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Landscapes of Complex Society Research Group
A research group of the Department of Archaeology.
Current Major Research Themes
The Group’s research is focused on the landscape dimension of complex polities, and draws upon case-studies from across Eurasia.
Landscape Signatures and Settlement, and the nature of large settlements
The recognition of settlement and landscape features and the analysis and interpretation of long-term change is a core element of the Durham approach to archaeological landscapes. This has been extensively developed in the Middle East, through projects using a combination of remote sensing and ground survey to identify archaeological features, and thus map the changing scale and nature of human activity in the landscape. The AHRC-funded Fragile Crescent Project charts the rise and fall of Bronze Age urban centres within the Fertile Crescent, with a focus on the nature and distribution of large sites in the 5th through 3rd millennia BC, and the different landscape contexts within which such sites developed. Graham Philip's work around Homs in western Syria has identified previously unrecognized dimensions of human activity in stony upland regions, which appear contemporaneous with these developments, while the nature of large settlements in western Europe is under investigation by Tom Moore A capital landscape: survey of the Stanwick ‘oppidum’ and its environs. Robin Coningham's work at Anuradhapura (Sri Lanka) is shaping our understanding of low density urbanism, and has now moved to investigate the role played by hinterland communities in the development of the urban centre. Prof. John Chapman is examining precocious urban settlements in the Ukraine (Early urbanism in prehistoric Europe?: the case of the Tripillia mega-sites), currently a missing chapter in the story of world urbanism. Nebelivka; for example is a 300 ha Neolithic site, within which geophysical survey has revealed evidence for around 2000 structures, raising questions about the significance, permanence and function of large settlements.
Penny Wilson's work in the western Nile Delta, and Chris Gerrard's Shapwick Project for Medieval Britain which has combined historical data with intensive survey, address the interrelationships between environment, human activity and the creation and modification of landscapes. These projects explore the nature of urban: rural distinction at different times and places, and the impact of technology such as water management, and the role of routes and patterns of connectivity.
Landscapes of Empires
The scale of landscape studies is well-suited to the investigation of extensive ancient empires. The work of Rob Witcher and Jamie Sewell is addressing the impact of Rome upon settlement across the Italian peninsula The Roman impact on the urban settlement pattern of peninsular Italy (350BC to AD200), while Derek Kennet’s research projects at Qarn al-Harf (UAE) and Kadhima in Kuwait are exploring the interrelationships between settlement, landscape and the economy in the Gulf from the Sassanian Empire through the Early Islamic period.
Work on frontiers, is an increasingly important part of the group’s activities and has been explored through the work of Richard Hingley and Rob Witcher through the AHRC-funded Tales of the Frontier Project which seeks to reinterpret Hadrian’s Wall Tales of the Frontier: political representations and practices inspired by Hadrian's Wall. This initial study was followed by a cross-disciplinary focus on the Materiality of Frontiers through the ‘Life of the Frontier’ project supported by the Inst. of Advanced Studies. Complementary work on the Gorgan Wall, at the frontier of the Sassanian Empire in northeast Iran, and a subsequent project Persia and it's Neighbours is led by Tony Wilkinson, working jointly with the University of Edinburgh and the ICHTO in Iran.
Robin Coningham is examining the nature of monastic landscapes in South Asia (The Natal Landscape of the Buddha), and is using archaeological evidence to supplement and question, current text-based accounts of the past. Chris Gerrard’s work Religious orders on the frontier: monks on the edge of Christian Europe explores social and economic impact of the establishment of the religious orders and monastic houses following the Christian reconquest of NE Spain, while David Petts recently begun using geophysical survey to understand the organization of the island settlement and monastic community of Lindisfarne in North-East England.
The group includes a large group of PhD students, and we welcome enquiries about potential research projects at post-graduate and post-doctoral levels. Interested scholars should contact the relevant people within the research group in the first instance.
