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Bioarchaeology Research Group
A research group of the Department of Archaeology.
The Bioarchaeology Research Group at Durham undertakes cutting edge, internationally renowned research on past human lifeways using biological remains. Members of the group have a broad range of expertise in biomolecular archaeology, zooarchaeology, archaeobotany, palaeoecology, palaeodemography and palaeopathology. Major collaborative projects exploring diverse geographical and temporal scales are a hallmark of the Bioarchaeology Research Group. We believe that the academic environment for bioarchaeology within the Department of Archaeology at Durham is currently unsurpassed in the UK.
The group focuses on a number of related research themes, addressing major archaeological questions with the development of new techniques, alongside established methods:
- Foodways and the Origins of agriculture
- Dispersals and diasporas
- Origins and evolutionary history of disease
- Environmental change and chronologies
- Society and identity
Foodways and the Origins of Agriculture
A variety of projects have focussed on domesticated animals and plants, and later innovations in husbandry and cultivation practices. The ‘Pig Project’ has had a number of grants and involves Peter Rowley-Conwy, and Greger Larson in wide-ranging studies of pig domestication and exploitation, which have had a major impact in this field. Peter Rowley-Conwy continues his high profile work on the Mesolithic of Denmark and Southern Sweden as well as revising our understanding of the nature and timing of plant and animal domestication in the near East. Dietary research on animal and plant remains (Mike Church and Peter Rowley Conwy) as well as stable isotopes (Andrew Millard and Janet Montgomery), encompasses the Mesolithic-Neolithic transition to the post-medieval period, and is changing our understanding of past foodways, particularly at times of transition and socio-economic stress.
Dispersals and Diasporas
Our group uses a variety of analytical methods to investigate the movement of people via the direct analysis of their skeletal remains as well as animal proxies. Andrew Millard, Mike Richards, and Janet Montgomery are experts in the application of lead, strontium and oxygen isotopes to identify mobility, with projects examining the Beaker period (AHRC funded), Crusaders (British Academy funded), the Dutch Neolithic (NWO funded) and Minoan Crete (Wiener Foundation funded). Charlotte Roberts has applied similar methods in collaboration with colleagues from NCIET in Earth Sciences to the people buried at the Bowl-Hole Anglian cemetery at Bamburgh (AHRC funded).
Greger Larson uses both modern and ancient genetics alongside geometric morphometric methods to study the domestication and dispersal of animals across Europe, East Asia and the Pacific. Greger is currently involved in a high profile projects examining the domestication of dogs (NERC) and chickens (AHRC) and has recently been awarded a ERC starting investigator grant.
Origins and Evolutionary History of Disease
Charlotte Roberts and Becky Gowland, investigate past human health and place it in a socio-cultural context. Major projects focus on specific diseases and include studies of the origin and evolution of tuberculosis using biomolecular analysis, the bioarchaeology of leprosy, malaria, and syphilis in skeletal remains. More general approaches to palaeopathology form the basis of studies of health in the Roman Empire, the Global History of Health project, and health during political and climatic change in the Sudan (Health and Place).
Environmental Change and Chronologies
Mike Church uses innovative approaches to dating and charcoal production in Norse and medieval Iceland to investigate the timing and impact of Norse landnám in the North Atlantic. Mike Church’s research and active field projects in the North Atlantic have changed our understanding of human/environment interactions in the marginal environments, resulting in fundamental revisions to the archaeological chronologies of the region. Andrew Millard’s research on the chronologies of fossil hominids has also led to a substantial review of the timescales for human evolution. Janet Montgomery is using isotope analysis of humans from Black Death plague pits to investigate human dietary and residential responses to climate change, famine and disease in 14th century Britain (NERC and AHRC funded).
The Body and Society
In addition to broader biocultural approaches, Roberts and Gowland also seek to examine the relationship between social identity and health. For example, health and marginalised identities, including leprosy, malaria, impairment and stigma. Much of Gowland’s research seeks to integrate sociological and biological understandings of the human body in order to explore past identities such as disability, gender and the life course.
The impact of the Bioarchaeology Research Group extends well beyond the academic community through a variety of activities including museum exhibitions (e.g. Skeleton Science), outreach (e.g. Celebrate Science, British Science Festival), Continuing Professional Development (‘Body Location and Recovery’ aimed at forensic practitioners), and frequent, high profile media engagement (e.g. Larson, Roberts and Church).
