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Durham University

Research & business

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Dr Andrew Smallbone, B.Eng. M.Sc. Ph.D.

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Associate Professor in the Department of Engineering
Telephone: +44 (0) 191 33 41715
Room number: E387 Christopherson

(email at

About Me

Andrew is the Director of the EPSRC Network+ on the Decarbonisation of Heating and Cooling, Co-Director of the EPSRC Network+ on Hydrogen for Transportation (Network-H2), a Fellow of the Durham Energy Institue (DEI) and an Associate Professor in the Department of Engineering.

He leads multi-disciplinary research teams on the decarbonisation of energy, heat, transport and industry. His expertise is in techno-economic evaluation and advanced numerical modelling as well as the development of novel engineering prototypes and hardware demonstrations.


Until 2019, Andrew was a Principal Research Associate at Newcastle University.

Previously Andrew was Chief Technical Officer at CMCL Innovations in Cambridge and was responsible for developing multiple engineering software simulation tools currently used worldwide for internal combustion engine and future fuel development.

Andrew graduated from the University of Southampton in 1999 with a Mechanical Engineering degree. He then completed an M.Sc. in Combustion and Energy and then a PhD from the University of Leeds. Andrew then went on to a Post Doctoral Research Fellowship at the University of Kyushu, Japan at the 21st Century Center of Excellence. He then went on to be Research Staff at Princeton University, U.S.


Andrew is currently the Principal Investigator on the £2.5m EPSRC funded CCSInSupply (EP/N024567/1) project. This work has explored the potential for decarbonising hydrogen production through gasification of biomass/waste, opportunities for green ammonia, decarbonising food production by incorporating carbon capture, utilisation and storage into fertiliser productionsorption technologies and advanced low carbon plastic production. The latter was a commended entry at the Rushlight Awards hosted at the Royal Society in January 2019.

Funded by EPSRC, H2020 and the NELEP, Andrew leads work on hydrogen for heating and transport technologies including leading two EPSRC Network+. These include developing advanced models for the analysis of integrated zero-carbon energy hubs, demonstrating advanced thermochemical district heating and cooling networks and A Zero-Emission Closed-loop linear-Joule CYcle (ZECCY) project on hydrogen energy converters.

He is has also been an Investigator on multiple industrially funded, Innovate UK and Department for Transport projects on conventional and hybrid electric vehicle powertrains. These have led to the development of an advanced free-piston engine on-board generator fuelled by gasoline and hydrogen.

Andrew has worked extensively on Pumped Heat Energy Storage (PHES) technology and until 2019 was the co-Director of the National Facility of Pumped Heat Energy Storage .