- Professor Mike Church
- UNESCO Professor Robin Coningham
- Dr Catherine M. Draycott
- Professor Chris Gerrard
- Professor Richard Hingley
- Dr Derek Kennet
- Dr Dan Lawrence
- Professor Anna Leone
- Dr Tom Moore
- Dr David Petts
- Professor Graham Philip
- Dr Penny Wilson
- Dr Robert Witcher
- Dr Michelle W. de Gruchy
- Dr Kristen Hopper
- Dr Lucie Johnson
- Dr Mark Manuel
- Dr Ronan O'Donnell
- Dr Gemma Tully
- Dr Valentina Tumolo
- Dr Lynn Welton
Honorary Research Staff
- Mr Pertev Basri
- Mr Perry Gardner
- Mr Adam Goodfellow
- Ms Freya Horsfield
- Mr Stephen Humphreys
- Ms Eileen Kerhouant
- Dr Mark Kincey (in the Department of Geography)
- Mr Min Kwack
- Ms Allison Lee
- Miss Martina Massimino
- Mr Michal Michalski
- Ms Jiajing Mo
- Mr Rune Rattenborg
Publications by staff in this group
- Leone, A. (2013). The End of the Pagan City. Religion, Economy and Urbanism in Late Antique North Africa. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
- Aston, M A & Gerrard, C M (2013). Interpreting the English village. Landscape and community at Shapwick, Somerset. Windgather Press.
- Wilson, P. (2011). Sais I The Ramesside-Third Intermediate Period at Kom Rebwa. Egypt Exploration Society.
- Wilson, Penelope. & Grigoropoulos, Dimitrios. (2009). The West Nile Delta Regional Survey, Beheira and Kafr el-Sheikh provinces. London: Egypt Exploration Society.
- Wilkinson, T.J. (2003). Archaeological Landscapes of the Near East. Tucson, Arizona: University of Arizona Press.
- Scarre, GF & Coningham, RAE (2013). Appropriating the Past: Philosophical Perspectives on the Practice of Archaeology. Cambridge Cambridge University Press.
- Kaizer, T., Leone, A., Thomas, E. & Witcher, R. (2012). Cities and Gods: Religious Spaces in Transition. BABesch. Annual Papers on Mediterranean Archaeology, Supplement 22. BABESCH.
- Carter, R.A & Philip, G (2010). Beyond the Ubaid: Transformation and Integration in the Late Prehistoric Societies of the Middle East. Oriental Institute Publications. Chicago: The Oriental Institute.
- Gunawardhana, P., Adikari, G. & Coningham, R.A.E. (2010). Essays in Archaeology 2. Colombo: Neptune Publications.
- Kennet, D. & Luft, P. (2008). Current Research in Sasanian Archaeology, Art and History. Proceedings of a Conference held at Durham University, November 3rd and 4th, 2001. BAR International Series 1810. Oxford: Archaeopress.
- Kennet, D (2013), Reconsidering the decline of urbanism in late Early Historic and Early Medieval South Asia, in Schiettecatte, J & Robin, C eds, The Orient on the Eve of Islam. Paris, France, CNRS, Paris, 331-353.
- Kennet, D (2013), An Outline Archaeological History of the Northern Emirates in the Islamic Period, in Potts, D & Hellyer, P eds, Second International Conference on the Archaeology in the UAE. Abu Dhabi, Abu Dhabi Authority for Culture and Heritage, Abu Dhabi, 189-201.
- Wilson, Penelope (2010), Recent Survey Work in the Southern Mareotis Area, in Blue, Lucy & Khalil, Emad eds, BAR international series, 2113. University of Southampton series in archaeology, no. 2 International Conference on the Archaeology of the Mareotic Region. Alexandria, Egypt, Archaepress, Oxford, 119-125.
