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Ritual, Religion, Belief and Place Research Group
A research group of the Department of Archaeology.
The emergence of a growing density of cross-period research focused on material aspects of religion and ritual has given rise to a new research group that is setting a fresh agenda for the future for how archaeologists use material culture to understand the religious and spiritual beliefs and practices of past populations. This is a key Durham research strength with over 30 members of the department actively engaged in research and fieldwork relating to aspects of religion, ritual and belief in past societies. From the ancient sacred potency of caves, rivers and springs, to the creation and building of elaborate monuments and structures for worship and ritual; our research ranges over 16 countries, from Sri Lanka to Turkey, Malta and Sweden, touching upon every major era from Neolithic to the Early Modern.
New methods, approaches and technologies are being employed alongside cutting-edge theoretical interpretative frameworks to explore the sensory qualities of special places and sacred environments; the architecture of religious experience; monasticism as a global phenomenon; the material expressions of religious competition and conflict; the relationship between the natural environment and beliefs and superstitions and the use of material culture in the creation and signaling of religious identity, and sacred discourses of sanctity and power.
- The theme of monasticism east and west, for example, brings together the research and projects of Robin Coningham on Buddhist Monasticism, Anna Leone on early Christian monasticism in North Africa, Chris Gerrard on the Knights Templars in Spain and David Petts, Rosemary Cramp and Sarah Semple and others on the early Christian monastic sites landscapes of Britain and the North East. Research and field investigation on variety of projects is revealing the potency of the monastic enterprise as a means of shaping landscapes and controlling natural resources, and creating interconnected intellectual communities.
- The repercussions of religious conflict and competition form a component in the research of Pamela Graves on Iconoclasm and the Reformation and in the work of Anna Leone and others on the redistribution and recycling of Roman stone work and sculpture, or spolia, in the shaping of new material and intellectual agendas in early Christian societies. Conversely the use and circulation of objects, artefacts and fragments as a means of moulding and shaping identity and creating relationships, in the work of John Chapman, serves to redefine how we should view the use and distribution and disposal of whole and partial objects by past societies as a signature of negotiated religious identities.
- The potency of the natural world and its influences on prehistoric and historic societies has provided another rich theme, and includes work on the role of light in the shaping of religious ritual and architecture in Byzantium by Claire Nesbitt and in Ancient Egypt by Penny Wilson; the sensory qualities of sacred and religious places in prehistoric Malta by Robin Skeates, and the efficacy of the natural environment, the coastal scene and water, in the shaping of Neolithic sacred landscapes in Brittany and the Channel Islands by Chris Scarre.
These are but three, of wide variety of themes that can be found within the research of this grouping. Staff and PhD students are working together on an extensive array of topics including exploring and mapping ancestral and supernatural landscapes; the ritual deposition and circulation of objects; the use of architecture in the shaping of religious experience; and the connections between secular and religious power as expressed through monumental architecture and other forms of material culture; whilst active field projects by staff and by our commercial unit are revealing new insights into cremation and funerary rituals in early medieval societies; the role of architecture in the shaping of local belief and religion; the effects of monasticism on landscape and people; and the use of sculpture and sculptural motifs as a means of establishing identity and power.
Past and current research projects include: Early Christian Monasticism in North Africa; Lumbini, Nepal: the Birthplace of the Buddha; The Prior’s Lodgings, Durham Cathedral; Mapping Early Christianity in Western Normandy; Island of the Dead: The Buried Neolthic Landscape of Herm; Space, Place and Performance: Perspectives on Assembly in Sweden; One Monastery in Two Places: Wearmouth and Jarrow in their Landscape Context; The Hospitaller Preceptory at Ambel, Zaragoza, Spain.
Projects and fieldwork are supported by grants and funding awarded from a wide range of external bodies including English Heritage; the British Academy; Humanities in Europe Research Awards; AHRC; Prehistoric Society; UNESCO; Leverhulme; Society of Antiquaries; The Headley Trust; and the Academy of Finland.
This research group welcomes enquiries from prospective PhD students who, in the first instance, should contact the member of staff most relevant to their research proposal.
- Professor John Chapman
- UNESCO Professor Robin Coningham
- Dr Catherine M. Draycott
- Professor Chris Gerrard
- Dr Pam Graves
- Prof Richard Hingley
- Dr Anna Leone
- Dr Tom Moore
- Prof Paul Pettitt
- Dr David Petts
- Prof Chris Scarre
- Dr Sarah Semple
- Professor Robin Skeates
- Dr Penny Wilson
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Publications by staff in this group
- Leone, A. (2013). The End of the Pagan City. Religion, Economy and Urbanism in Late Antique North Africa. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
- Coningham, R.A.E. & Gunawardhana,P. (2013). Anuradhapura: Volume 3 The Hinterland. BAR International Series.
- Petts, David (2011). Pagan and Christian. Bloomsbury Academic.
- Petts, D. (2009). The Early Medieval Church in Wales. Stroud: The History Press.
- Draycott, Catherine M. & Stamatopoulou, Maria (2016). Dining and Death: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on the ‘Funerary Banquet’ in Ancient Art, Burial and Belief. Colloquia Antiqua 16. Peeters.
