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Durham University

Department of Earth Sciences

Environmental Research Group

Group Statement

The Carbon, Waste and Water (CW2) research group studies environmental problems by providing novel approaches to understand the mechanisms and processes driving environmental issues. The work of the group presently focuses upon issues of carbon biogeochemistry; nitrogen fluxes and CO2 sequestration. Over the last 5 years, the group has run projects for four research councils (NERC, EPSRC, BBSRC and ESRC); for government departments (incl. DEFRA and Natural England); charities (eg. The National Trust); and private industry (incl. 3 different water companies). The group has developed an extensive facilities base for both laboratory and fieldwork.


Academic Staff

Research Staff


Journal Article

  • Clancy, S.A., Worrall, F., Davies, R.J. & Gluyas, J.G. (2018). An assessment of the footprint and carrying capacity of oil and gas well sites: The implications for limiting hydrocarbon reserves. Science of The Total Environment 618: 586-594.
  • Worrall, Fred, Howden, Nicholas J.K., Burt, Tim P. & Bartlett, Rebecca (2018). Declines in the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration and flux from the UK. Journal of Hydrology 556: 775-789.
  • Worrall, Fred, Burt, Tim P., Howden, Nicholas J.K., Hancock, Gregory R. & Wainwright, John (2018). The fate of suspended sediment and particulate organic carbon in transit through the channels of a river catchment. Hydrological Processes 32(1): 146-159.
  • Boothroyd, I. M., Almond, S., Worrall, F., Davies, R. K. & Davies, R. J. (2018). Assessing fugitive emissions of CH4 from high-pressure gas pipelines in the UK. Science of the Total Environment 631-632: 1638-1648.
  • Boothroyd, I. M., Almond, S., Worrall, F. & Davies, R. J. (2017). Assessing the fugitive emission of CH4 via migration along fault zones – Comparing potential shale gas basins to non-shale basins in the UK. Science of the Total Environment 580: 412-424.
  • Noacco, Valentina, Wagener, Thorsten, Worrall, Fred, Burt, Tim P. & Howden, Nicholas J. K. (2017). Human impact on long-term organic carbon export to rivers. Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences 122(4): 947-965.
  • Moody, C. S. & Worrall, F. (2017). Modeling rates of DOC degradation using DOM composition and hydroclimatic variables. Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences 122(5): 1175-1191.
  • Worrall, Fred, Moody, Catherine S., Clay, Gareth D., Burt, Tim P. & Rose, Rob (2017). The flux of organic matter through a peatland ecosystem: The role of cellulose, lignin, and their control of the ecosystem oxidation state. Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences 122(7): 1655-1671.
  • Boothroyd, I. M., Almond, S., Qassim, S. M., Worrall, F. & Davies, R. J. (2016). Fugitive emissions of methane from abandoned, decommissioned oil and gas wells. Science of The Total Environment 547: 461-469.
  • Worrall, F., Clay, G.D. & Macdonald, A. (2016). The impact of fertilizer management on the oxidation status of terrestrial organic matter. Soil Use and Management 32(1): 45-52.
  • Worrall, F., Clay, G.D., Moody, C.S., Burt, T.P. & Rose, R. (2016). The effective oxidation state of a peatland. Journal of Geophysical Research - Biogeosciences 121(1): 145-158.
  • Worrall, F., Burt, T.P. & Howden, N.J.K. (2016). The fluvial flux of particulate organic matter from the UK: the emission factor of soil erosion. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 41(1): 61-71.
  • Powers, S.M., Bruulsema, T.W., Burt, T.P., Chan, N.I., Elser, J.J., Haygarth, P.M., Howden, N.J.K., Jarvie, H.P., Lyu, Y., Peterson, H.M., Sharpley, A.N., Shen, J., Worrall, F. & Zhang, F. (2016). Long-term accumulation and transport of anthropogenic phosphorus in three river basins. Nature Geoscience 9(5): 353-356.
  • Worrall, F., Moody, C.S., Clay, G.D., Burt, T.P. & Rose, R. (2016). The total phosphorus budget of a peat-covered catchment. Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences 121(7): 1814-1828.
  • Moody, C.S. & Worrall, F. (2016). Sub-daily rates of degradation of fluvial carbon from a peat headwater stream. Aquatic Sciences 78(3): 419-431.
  • Palmer, S.M., Evans, C.D., Chapman, P.J., Burden, A., Jones, T.G., Allott, T.E.H., Evans, M.G., Moody, C.S., Worrall, F. & Holden, J. (2016). Sporadic hotspots for physico-chemical retention of aquatic organic carbon: from peatland headwater source to sea. Aquatic Sciences 78(3): 491-504.