- Gerrard, C.M. (2010), Edificios en el paisaje medieval: el papel y recursos de las ordenes militares en Ambel (Zaragoza), in Ortega Ortega, J.M. & Escriche Jaime, C. eds, I Jornadas de Arqueologia medieval en Aragon. Teruel, Spain, Museo de Teruel, Instituto de Estudios Turolenses, Teruel, 53-78.
- Wilkinson, Tony & J. (2010), Models of human settlement and behaviour: The role of ethnoarchaeology, in Matthiae, Paolo Pinnock,Frances Nigro Lorenzo & Marchetti, Nicolò eds, 1: Proceedings of the 6th International Congress on the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East May, 5th-10th 2008,•. “Sapienza” - Università di Roma. Harrassowitz Verlag, Wiesbaden, Sapienza' - Università di Roma, 133-147
- Galiatsatos, N., Wilkinson, T.J., Donoghue, D.N.M. & Philip, G. (2009), The Fragile Crescent Project (FCP): Analysis of Settlement Landscapes Using Satellite Imagery, CAA 2009: Making history interactive. Williamsburg, Virginia, USA, Williamsburg VA.
- Bailiff, I.K., Jankowski, N.R.J., Gerrard, C.M., Gutiérrez, A. & Wilkinson, K.N. (2019). Luminescence dating of sediment mounds: application to shaft and gallery irrigation systems. Journal of Arid Environments 165: 34-45.
- Draycott, Catherine M. (2015). ‘Heroa’ and the City. Kuprlli’s New Architecture and the Making of the ‘Lycian Acropolis’ of Xanthus in the Early Classical period. Anatolian Studies 65: 97-142.
- Bailiff, I.K., Gerrard, C.M., Gutiérrez, A., Snape-Kennedy, L.M. & Wilkinson, K. N. (2015). Luminescence dating of irrigation systems: Application to a qanat in Aragon, Spain. Quaternary Geochronology 30(B): 452-459.
- Kennet, D (2013). The Mountain villages of the Musandam Peninsula a case study in extensification. Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy
- Gilliland, K., Simpson, I.A., Adderley, W.P., Burbidge, C.I., Cresswell, A.J., Sanderson, D.C.W., Coningham, R.A.E., Manuel, M.J., Strickland, K., Gunawardhana, P. & Adikari, G. (2013). The dry tank: development and disuse of water management infrastructure in the Anuradhapura hinterland, Sri Lanka. Journal of Archaeological Science 40(2): 1012-1028.
- Mayyas, A., Stern, B., Gillmore, G., Coningham, R.A.E. & Fazeli Nashli, H. (2013). Beeswax preserved in a Late Chalcolithic Bevelled-Rim Bowl from the Tehran Plain, Iran. Iran 48: 13-25.
- Wilkinson, Tony,J. , Boucharlat, R., Ertsen, Maurits W. Gillmore, Gavin, Kennet,Derek , de Schacht, Tijs Magee,Peter & Rezakhani, Khodadad (2012). From Human Niche Construction to Imperial Power: Long-term trends in Ancient Iranian Water Systems. Water History 4(2): 155-176.
- Wilkinson,Tony, J , Galiatsatos, Nikolaos , Lawrence, Dan , Ricci,Andrea Dunford,R. & Philip, Graham (2012). Late Chalcolithic and Early Bronze Age Landscapes of Settlement and Mobility in the Middle Euphrates: A Reassessment. Levant 44(2): 139-185.
- Leone, A. (2012). Bishops and Territory: The case of Late Roman and Byzantine North Africa. Dumbarton Oaks Papers 65-66(2011-2012): 5-27.
- Leone, A. (2012). Water Management in Late Antique North Africa: Agricultural Irrigation. Water History 4(1): 119-133.
- Coningham, R.A.E., Gunawardhana,P., Davis, C.E., Adikari, G., Simpson,I.A., Strickland, K.M, Gilliland, K. & Manuel, M.J. (2012). Contextualising the Tabbova-Maradanmaduva 'culture': Excavations at Nikawewa, Tirappane, Anuradhapura District, Sri Lanka. South Asian Studies 28(1): 1-14.