Selected Publications

Chapter in book

Conference Paper

Journal Article

  • Giampieri, A., Ling-Chin, J., Ma, Z., Smallbone, A. & Roskilly, A.P. (2020). A review of the current automotive manufacturing practice from an energy perspective. Applied Energy 261: 114074.
  • Jiang, L., Wang, R.Q., Gonzalez-Diaz, A., Smallbone, A., Lamidi, R.O. & Roskilly, A.P. (2020). Comparative analysis on temperature swing adsorption cycle for carbon capture by using internal heat/mass recovery. Applied Thermal Engineering 169: 114973.
  • Ngwaka, Ugochukwu, Smallbone, Andrew, Jia, Boru, Lawrence, Christopher, Towell, Ben, Roy, Sumit, KV, Shivaprasad & Roskilly, Anthony Paul (2020). Evaluation of performance characteristics of a novel hydrogen-fuelled free-piston engine generator. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy
  • Jiang, L., Gonzalez-Diaz, A., Ling-Chin, J., Malik, A., Roskilly, A. P. & Smallbone, A. J. (2020). PEF plastic synthesized from industrial carbon dioxide and biowaste. Nature Sustainability 3: 761-767.
  • Smallbone, Andrew, Hanipah, Mohd Razali, Jia, Boru, Scott, Tim, Heslop, Jonathan, Towell, Ben, Lawrence, Chris, Roy, Sumit, Vijayalakshmi, Shivaprasad K. & Roskilly, Antony Paul (2020). Realization of a novel free-piston engine generator for hybrid electric-vehicle applications. Energy & Fuels
  • Ameen, Muhammad Tahir, Smallbone, Andrew, Roskilly, Anthony Paul & Carpenter, Edward (2020). The development of a screen valve for reciprocating heat pump/engine applications. Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy 12(5): 054101.
  • Smallbone, Andrew, Jia, Boru, Atkins, Penny & Roskilly, Anthony Paul (2020). The impact of disruptive powertrain technologies on energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions from heavy-duty vehicles. Energy Conversion and Management: X 6: 100030.
  • Gonzalez Diaz, Abigail, Jiang, Long, Roskilly, Anthony P & Smallbone, Andrew J (2020). The potential of decarbonising rice and wheat by incorporating carbon capture, utilisation and storage into fertiliser production. Green Chemistry 22(3): 882-894.
  • Zhang, Zhichao, Lu, Yiji, Wang, Yaodong, Yu, Xiaoli, Smallbone, Andrew, Dong, Chenxuan & Roskilly, Anthony Paul (2019). Comparative study of using multi-wall carbon nanotube and two different sizes of cerium oxide nanopowders as fuel additives under various diesel engine conditions. FUEL 256: 115904.
  • Sarai Atab, M, Smallbone, A & Roskilly, AP (2019). Exergy Analysis of Reverse Osmosis for Potable Water and Land Irrigation. International Journal of Chemical, Materials and Biomolecular Sciences 12.0(3).
  • Zhang, Zhichao, Lu, Yiji, Roskilly, Anthony Paul, Yu, Xiaoli, Wang, Yaodong & Smallbone, Andrew (2019). Investigation of the macroscopic characteristics of Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil (HVO) spray using CFD method. FUEL 237: 28-39.
  • Zhang, Zhichao, Chen, Longfei, Lu, Yiji, Roskilly, Anthony Paul, Yu, Xiaoli, Smallbone, Andrew & Wang, Yaodong (2019). Lean ignition and blow-off behaviour of butyl butyrate and ethanol blends in a gas turbine combustor. FUEL 239: 1351-1362.
  • Jia, Boru, Smallbone, Andrew, Mikalsen, Rikard, Shivaprasad, K. V., Roy, Sumit & Roskilly, Anthony Paul (2019). Performance Analysis of a Flexi-Fuel Turbine-Combined Free-Piston Engine Generator. ENERGIES 12(14): 2657.
  • Jiang, L., Gonzalez-Diaz, A., Ling-Chin, J., Roskilly, A. P. & Smallbone, A. J. (2019). Post-combustion CO2 capture from a natural gas combined cycle power plant using activated carbon adsorption. APPLIED ENERGY 245: 1-15.
  • Giampieri, Alessandro, Ma, Zhiwei, Chin, Janie Ling, Smallbone, Andrew, Lyons, Padraig, Khan, Imad, Hemphill, Stephen & Roskilly, Anthony Paul (2019). Techno-economic analysis of the thermal energy saving options for high-voltage direct current interconnectors. Applied Energy 247: 60-77.
  • Ngwaka, Ugochukwu, Jia, Boru, Lawrence, Christopher, Wu, Dawei, Smallbone, Andrew & Roskilly, Anthony Paul (2019). The characteristics of a Linear Joule Engine Generator operating on a dry friction principle. APPLIED ENERGY 237: 49-59.
  • Atab, M. Sarai, Smallbone, A. J. & Roskilly, A. P. (2018). A hybrid reverse osmosis/adsorption desalination plant for irrigation and drinking water. DESALINATION 444: 44-52.
  • Jia, Boru, Mikalsen, Rikard, Smallbone, Andrew & Roskilly, Anthony Paul (2018). A study and comparison of frictional losses in free-piston engine and crankshaft engines. APPLIED THERMAL ENGINEERING 140: 217-224.
  • Jia, Boru, Wang, Yaodong, Smallbone, Andrew & Roskilly, Anthony Paul (2018). Analysis of the Scavenging Process of a Two-Stroke Free-Piston Engine Based on the Selection of Scavenging Ports or Valves. ENERGIES 11(2): 324.