  • Moody, C.S., Worrall, F. & Burt, T.P. (2016). Identifying DOC gains and losses during a 20-year record in the Trout Beck catchment, Moor House, UK. Ecological Indicators 68: 102-114.
  • Finlay, N.C., Johnson, K. & Worrall, F. (2016). The role of water treatment abstraction in the flux and greenhouse gas emissions from organic carbon and nitrogen within UK rivers. Water Resources Research 52(10): 8190-8201.
  • Worrall, F., Jarvie,H.P., Howden, N.J.K. & Burt, T.P. (2016). The fluvial flux of total reactive and total phosphorus from the UK in the context of a national phosphorus budget: comparing UK river fluxes with phosphorus trade imports and exports. Biogeochemistry 130(1-2): 31-51.
  • Burt, T.P., Howden, N.J.K. & Worrall, F. (2016). The changing water cycle: hydroclimatic extremes in the British Isles. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Water 3(6): 854-870.
  • Worrall, F., Howden, N.J.K. & Burt, T.P. (2015). Time series analysis of the world’s longest fluvial nitrate record: evidence for changing states of catchment saturation. Hydrological Processes 29(3): 434-444.
  • Worrall, F., Burt, T.P., Clay, G.D. & Moody, C.S. (2015). A 19-year long energy budget of an upland peat bog, northern England. Journal of Hydrology 520: 17-29.
  • Boothroyd, I. M., Worrall, F. & Allott, T. E. H. (2015). Variations in dissolved organic carbon concentrations across peatland hillslopes. Journal of Hydrology 530: 372-383.
  • Dixon, S., Qassim, S., Rowson, J., Worrall, F., Evans, M., Boothroyd, I. & Bonn, A. (2014). Restoration effects on water table depths and CO2 fluxes from climatically marginal blanket bog. Biogeochemistry 118(1-3): 159-176.
  • Davies, R.J., Almond, S., Ward, R., Jackson, R.B., Adams, C., Worrall, F., Herringshaw, L.G., Gluyas, J.G. & Whitehead, M.A. (2014). Oil and gas wells and their integrity: Implications for shale and unconventional resource exploitation. Marine and Petroleum Geology 56: 239-254.
  • Krause, S., Freer, J., Hannah, D.M., Howden, N.J.K., Wagener, T. & Worrall, F. (2014). Catchment similarity concepts for understanding dynamic biogeochemical behaviour of river basins. Hydrological Processes 28(3): 1554-1560.
  • Worrall, F., Howden, N.J.K. & Burt, T.P. (2014). A method of estimating in-stream residence time of water in rivers. Journal of Hydrology 512: 274-284.
  • Worrall, F. & Clay, G.D. (2014). Potential use of heather, Calluna vulgaris, as a bioenergy crop. Biomass and Bioenergy 64: 140-151.
  • Rawlins, B.G., Palumbo-Roe, B., Gooddy, D.C., Worrall, F. & Smith, H. (2014). A model of potential carbon dioxide efflux from surface water across England and Wales using headwater stream survey data and landscape predictors. Biogeosciences 11(7): 1911-1925.
  • Moosdorf, N., Weiss, A., Müller, F., Lauerwald, R., Hartmann, J. & Worrall, F. (2014). Salt marshes in the silica budget of the North Sea. Continental Shelf Research 82: 31-36.
  • Almond, S., Clancy, S.A., Davies, R.J. & Worrall, F. (2014). The flux of radionuclides in flowback fluid from shale gas exploitation. Environmental Science & Pollution Research 21(21): 12316-12324.
  • Qassim, S.M., Dixon, S.D., Rowson, J.G., Worrall, F., Evans, M.G. & Bonn, A. (2014). A 5-year study of the impact of peatland revegetation upon DOC concentrations. Journal of Hydrology 519(Part D): 3578-3590.
  • Worrall, F. , Rowson, J. & Dixon, S. (2013). Effects of managed burning in comparison with vegetation cutting on dissolved organic carbon concentrations in peat soils. Hydrological Processes 27(26): 3994-4003.
  • Worrall, F., Burt, T.P. & Howden, N.J.K. (2013). The flux of suspended sediment from the UK 1974 to 2010. Journal of Hydrology 504: 29-39.
  • Worrall, F., Howden, N.J.K. & Burt, T.P. (2013). Assessment of sample frequency bias and precision in fluvial flux calculations – an improved low bias estimation method. Journal of Hydrology 503: 101-110.
  • Worrall, F., Clay, G.D. Masiello, C. & Mynheer, G. (2013). Estimating the oxidative ratio of the global terrestrial biosphere carbon. Biogeochemistry 115(1-3): 23-32.
  • Moody, C.S., Worrall, F., Evans, C.D. & Jones, T. (2013). The rate of loss of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) through a catchment. Journal of Hydrology 492: 139-150.
  • Clay, G.D., Worrall, F. & Fraser, E.D.G (2009). Effects of managed burning upon dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in soil water and runoff water following a managed burn of a UK blanket bog. Journal of Hydrology 367(1-2): 41-51.
  • Johnson CD & Worrall F (2007). Zeolite film preparation on and within a muscovite mica by hydrothermal growth, and the potential application of the matrix to metal remediation. Water Research 41: 2229-2235.