- Hingley, R., Witcher, R.E. & Nesbitt, C. (2012). Life of an Ancient Monument: Hadrian's Wall in History. Antiquity 86(333): 760-771.
- Gerrard, C & Gutiérrez, A (2012). Estudio arqueológico del Somontano del Moncayo: avance metodológico. Salduie: Estudios de prehistoria y arqueología 10: 259-270.
- Philip, G, Bradbury, J & Jabbur, F (2011). The Archaeology of the Homs Basalt, Syria: the main site types. Studia Orontica 9: 38-55.
- Shoebridge,J. & Coningham, R.A.E. (2011). Arikamedu Type 10 and the reconstruction of Indian Ocean networks of contact. Journal of Indian Ocean Archaeology 6: 125-141.
- Coningham, R.A.E., Schmidt, A.R. & Strickland, K.M. (2011). A cultural and environmental monitoring of the UNESCO World Heritage Site of Lumbini, Nepal. Ancient Nepal 176: 1-8.
- Coningham, R.A.E., Schmidt, A.R. & Strickland, K.M. (2011). A pilot geophysical and auger core evaluation within the UNESCO World Heritage Site of Lumbini, Nepal. Ancient Nepal 176: 9-24.
- Schmidt, A.R., Coningham, R.A.E., Strickland, K.M. & Shoebridge, J.E. (2011). A pilot geophysical evaluation of the site of Tilaurakot, Nepal. Ancient Nepal 177: 1-16.
- Schmidt, A.R., Coningham, R.A.E., Strickland, K.M. & Shoebridge, J.E. (2011). A pilot geophysical evaluation of the site of Ramagrama, Nepal. Ancient Nepal 177: 17-33.
- Wilkinson, Tony & J. (2011). The Domestication of Water: Early Hydraulic Systems.(Keynote article). Neo-Lithics 2(10): 33-38.
- Gerrard, CM (2011). Contest and co-operation: strategies for medieval and later irrigation along the Huecha Valley, Aragon, north-east Spain. Water History 3(1): 3-28.
- Witcher, R.E., Tolia-Kelly, D.P. & Hingley, R. (2010). Archaeologies of Landscape. Excavating the Materialities of Hadrian's Wall. Journal of Material Culture 15(1): 105-128.
- Kay, S.J. & Witcher, R.E. (2010). Predictive Modelling of Roman Settlement in the Middle Tiber Valley. Archeologia e Calcolatori 20(2009): 277-290.
- Philip, G & Bradbury, J (2010). Pre-classical activity in the basalt landscape of the Homs region, Syria: the implications for the development of “sub-optimal” zones in the Levant during the Chalcolithic and Early Bronze Age. Levant 42(2): 136-169.
- V. Ramaroli, J. Hamilton, P. Ditchfield, H. Fazeli, A. Aali, R.A.E. Coningham, & A.M. Pollard (2010). The Chehr Abad "salt men" and the isotopic ecology of humans in ancient Iran. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 143(3): 343-354.
- Witcher, R.E. (2010). The Fabulous Tales of the Common People, Part 1: Representing Hadrian’s Wall. Public Archaeology 9(3): 126-152.
- Wilkinson,T.J. , French, C. Ur, J.A. & Semple M. (2010). The Geoarchaeology of Route Systems in Northern Syria. Geoarchaeology 25(6): 745–771.
- Al-Jahrawi, N. S. & Kennet, D. (2010). Umm an-Nar settlement in the Wādī Andam (Sultanate of Oman). Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies 40: 161-172.
- Witcher, R.E. (2010). The Fabulous Tales of the Common People, Part 2: Encountering Hadrian’s Wall. Public Archaeology 9(4): 211-238.