- Dr Anwen Caffell
- Professor Mike Church
- Professor Rebecca Gowland
- Dr Tina Jakob
- Dr Karen Milek
- Dr Andrew R Millard
- Professor Janet Montgomery
- Professor Charlotte Roberts
- Professor Peter Rowley-Conwy
Archaeological Services Durham University
Honorary Research Staff
- Ms Susan Aylard
- Ms Kayla Crowder
- Mr Ruaridh Ellison
- Mr Malcolm Evans
- Kori Lea Filipek
- Mr Simon Hughes
- Mrs Ellen Kendall
- Miss Mocen Li
- Miss Sarah Morrison
- Mr Aryel Pacheco-Miranda
- Ms Samantha Tipper
- Ms Lauren Walther
From other departments
Publications by staff in this group
- Roberts, CA, Alves Cardoso, F, Bernofsky, K, Henderson, C, Jakob T, Plomp, K, Ponce, P, Sharman, J & Spencer, R (2012). Palaeopathology: studying the origin, evolution and frequency of disease in human remains from archaeological sites.
- Gowland, R. L. & Thompson, T. J. U. (2013). Human Identity and Identification. Cambridge Cambridge University Press.
- Roberts, C.A. (2012). Human remains in archaeology. A handbook. Practical Handbooks in Archaeology No 19. Council for British Archaeology.
- Roberts, C.A. (2009). Human remains in archaeology: a handbook. Practical Handbooks in Archaeology No 19. York.: Council for British Archaeology.
- Roberts, C.A. & Buikstra, J.E. (2008). The bioarchaeology of tuberculosis. A global view on a reemerging disease. Gainesville, Florida: University Press of Florida.
- Roberts, C.A. & Buikstra, J.E. (2003). The bioarchaeology of tuberculosis: a global view on a re-emerging disease. Gainesville, Florida: University Press of Florida.
- Buikstra, JE & Roberts, CA (2012). The Global History of Paleopathology: Pioneers and Prospects. Oxford University Press.
- Lewis, M. E. & Gowland, R. L. (2009), Infantile cortical hyperostosis: cases, causes and contradictions, in Lewis, M. E. & Clegg, M. eds, BAR International Series 1918: Proceedings of the Ninth Annual Conference of the British Association for Biological Anthropology and Osteoarchaeology. Reading, Archaeopress, Oxford, 43-52.
- Alexander, M M,, Gutiérrez, A,, Millard, A R,, Richards, M P, & Gerrard, C M (2019). Economic and socio-cultural consequences of changing political rule on human and faunal diets in medieval Valencia (c. fifth–fifteenth century AD) as evidenced by stable isotopes. Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences 11(8): 3875-3893.
- Alexander, M M, Gerrard, C M, Gutiérrez, A & Millard, A R (2015). Diet, society, and economy in late medieval Spain: Stable isotope evidence from Muslims and Christians from Gandía, Valencia. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 156(2): 263-273.
- Redfern, R, Gowland, R & Powell, L (2013). La sante des enfants sous l'Empire romain. Dossiers d'Archaeologie 356: 80-83.
- Beaumont, J., Gledhill, A., Lee-Thorp, J. & Montgomery, J. (2013). Childhood diet: a closer examination of the evidence from dental tissues using stable isotope analysis of incremental human dentine. Archaeometry 55(2): 277-295.
- Beaumont, J., Geber, J., Powers, N., Wilson, A.S., Lee-Thorp, Julia & Montgomery, J. (2013). Victims and survivors: stable isotopes used to identify migrants from the Great Irish Famine to 19th Century London. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 150: 87-98.
- Roberts, C.A., Millard, A.R., Nowell, G.M., Gröcke, D., Macpherson, C., Pearson, G. & Evans, D.H. (2013). Isotopic tracing of the impact of mobility on infectious disease: The origin of people with treponematosis buried in hull, England, in the late medieval period. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 150(2): 273-285.
- Larson, G & Burger, J (2013). A population genetics view of animal domestication. Trends in Genetics 29(4): 197-205.
