the later middle ages. Past and Present 180(1): 41-82.
- Scales, L. E. (2001). Monarchy and German identity in the later Middle Ages. Bulletin of the John Rylands University Library 83(3): 167-200.
- Scales, L.E. (2000). Identifying 'France' and 'Germany': medieval nation-making in some recent publications. Bulletin of International Medieval Research 6: 21-46.
- Scales, L.E. (1999). At the margin of community: Germans in pre-Hussite Bohemia. Transactions of the Royal Historical Society 9: 327-352.
- Scales, L.E. (1998). The Cambridgeshire ragman rolls. English Historical Review 113(452): 553-579.
- Scales, L.E. (1995). France and the Empire: the viewpoint of Alexander of Roes. French History 9(4): 394-416.
Available for media contact about:
- Europe: History & Archaeology: The history of ethnicity and nationhood in the Middle Ages
- Medieval history: The history of ethnicity and nationhood in the Middle Ages
- Politicial, cultural, social history: The history of ethnicity and nationhood in the Middle Ages
- Europe: History & Archaeology: The political and cultural history of medieval Germany and Central Europe
- Medieval history: The political and cultural history of medieval Germany and Central Europe
- Politicial, cultural, social history: The political and cultural history of medieval Germany and Central Europe