- Fazeli, Nashali H., Vidale, M., Guida, G. & Coningham, R.A.E. (2010). The evolution of ceramic manufacturing technology during the Late Neolithic and Transitional Chalcolithic periods at Tepe Pardis, Iran. Archaologische Mitteilungen aus Iran und Turan 42: 87-112.
- Wilkinson, Tony, J & Rayne,Louise (2010). Hydraulic landscapes and imperial power in the Near East. Water History 2(2): 115-144
- Wilkinson, Tony & J. (2010). Introduction. Water History 2(2): 85-90
- Wilkinson, Tony, J. & Peltenburg, Edgar (2010). Carchemish in Context: Surveys in the Hinterland of a Major Iron Age City. Bulletin for the Council for British Research in the Levant 5(1): 11-20.
- Gillmore, G.K., Coningham, R.A.E., Fazeli, H., Young, R.L., Magshoudi, M., Batt, C.M. & Rushworth, G. (2009). Irrigation on the Tehran Plain, Iran: Tepe Pardis - the site of a possible Neolithic irrigation feature?. Catena 78(3): 285-300.
- Chapman, J., Magyari, E. & Gaydarska, B. (2009). Contrasting subsistence strategies in the Early Iron Age ?: new results from the Alföld Plain, Hungary and the Thracian Plain, Bulgaria. Oxford Journal of Archaeology 28(2): 155-187.
- Newson, P., Abdulkarim, M., McPhillips, S., Mills, P., Reynolds, P. & Philip, G. (2009). Landscape study of Dar es-Salaam and the basalt region north west of Homs, Syria. Report on work undertaken during 2005-2007. Berytus 51-52: 1-35.
- Galiatsatos, N., Donoghue, D.N.M. & Philip, G. (2008). High resolution elevation data derived from stereoscopic CORONA imagery with minimal ground control: an approach using IKONOS and SRTM data. Photogrammetric Engineering & Remote Sensing 74(9): 1093-1106.
- Stern, B., Connan, J., Blakelock, E., Jackman, R., Coningham, R.A.E. & Heron, C. (2008). From Susa to Anuradhapura reconstructing aspects of trade and exchange in bitumen-coated ceramic vessels between Iran and Sri Lanka from the third to the ninth centuries AD. Archaeometry 50(3): 409-428.
- Witcher, R.E. (2008). (Re)surveying Mediterranean Rural Landscapes: GIS and Legacy Survey Data. Internet Archaeology 24.
- Jaquin, P.A., Augarde, C. & Gerrard, C.M. (2008). Chronological description of the spatial development of rammed earth techniques. International Journal of Architectural Heritage 2(4): 377-400.
- Leone A. & Palombi D. (2008). Mercurio Sobrio tra Africa e Roma. Archeologia Classica 59(9): 409-433.
- Ur, Jason & Wilkinson, Tony J. (2008). Settlement and Economic Landscapes of Tell Beydar and its Hinterland. Subartu 21: 305-27.
- Nieuwenhuyse, O.P. & Wilkinson. T.J. (2008). Late Neolithic settlement in the area of Tell Beydar (NE Syria). Subartu 21: 305-327.
- Al-Jahwari, N.S. & Kennet, D. (2008). A field methodology for the quantification of ancient settlement in an Arabian context. Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies 38: 203-214.
- Draycott, Catherine M. (2019). CARIA, CRETE AND FOUNDATION MYTHS. (N.) Carless Unwin Caria and Crete in Antiquity. Cultural Interaction between Anatolia and the Aegean. Pp. xx + 266, ills, maps. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2017. The Classical Review 1.
- Draycott, Catherine M. (2016). History through Architecture: getting to know a Lycian dynast through his city's urban development. AEMES Journal (77): 28-33.