- Gowland, R.L. & Western, A.G. (2012). Morbidity in the Marshes: Using Spatial Epidemiology to Investigate Skeletal Evidence for Malaria in Anglo-Saxon England (AD410-1050). American Journal of Physical Anthropology 147(2): 301-311.
- Evans, J.A., Chenery, C.A. & Montgomery, J. (2012). A summary of strontium and oxygen isotope variation in archaeological human tooth enamel excavated from Britain. Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry 27(5): 754-764.
- Brettell, R., Montgomery, J. & Evans, J. (2012). Brewing and stewing: the effect of culturally mediated behaviour on the oxygen isotope composition of ingested fluids and the implications for human provenance studies. Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry 27(5): 778-785.
- Assis, S, Santos, AL & Roberts, CA (2012). Does hypertrophic osteoarthropathy help in the diagnosis of pulmonary diseases: evidence from the Coimbra Skeletal Identified Collection. International Journal of Paleopathology 1(3-4): 155-163.
- Bouwman, AS, Kennedy, SL, Muller, R, Stephens, RH, Holst, M, Caffell, AC, Roberts, CA & Brown, TA (2012). Genotype of a historic strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 109(45): 18511-18516.
- Larson, Greger, Karlsson, Elinor K., Perri, Angela, Webster, Matthew T., Ho, Simon Y. W., Peters, Joris, Stahl, Peter W., Piper, Philip J., Lingaas, Frode, Fredholm, Merete, Comstock, Kenine E., Modiano, Jaime F., Schelling, Claude, Agoulnik, Alexander I., Leegwater, Peter A., Dobney, Keith, Vigne, Jean-Denis, Vilàt, Carles, Andersson, Leif & Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin (2012). Rethinking dog domestication by integrating genetics, archeology, and biogeography. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 109(23): 8878-8883.
- Towers, Jacqueline, Jay, Mandy, Mainland, Ingrid, Nehlich, Olaf & Montgomery, Janet (2011). A calf for all seasons? The potential of stable isotope analysis to investigate prehistoric husbandry practices. Journal of Archaeological Science 38(8): 1858-1868.
- Killgrove, K., Montgomery, J. & Tykot, R. (2011). Dietary differences between immigrants and locals in Imperial Rome. American Journal Of Physical Anthropology 144: 185-185.
- Melton, N.D. & Montgomery, J. (2011). GRISTHORPE MAN Bronze Age burial Solving the riddle of this mysterious stranger, first discovered in 1834. Current Archaeology (250): 20-27.
- Mays, S., Ogden, A., Montgomery, J., Vincent, S., Battersby, W. & Taylor, G.M. (2011). New light on the personal identification of a skeleton of a member of Sir John Franklin's last expedition to the Arctic, 1845. Journal Of Archaeological Science 38(7): 1571-1582.
- Roberts, C.A. & Mays, S. (2011). Study and restudy of curated skeletal collections in bioarchaeology: a perspective on the UK and the implications for future curation of human remains. International Journal of Osteoarchaeology 21(5): 626-630.
- Larson (2011). Genetics and Domestication: Important Questions for New Answers. Current Anthropology 52(S4): S485-S495.
- Towers, J., Montgomery, J., Evans, J., Jay, M. & Pearson, M.P. (2010). An investigation of the origins of cattle and aurochs deposited in the Early Bronze Age barrows at Gayhurst and Irthlingborough. Journal Of Archaeological Science 37(3): 508-515.
- Montgomery, J., Evans, J.A. & Horstwood, M.S.A. (2010). Evidence for long-term averaging of strontium in bovine enamel using TIMS and LA-MC-ICP-MS strontium isotope intra-molar profiles. Environmental Archaeology 15(1): 32-42.
- Buckberry, J.L., Montgomery, J., Neale, N. & Towers, J. (2010). Finding Vikings in the Danelaw: An osteological and isotopic analysis of the Masham Anglo-Scandinavian cemetery. American Journal Of Physical Anthropology 74-74.