- Scarre, GF & Coningham, RAE (2013). Appropriating the Past: Philosophical Perspectives on the Practice of Archaeology. Cambridge Cambridge University Press.
- Kaizer, T., Leone, A., Thomas, E. & Witcher, R. (2012). Cities and Gods: Religious Spaces in Transition. BABesch. Annual Papers on Mediterranean Archaeology, Supplement 22. BABESCH.
- Petts, D & Turner, S (2012). Early Medieval Northumbria: Kingdoms and Communities AD450-1100. Brepols.
- Carver, M.O.H., Sanmark, A. & Semple, S.J. (2010). Signals of Belief. Anglo-Saxon Paganism Revisited. Oxford: Oxbow.
- Draycott, Catherine M. (2015). ‘Heroa’ and the City. Kuprlli’s New Architecture and the Making of the ‘Lycian Acropolis’ of Xanthus in the Early Classical period. Anatolian Studies 65: 97-142.
- Graves, CP & Rollason, L (2013). The monastery of Durham and the wider world: medieval graffiti in the prior's chapel. Northern History 50(2): 186-215.
- Leone, A. (2012). Bishops and Territory: The case of Late Roman and Byzantine North Africa. Dumbarton Oaks Papers 65-66(2011-2012): 5-27.
- Coningham, R.A.E., Gunawardhana,P., Davis, C.E., Adikari, G., Simpson,I.A., Strickland, K.M, Gilliland, K. & Manuel, M.J. (2012). Contextualising the Tabbova-Maradanmaduva 'culture': Excavations at Nikawewa, Tirappane, Anuradhapura District, Sri Lanka. South Asian Studies 28(1): 1-14.
- Coningham, R.A.E., Schmidt, A.R. & Strickland, K.M. (2011). A cultural and environmental monitoring of the UNESCO World Heritage Site of Lumbini, Nepal. Ancient Nepal 176: 1-8.
- Coningham, R.A.E., Schmidt, A.R. & Strickland, K.M. (2011). A pilot geophysical and auger core evaluation within the UNESCO World Heritage Site of Lumbini, Nepal. Ancient Nepal 176: 9-24.
- Schmidt, A.R., Coningham, R.A.E., Strickland, K.M. & Shoebridge, J.E. (2011). A pilot geophysical evaluation of the site of Ramagrama, Nepal. Ancient Nepal 177: 17-33.
- Schmidt, A.R., Coningham, R.A.E., Strickland, K.M. & Shoebridge, J.E. (2011). A pilot geophysical evaluation of the site of Tilaurakot, Nepal. Ancient Nepal 177: 1-16.
- Stephen Mitchell, Neil Price, Ronald Hutton, Catharina Raudvere, Carlo Severi, Miranda Aldhouse-Green, Sarah Semple, Aleks Pluskowski, Martin Carver & Carlo Ginzburg (2010). Witchcraft and Deep Time - a debate at Harvard. Antiquity 84(325): 864-79.
- Graves, P & Rollason, L (2010). The Medieval Prior's Chapel at Durham: its development and use. Monastic Research Bulletin 16: 24-41.
- Bailiff, IK, Blain, S, Graves, CP, Gurling, T & Semple, S (2010). Uses and recycling of brick in medieval and Tudor English buildings: insights from the application of luminescence dating and new avenues for further research. The Archaeological Journal 167: 165-196.
- Graves, CP (2009). Building a new Jerusalem the Meaning of a Group of Merchant Houses in Seventeenth-Century Newcastle upon Tyne, England. International Journal of Historical Archaeology 13(4): 385-408.
- Petts, D (2009). Coastal landscapes and early Christianity in Anglo-Saxon Northumbria. Estonian Journal of Archaeology 13(2): 79-95.
- Higham, T., Chapman, J., Gaydarska, B. & Slavchev, V. (2008). The first AMS dates for the Varna cemetery. Acta Musei Varnaensis VI: 95-114.
- Sanmark, A. & Semple, S. J. (2008). Places of Assembly: New Discoveries in Sweden and England. Fornvännen 103(4): 245-259.
- Semple, S.J. (2008). Polities and Princes AD 400-800: New Perspectives on the Funerary Landscape of the South Saxon Kingdom. Oxford Journal of Archaeology 27(4): 407-429
- Graves, CP (2008). From an Archaeology of Iconoclasm to an Anthropology of the Body Images, Punishment and Personhood in England, 1500-1660. Current Anthropology 49(1): 35-57.
- Semple, S (2007). Defining the OE Hearg: a preliminary archaeological and topographic examination of hearg place names and their hinterlands. Early Medieval Europe 15(4): 364-385.
Chapter in book
- Draycott, Catherine M. (2017). The Broken Lion Tomb (Yılan Taş) and the Phrygian Highlands in the Achaemenid Period: observations and new directions. In The Phrygian Lands Over Time (from Prehistory to the Middle of the 1st Millenium AD). Tsetskhladze, Gocha R. & Baştürk, Mahmut Bilge Peeters Press.