Chapter in book
- Draycott, Catherine M. (2019). Activating the Achaemenid Landscape. The Broken Lion Tomb (Yılan Taş) and the Phrygian Highlands in the Achaemenid Period. In Phrygia in Antiquity: From the Bronze Age to the Byzantine Period. Proceedings of an International Conference 'The Phrygian Lands over Time: From Prehistory to the Middle of of the 1st Millennium AD', held at Anadolu University, Eskisehir, Turkey, 2nd-8th November, 2015. Tsetskhladze, Gocha R. Leuven: Peeters Press. 24: 189-220.
- Draycott, Catherine M. (2019). Art History and Achaemenid History: Or, What You Can Get out of the Back End of a Bull. In Visual Histories of the Classical World Essays in Honour of R.R.R. Smith. Draycott, Catherine M., Raja, Rubina, Welch, Katherine & Wootton, William T. Brepols. 4: 15-33.
- Draycott, Catherine M. (2018). Making meaning of myth. On the interpretation of mythological imagery in the Polyxena Sarcophagus and the Kızılbel Tomb and the History of Achaemenid Asia Minor. In Wandering Myths: Transcultural Uses of Myth in the Ancient World. Audley-Miller, Lucy & Dignas, Beate Berlin: De Gruyter. 23-70.
- Gerrard, C & Gutiérrez, A (2018). 'The Qanat in Spain: Archaeology and Environment'. In Water Management in Ancient Civilizations. Berkin, J Berlin: Edition Topoi. 197–226.
- Wilkinson, Tony, J., Rekavandi, Hamid Omrani, Hopper, Kristen, Priestman, Seth, Roustaei, Kourosh & Galiatsatos, Nikolaos (2013). The Landscapes of the Gorgān Wall. In Persia's Imperial Power in Late Antiquity: The Great Wall of Gorgan and the Frontier Landscapes of Sasanian Iran. Rekavandi, Hamid Omrani, Wilkinson, Tony J., Nokandeh, Jebrael & Sauer, Eberhard, W. Oxford: Oxbow Books. 24-132.
- Beck, Anthony R. & Philip, Graham (2013). The Archaeological Exploitation of Declassified Satellite Photography in Semi-arid Environments. In Archaeology from Historical Aerial and Satellite Archives. Hanson, William S. & Oltean, Ioana, A. Springer. 261-278.
- Coningham, R.A.E. (2013). The Archaeology of Early Buddhism. In Oxford Bibliographies in Buddhism. Payne,Richard Oxford University Press. 1-35.
- Witcher, R.E. (2012). 'That From A Long Way Off Look Like Farms': The Classification of Roman Rural Sites. In Comparative Issues in the Archaeology of the Roman Rural Landscape. Site Classification Between Survey, Excavation and Historical Categories. Attema, P.A.J. & Schörner, G. Portsmouth, RI: Journal of Roman Archaeology. JRA Supplementary Series 88: 11-30.
- Wilkinson, Tony & J. (2012). Earth and Water: The Land of Iran. In Ancient Iran from the Air. Stronach, David & Mousavi, Ali Philipp von Zabern, Darmstadt. 12-27.
- Leone, A. & Moussa, F. (2012). Roman North Africa and Sahara. In Oxford handbook of African Archaeology. Lane, P. & Michell, P. Oxford University Press. 1.
- Coningham, R.A.E. & Gunawardhana, P. (2012). Looting or Rededication? Buddhism and the Expropriation of Relics. In Appropriating the Past: Philosophical Perspectives on the Practice of Archaeology. Scarre, G. & Coningham, Cambridge University Press. 281-294.
- Chapman, John (2012). The negotiation of place value in the landscape. In The construction of value in the ancient world. Papadopoulos, John K. & Urton, Gary UCLA Cotsen Institute of Archaeology Press. 66 - 89.
- Coningham, R.A.E. (2012). Frank Raymond Allchin(1923-2010). In Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the British Academy. Oxford University Press. IX: 3-23.
- Witcher, R.E. & Craven, M. (2012). ‘Much That Has Long Been Hidden’ Reconstructing the Survey Methodology. In Veii. The Historical Topography of the Ancient City. A Restudy of John Ward-Perkins’s Survey. Cascino, R., Di Giuseppe, H. & Patterson, H.L. London: British School at Rome. 9-24.