- Melton, Nigel, Montgomery, Janet, Knüsel, Christopher J., Batt, Cathy, Needham, Stuart, Pearson, Mike Parker, Sheridan, Alison, Heron, Carl, Horsley, Tim, Schmidt, Armin, Evans, Adrian, Carter, Elizabeth, Edwards, Howell, Hargreaves, Michael, Janaway, Rob, Lynnerup, Niels, Northover, Peter, O'Connor, Sonia, Ogden, Alan, Taylor, Timothy, Wastling, Vaughan & Wilson, Andrew (2010). Gristhorpe Man: an Early Bronze Age log-coffin burial scientifically defined. Antiquity 84(325): 796-815.
- Montgomery, J. (2010). Passports from the past: Investigating human dispersals using strontium isotope analysis of tooth enamel. Annals Of Human Biology 37(3): 325-346.
- Evans, J.A., Montgomery, J., Wildman, G. & Boulton, N. (2010). Spatial variations in biosphere 87Sr/86Sr in Britain. Journal Of The Geological Society 167(1): 1-4.
- Knusel, C.J., Batt, C.M., Cook, G., Montgomery, J., Muldner, G., Ogden, A.R., Palmer, C., Stern, B., Todd, J. & Wilson, A.S. (2010). The Identity of the St Bees Lady, Cumbria: An Osteobiographical Approach. Medieval Archaeology 54(1): 271-311.
- Roberts, C.A. (2010). Adaptation of populations to changing environments: Bioarchaeological perspectives on health for the past, present and future. Bulletins et Mémoires de la Société d'Anthropologie de Paris 22(1-2): 38-46.
- Larson, Greger, Liu, Ranran, Zhao, Xingbo, Yuan, Jing, Fuller, Dorian, Barton, Loukas, Dobney, Keith, Fan, Qipeng, Gu, Zhiliang, Liu, Xiao-Hui, Luo, Yunbing, Lv, Peng, Andersson, Leif & Li, Ning (2010). Patterns of East Asian pig domestication, migration, and turnover revealed by modern and ancient DNA. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 107(17): 7686-7691
- Montgomery, J., Evans, J. & Horstwood, M.S.A. (2009). Evidence for long-term averaging of Sr-87/Sr-86 in bovine enamel using TIMS and LA-MC-ICP-MS. Geochimica Et Cosmochimica Acta 73(13, Supplement 1): A896-A896.
- Evans, J.A., Montgomery, J. & Wildman, G. (2009). Isotope domain mapping of Sr-87/Sr-86 biosphere variation on the Isle of Skye, Scotland. Journal of The Geological Society 166: 617-631.
- Evans, J.A., Montgomery, J. & Wildman, G. (2009). Isotope domain mapping of Sr-87/Sr-86 biosphere variation, UK. Geochimica Et Cosmochimica Acta 73(13): A344-A344.
- Muldner, G., Montgomery, J., Cook, G., Ellam, R., Gledhill, A. & Lowe, C. (2009). Isotopes and individuals: diet and mobility among the medieval Bishops of Whithorn. Antiquity 83(322): 1119-1133.
- Nehlich, O., Montgomery, J., Evans, J., Schade-Lindig, S., Pichler, S.L., Richards, M.P. & Alt, K.W. (2009). Mobility or migration: a case study from the Neolithic settlement of Nieder-Mörlen (Hessen, Germany). Journal Of Archaeological Science 36(8): 1791-1799.
- Heier, A., Evans, J.A. & Montgomery, J. (2009). The potential of carbonized grain to preserve biogenic (SR)-S-87/(SR)-S-86 signatures within the burial environment. Archaeometry 51(2): 277-291.
- Wilbur, AK., Bouwman, AS., Stone, AC. Roberts, CA., Pfister, L. Buikstra, JE. & Brown, TA. (2009). Deficiencies and challenges in the study of ancient tuberculosis DNA. J Archaeological Science 36(9): 1990-1997.
- Roberts, CA., Pfister, L. & Mays, S. (2009). Letter to the editor. Was tuberculosis present in Homo erectus in Turkey?. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 139(3): 442-444.
- Stone, A.C., Wilbur, A.K., Buikstra, J.E. & Roberts, C.A. (2009). Tuberculosis and leprosy in perspective. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 140(Supplement 49): 66-94.
- Redman, J.E., Shaw, M.J., Mallet, A.I., Santos, A.L., Roberts, C.A., Gernaey, A.M. & Minnikin, D.E. (2009). Mycocerosic acid biomarkers for the diagnosis of tuberculosis in the Coimbra skeletal collection. Tuberculosis 89(4): 267-277.