- Catherine M. Draycott (2016). Drinking to Death: The Emergence of the ‘Totenmahl’ and Drinking Culture in Late Archaic/early Achaemenid Western Anatolia. In Dining and Death: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on the ‘Funerary Banquet’ in Ancient Art, Burial and Belief. Catherine M. Draycott & Maria Stamatopoulou Peeters. 219-298.
- Catherine M. Draycott (2016). Introduction: what lies beyond. In Dining and Death: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on the ‘Funerary Banquet’ in Ancient Art, Burial and Belief. Catherine M. Draycott & Maria Stamatopoulou Peeters. 1-32.
- Draycott, Catherine M. (2015). Unicorn’s horn or guideline? On the meaning of an unusual diagonal line in an unfinished relief of a bovine on the Kalekapı tomb at Donalar, Paphlagonia. In Art in the Making: Approaches to the Carving of Stone. Wootton, William, Russell, Ben & Libonati, Emma The Art of Making in Antiquity. Stoneworking in the Roman World.
- Coningham, R.A.E. (2013). The Archaeology of Early Buddhism. In Oxford Bibliographies in Buddhism. Payne,Richard Oxford University Press. 1-35.
- Coningham, R.A.E. & Gunawardhana, P. (2012). Looting or Rededication? Buddhism and the Expropriation of Relics. In Appropriating the Past: Philosophical Perspectives on the Practice of Archaeology. Scarre, G. & Coningham, Cambridge University Press. 281-294.
- Petts, D & Turner, S (2012). Introduction: Northumbrian Communities. In Early medieval Northumbria: Kingdoms and Communities AD450-1100. Petts, D & Turner, S Brepols. 1-14.
- Chapman, John (2011). Enchantment and enchainment in later Balkan prehistory: towards an aesthetic of precision and geometric order. In The Dynamics of Neolithisation in Europe. Studies in honour of Andrew Sherratt. Hadjikoumis, A., Robinson, E. & Viner, S. Oxford: Oxbow Books. 152-175.
- Semple, S. (2011). Sacred Spaces and Places in Pre-Christian and Conversion Period Anglo-Saxon England. In The Oxford Handbook of Anglo-Saxon Archaeology. Hamerow, H., Hinton, D. A. & Crawford, S. Oxford: University Press. 742-763.
- Reynolds, A. & Semple, S. (2011). Anglo-Saxon non-funerary weapon depositions. In Studies in Early Anglo-Saxon Art and Archaeology: Papers in Honour of Martin G. Welch. Brookes, S., Harrington, S. & Reynolds, A. Oxford: Archaeopress. 40-48.
- Coningham, R.A.E. (2011). Buddhism. In The Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology of Ritual and Religion. Insoll, T. Oxford University Press. 934-947.
- Chapman, John (2010). ‘Deviant’ burials in the Neolithic and Chalcolithic of Central and South Eastern Europe. In Body Parts and Bodies Whole: Changing Relations and Meanings. Rebay-Salisbury, K., Sørensen, M. L. S. & Hughes, J. Oxbow Books. 30-45.
- Chapman, John & Richter, Eva (2010). Geometric order and scientific principles: a view from the mesolithic, neolithic and chalcolithic of Central and South East Europe. In In medias res praehistoriae. Miscellanea in honorem annos LXV peragentis Professoris Dan Monah oblata. Bodi, G. Iaşi, România: Editura Universităţii „Alexandru Ioan Cuza. 21-58.
- Semple, S.J. (2010). In the Open Air. In Signals of Belief in Early England: Anglo-Saxon Paganism Revisited. Carver, M.O.H, Sanmark, A. & Semple, S.J. Oxford: Oxbow.
- Chapman, John (2009). Notes on memory-work and materiality. In Materializing memory: archaeological material culture and the semantics of the past. Barbiera, I., Choyke, A.M. & Rasson, J. A. Archaeopress. 1977: 7-16.
- Semple, S.J. (2009). Recycling the Past: Ancient Monuments and Changing Meanings in Early Medieval Britain. In Antiquaries and Archaists, the Past in the Past, the Past in the Present. Aldrich, M. & Wallis, R. J. Reading: Spire Books Ltd. 29-45.
- Petts, D. & Turner, S. (2009). Multiple church complexes on early medieval ecclesiastical sites in Western Britain. In The Archaeology of the Early Medieval Celtic Churches. Edwards, N. Leeds: Maney.
- Petts, D. (2009). Variation in the British burial rite: AD400-700. In Mortuary Practices and social identities in the Middle Ages. Sayer, Duncan & Williams, Howard Exeter: University of Exeter Press. 207-221.
- Chapman, John (2008). Meet the ancestors: settlement histories in the Neolithic. In Living well together? Settlement and materiality in the Neolithic of South-East and Central Europe. Bailey, D., Whittle, A. & Hofmann, D. Oxford: Oxbow Books. 68-80.
- Graves, C.P. (2008). Architectural fragments. In Finds from the Well at St Paul-in-the-Bail, Lincoln. Mann, J. Oxford: Lincoln Archaeological Studies, Oxbow Books. 9: 20-22.