- Bradbury, J. & Philip, G. (2011). The World Beyond Tells: Pre-classical activity in the basalt landscape of the Homs region, Syria. In Pierres levées, stèles anthropomorphes et dolmens. Standing stones, anthropomorphic stelae and dolmens. Steimer-Herbert, T. & Maison de l'Orient et de la Méditerranée Jean Pouilloux (Lyon, France) Oxford: Archaeopress. 2317: 169-180.
- Philip, G (2011). The later prehistory of the southern Levant: issues of practice and context. In Culture, Chronology and the Chalcolithic: Theory and Transition. Rowan, Y.M. & Lovell, J.L. Oxford: CBRL Monographs. Levant Supplementary Series 9: 189-206.
- Wilson, Penelope. (2011). Settlement Connections in the Canopic Region. In Alexandria and the North-Western Delta. Robinson, Duncan. & Wilson, Andrew. Oxford: Oxford Centre for Maritime Archaeology. 111-126.
- Wilson, Penelope. (2011). Masking and multiple personas. In Ancient Egyptian Demonology. Kousoulis, P. Peeters. OLA 175: 77-88.
- Wilson, Penelope. (2011). Ramsîs: Ancient Memory, Archaeology and the Western Delta. In Ramesside Studies in Honour of K. A. Kitchen. Collier, M. & Snape, S. Rutherford Press. 533-540.
- Gillmore, G.K., Stevens, T. Buylaert, J.P. Coningham, R.A.E., Batt, C. Fazeli, H. Young, R. & Maghsoudi, M. (2011). Geoarchaeology and the value of multidisciplinary palaeo-environmental approaches: a case study from the Tehran Plain, Iran. In Human Interactions with the Geosphere: The Geoarchaeological Perspective. Wilson, L. The Geological Society of London. 352: 49-67.
- Witcher, R.E. (2011). Missing persons? Models of Mediterranean Regional Survey and Ancient Populations. In Settlement, Urbanization and Population. Bowman, A. & Wilson, A. Oxford Oxford University Press. Oxford Studies in the Roman Economy 2: 36-75.
- Wilson, Penelope (2011). Pots, People and the Plural Community: A case Study of the Greeks in Egypt at Sais. In Intercultural Contacts in the Ancient Mediterranean. Proceedings of the International Conference at the Netherlands-Flemish Institute in Cairo, 25th to 29th October 2008. Duistermat, K. & Regulski, I. Peeters. 149-160.
- Coningham, R.A.E. (2011). Buddhism. In The Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology of Ritual and Religion. Insoll, T. Oxford University Press. 934-947.
- Wilkinson, Tony, J. & Deckers, K. (2011). Tell Brak’s Loess Section in Area TC. In Holocene Landscapes through Time in the Fertile Crescent. Deckers, K. Brepols: Turnhout. 28: 107-110
- Carter, R.A & Philip, G (2010). Deconstructing the Ubaid. In Beyond the Ubaid: Transformation and Integration in the Late Prehistoric Societies of the Middle East. Carter, R.A & Philip, G Chicago: The Oriental Institute. 1-22.
- Young, R.L. & Coningham, R.A.E. (2010). From Village to State: Modelling Food Consumption and Ideological Change at Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka. In Essays in Archaeology. Gunawardhana, P., Adikari, G. & Coningham, R.A.E. Colombo: Neptune Publishers. 81-92.
- Coningham, R.A.E., Acharya, K.P., Schmidt, A. & Bidari, B. (2010). Searching for Kapilavastu. In Essays in Archaeology. Gunawardhana, P., Adikari, G. & Coningham, R.A.E. Colombo: Neptune Publishers. 55-66.