- Park, V., Roberts, CA. & Jakob, T. (2009). Palaeopathology in Britain: a critical analysis of publications with the aim of exploring recent trends (1997-2006). International Journal of Osteoarchaeology 19: 1-11.
- Fang, M. Larson, G. Soares Ribeiro, H., Li, N. & Andersson, L. (2009). Contrasting Mode of Evolution at a Coat Color Locus in Wild and Domestic Pigs. PLoS Genetics 5(1): e1000341.
- Horstwood, M.S.A., Evans, J.A. & Montgomery, J. (2008). Determination of Sr isotopes in calcium phosphates using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and their application to archaeological tooth enamel. Geochimica Et Cosmochimica Acta 72(23): 5659-5674.
- Pellegrini, M., Donahue, R.E., Chenery, C., Evans, J., Lee-Thorp, J., Montgomery, J. & Mussi, M. (2008). Faunal migration in late-glacial central Italy: implications for human resource exploitation. Rapid Communications In Mass Spectrometry 22(11): 1714-1726.
- Richards, M.P., Montgomery, J., Nehlich, O. & Grimes, V. (2008). Isotopic analysis of humans and animals from Vedrovice. Anthropologie XLVI(2-3): 185-194.
- Jurmain, R. & Roberts, C.A. (2008). Juggling the evidence: the purported 'acrobat' from Tell Brak. Antiquity 82(318).
- Roberts, C.A. & Ingham, S. (2008). Using ancient DNA analysis in palaeopathology: a critical analysis of published papers with recommendations for future work. International Journal of Osteoarchaeology 18(6): 600-613.
- Eriksson J. Larson G. Gunnarsson U., Bed'hom B. Tixier-Boichard M., Strömstedt, L., Wright, D., Jungerius, A. Vereijken, A. Randi, E. Jensen, P. & Andersson, L. (2008). Identification of the Yellow Skin Gene Reveals a Hybrid Origin of the Domestic Chicken. PLoS Genetics 4(2): e1000010.
- Gowland, R. L. (2010). Palaeoepidemiology: the measure of disease in the human past. Medical History 54(3): 407-408.
- Roberts, C.A. (2010). Book review of Luke Demaitre: Leprosy in Premodern Medicine. A malady of the whole body. The Historian 72(3): 718-719.
- Gowland, R.L. (2009). Children, Identity, and the Past. Edited by Liv Helga Dommasnes and Melanie Wrigglesworth. Childhood in the Past: An International Journal
- Roberts, C.A. (2009). Book Review of Burial at the Site of the Parish Church of St Benet Sherehog before and after the Great Fire. Excavations at 1 Poultry, City of London. (MoLAS Monograph 39). By Adrian Miles & William White, with Danae Tankard. London: Museum of London, 2008. Medieval Archaeology 53: 464-465.
- Roberts, C.A. (2009). Book review of M Signoli, D Chevé, P Adalaina, G Boëtsch, O Dutour (editors) 2008 Peste: entre épidemies et sociétés, Plague: epidemics and societies, 2007, Firenze University Press. Bulletins et Mémoires de la Société d'Anthropologie de Paris 20(3-4): 287-288.
- Roberts, C.A. (2009). Book review of R David (ed): Egyptian mummies and modern science, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008. Journal of Archaeological Science 36(8): 1816-1817.
- Roberts C.A. (2009). Book review of The Black Death Cemetery, East Smithfield, London (MoLAS Monograph 43). By Ian Grainger, Duncan Hawkins, Lynne Cowal & Richard Mikulski. London: English Heritage/Museum of London Archaeology Service, 2008. Medieval Archaeology 53: 462-463.
- Roberts, C.A. (2008). Book review of The Churchyard. Wharram: a Study of Settlement on the Yorkshire Wolds, XI by S. Mays, C. Harding, C. Heighway. York University Archaeological Publications, Vol. 13, York, 2007). Journal of Archaeological Science 35(7): 2083-2084.
Chapter in book
- Redfern, R. C. & Gowland, R. L. (2012). A bioarchaeological perspective on the pre-adult stages of the life course: implications for the care and health of children in the Roman Empire. In Families in the Roman and Late Antique World. Harlow, M. & Larsson Loven, L. Continuum. 111-140.
- Richards, M.P. & Montgomery, J. (2012). Isotope analysis and paleopathology: A short review and future developments. In The Global History of Paleopathology: Pioneers and Prospects. Buikstra, J.E. & Roberts, C.A. Oxford University Press. 718-731.
- Zvelebil, M. Lillie, M.C., Montgomery, J. , Lukes, A. Pettitt, P. & Richards, M.P. (2012). The emergence of the LBK: Migration, memory and meaning at the transition to agriculture. In Population Dynamics in Pre- and Early History: New Approaches By Using Stable Isotopes and Genetics. Burger, J. Kaiser, E. & Schier, W. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. 133-148.
- Roberts, CA (2012). Re-emerging infections: developments in bioarchaeological contributions to understanding tuberculosis today. In A companion to paleopathology. Grauer, A Wiley-Blackwell. 434-457.
- Montgomery, J., Knüsel, C. & Tucker, K. (2011). Identifying the origins of decapitated male skeletons from 3 Driffield Terrace, York, through isotope analysis: reflections of the cosmopolitan nature of Roman York in the time of Caracalla. In The Bioarchaeology of the Human Head: Decapitation, Decoration and Deformation. Bonogofsky, M. University Press of Florida. 141-178.
- Gowland, R. L. & Garnsey, P. (2010). Skeletal evidence for health, nutritional status and malaria in Rome and the empire. In Roman diasporas; archaeological approaches to mobility and diversity in the Roman Empire. Eckardt, Hella Journal of Roman Archaeology. Supplement 78: 131-156.
- Montgomery, J., Evans, J.A., Chenery, S. R., Pashley, V. & Killgrove, K. (2010). Gleaming, white and deadly” using lead to track human exposure and geographic origins in the Roman period in Britain. In Roman diasporas; archaeological approaches to mobility and diversity in the Roman Empire. Eckardt, Hella Journal of Roman Archaeology. Suppl. 78: 199-226.
- Roberts, C.A. (2010). Human Remains. In Excavations at Baldock, Hertfordshire, 1978-1994. Volume 1. An Iron Age and Romano-British cemetery at Wallington Road. Burleigh, G.R & Fitzpatrick-Matthews, K.J. Letchworth Garden City: North Hertfordshire District Council Museums Service and North Hertfordshire Archaeological Society. 1: 187-197.
- Montgomery, J., Muldner, G., Cook, G., Gledhill, A. & Ellam, R. (2009). Isotope analysis of bone collagen and tooth enamel. In 'Clothing for the Soul Divine': Burials at the Tomb of St Ninian. Excavations at Whithorn Priory, 1957-67. Lowe, C. Historic Scotland. Archaeology Report No.3: 63-80.
- Montgomery, J., Evans, J. A., Chenery, C. A. & Müldner, G. (2009). Stable isotope analysis of bone. In Wasperton: A Roman, British and Anglo-Saxon Community in Central England. Carver, M.O.H., Hills, C. & Scheschkewitz, J. Boydell and Brewer. 48-49.
- Roberts, CA. (2009). Health and welfare in medieval England: the human skeletal remains contextualised. In Reflections:50 years of medieval archaeology 1957-2007. Gilchrist, R. & Reynolds, A. Leeds: Maney Publishers. 307-325.
- Roberts, C.A. (2009). Health and welfare: lessons from the past. In Thinking about almost everything new ideas to light up minds. Amin, A. & O'Neill, M. London.: Profile Books Ltd.
- Roberts, C.A. (2008). Commentary I: Understanding health: past and present. In Health, risk and adversity. Panter-Brick, C. & Fuentes A. New York and Oxford: Berghahn Books. Volume 2, Studies of the Biosocial Society.: 13-25.
- Roberts, C.A. (2008). Health, healing and disease. In Encylopedia of Archaeology. Pearsall, D. New York: Academic Press. 1417-1426.
- Roberts, C.A. & Buikstra, J.E. (2008). The history of tuberculosis from earliest times to the development of drugs. In Clinical tuberculosis. Davies, P.D.O., Barnes, P.F. & Gordon, S.B. London: Hodder Arnold. 3-19.