- Schmidt, A. & Coningham, R.A.E. (2010). Geophysical Investigations of World Heritage Sites in South Asia. In Essays in Archaeology. Gunawardhana, P., Adikari, G. & Coningham, R.A.E. Colombo: Neptune Publishers. 285-290.
- Goodchild, H. & Witcher, R.E. (2010). Modelling the Agricultural Landscapes of Republican Italy. In Agricoltura e scambi nell’Italia tardo repubblicana. Carlsen, J. & Lo Cascio, E. Rome & Bari: Edipuglia. 187-220.
- Wilson, Penelope. (2010). Consolidation, Innovation and Renaissance. In Egyptian Archaeology. Wendrich, Willeke. Oxford: Blackwell. 241-257.
- Wilson, Penelope. (2010). Temple Architecture and Decorative Systems. In The Blackwell Companion to Ancient Egypt. Lloyd, A.B. Oxford: Blackwell. 781-803.
- Wilkinson, T.J. (2010). Environment and Long-Term Population Trends in Southwest Arabia. In The Evolution of Human Populations in Arabia. Petraglia, M.D. & Rose, J.I. Dordrecht: Springer, Science. 51-66.
- Hawthorne,J., Mattingly,D.J., Daniels, C.M., with contributions from, Barnett, T., Dore, J.N. & Leone, A. (2010). Zinkekra: an Early Garamantian Escarpement Settlement and Associated Sites. In The Archaeology of Fazzan. Vol. 3, Excavations of C.M. Daniels. Mattingly, D.J. London: The Society for Libyan Studies. 3: 19-84.
- Edwards, D.N., Mattingly D.J., Daniels, C.M., with contributions from, Dore, J.N. & Leone, A. (2010). Excavations and survey at Tinda, al Khara'iq and Ikhlif Escarpment Settlements. In The Archaeology of Fazzan. Vol. 3, Excavations of C.M. Daniels. Mattingly, D.J. London: The Society for Libyan Studies. 3.
- Mattingly, D.J., HAwthorne, J., Daniels, C.M., With contributions from, Dore, J.N., Leone, A. & Cole, F. (2010). Excavations at the Classic Garamantian Settlement of Saniat Jibril. In The Archaeology of Fazzan. Vol. 3, Excavations of C.M. Daniels. Mattingly D.J. London: The Society for Lybian Studies. 3.
- Mattingly, D.J., Hawthorne, J., Daniels, C.M., with contributions from, Dore, J.N., Leone, A., Kenrick, Ph. & Tagart, C. (2010). The Garamantian Cemetery of Saniat Bin Huwaydi. In The Archaeology of Fazzan. Vol. 3, Excavations of C.M. Daniels. Mattingly D.J. London: The Society for Libyan Studies. 3.
- Edwards, D.N., Mattingly, D.J., Daniels, C.M., with contributions from, Dore, J.N. & Leone, A. (2010). Excavations of other Garamantian Cemeteries and Burials. In The Archaeology of Fazzan. Vol. 3, Excavations of C.M. Daniels. Mattingly, D.J. London: The Society for Libyan Studies. 3.
- Wilkinson, Tony J. (2010). The Tell: Social Archaeology and Territorial Space. In The Development of Pre-state Communities in the Ancient Near East: Studies in Honour of Edgar Peltenburg. Bolger, Diane & Maguire, Louise Oxbow, Oxford. 55-62
- Wilkinson, Tony J (2010). Empire and Environment in the Northern Fertile Crescent. In Landscapes and Societies - Selected Cases. Martini I.P. & Chesworth, W. Dordrecht: Springer. 135-151.
- Gerrard, C.M. (2009). The study of the deserted medieval village: Caldecote in context. In Caldecote. The development and desertion of a Hertfordshire village. Beresford, G. Leeds: Society for Medieval Archaeology. 28: 1-20.
- Witcher, R.E. (2009). The Countryside. In A Companion to Ancient History. Erskine, A. Oxford: Blackwell. 462-473.
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