  • Jia, Boru, Wu, Dawei, Smallbone, Andrew, Lawrence, Chris & Roskilly, Anthony Paul (2018). Design, modelling and validation of a linear Joule Engine generator designed for renewable energy sources. ENERGY CONVERSION AND MANAGEMENT 165: 25-34.
  • Jia, Boru, Wu, Dawei, Smallbone, Andrew, Ngwaka, Ugochukwu Charles & Roskilly, Anthony Paul (2018). Dynamic and thermodynamic characteristics of a linear Joule engine generator with different operating conditions. ENERGY CONVERSION AND MANAGEMENT 173: 375-382.
  • Bohl, Thomas, Smallbone, Andrew, Tian, Guohong & Roskilly, Anthony P. (2018). Particulate number and NOx trade-off comparisons between HVO and mineral diesel in HD applications. Fuel 215: 90-101.
  • Giampieri, Alessandro, Ma, Zhiwei, Smallbone, Andrew & Roskilly, Anthony Paul (2018). Thermodynamics and economics of liquid desiccants for heating, ventilation and air-conditioning - An overview. Applied Energy 220: 455-479.
  • Geyer, Philipp, Delwati, Muhannad, Buchholz, Martin, Giampieri, Alessandro, Smallbone, Andrew, Roskilly, Anthony P., Buchholz, Reiner & Provost, Mathieu (2018). Use Cases with Economics and Simulation for Thermo-Chemical District Networks. SUSTAINABILITY 10(3): 599.
  • Jia, Boru, Zuo, Zhengxing, Smallbone, Andrew, Feng, Huihua & Roskilly, Anthony Paul (2017). A Decoupled Design Parameter Analysis for Free-Piston Engine Generators. ENERGIES 10(4): 486.
  • Lu, Yiji, Roskilly, Anthony Paul, Smallbone, Andew, Yu, Xiaoli & Wang, Yaodong (2017). Design and parametric study of an Organic Rankine cycle using a scroll expander for engine waste heat recovery. Energy Procedia 105: 1420-1425.
  • Nanda, Sangram Kishore, Jia, Boru, Smallbone, Andrew & Roskilly, Anthony Paul (2017). Development of a Diesel Engine Thermal Overload Monitoring System with Applications and Test Results. ENERGIES 10(7): 830.
  • Jia, Boru, Smallbone, Andrew, Mikalsen, Rikard, Feng, Huihua, Zuo, Zhengxing & Roskilly, Anthony Paul (2017). Disturbance analysis of a free-piston engine generator using a validated fast-response numerical model. APPLIED ENERGY 185(1): 440-451.
  • Zhang, Zhichao, Lu, Yiji, Ren, Haoliang, Roskilly, Anthony Paul, Chen, Longfei, Smallbone, Andrew & Wang, Yaodong (2017). Experimental and Numerical Investigation on the Macroscopic Characteristics of Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil (HVO) Spray. Energy Procedia 142: 474-480.
  • Nanda, Sangram Kishore, Jia, Boru, Smallbone, Andrew & Roskilly, Anthony Paul (2017). Fundamental Analysis of Thermal Overload in Diesel Engines: Hypothesis and Validation. ENERGIES 10(3): 329.
  • Nanda, Sangram Kishore, Jia, Boru, Smallbone, Andrew & Roskilly, Anthony Paul (2017). Investigation on the Effect of the Gas Exchange Process on the Diesel Engine Thermal Overload with Experimental Results. ENERGIES 10(6): 766.
  • Smallbone, Andrew, Juelch, Verena, Wardle, Robin & Roskilly, Anthony Paul (2017). Levelised Cost of Storage for Pumped Heat Energy Storage in comparison with other energy storage technologies. Energy Conversion and Management 152: 221-228.
  • Bohl, Thomas, Tian, Guohong, Smallbone, Andrew & Roskilly, Anthony P. (2017). Macroscopic spray characteristics of next-generation bio-derived diesel fuels in comparison to mineral diesel. APPLIED ENERGY 186(3, SI): 562-573.
  • Lu, Yiji, Roskilly, Anthony Paul, Yu, Xiaoli, Tang, Ke, Jiang, Long, Smallbone, Andrew, Chen, Longfei & Wang, Yaodong (2017). Parametric study for small scale engine coolant and exhaust heat recovery system using different Organic Rankine cycle layouts. APPLIED THERMAL ENGINEERING 127: 1252-1266.
  • Bhave, Amit, Taylor, Richard H. S., Fennell, Paul, Livingston, William R., Shah, Nilay, Mac Dowell, Niall, Dennis, John, Kraft, Markus, Pourkashanian, Mohammed, Insa, Mathieu, Jones, Jenny, Burdett, Nigel, Bauen, Ausilio, Beal, Corinne, Smallbone, Andrew & Akroyd, Jethro (2017). Screening and techno-economic assessment of biomass-based power generation with CCS technologies to meet 2050 CO2 targets. Applied Energy 190: 481-489.
  • Al-Mutairi, Asma'a, Smallbone, Andrew, Al-Salem, S. M. & Roskilly, Anthony Paul (2017). The first carbon atlas of the state of Kuwait. ENERGY 133: 317-326.
  • Jia, Boru, Smallbone, Andrew, Feng, Huihua, Tian, Guohong, Zuo, Zhengxing & Roskilly, A. P. (2016). A fast response free-piston engine generator numerical model for control applications. APPLIED ENERGY 162: 321-329.
  • Atab, M. Sarai, Smallbone, A. J. & Roskilly, A. P. (2016). An operational and economic study of a reverse osmosis desalination system for potable water and land irrigation. DESALINATION 397: 174-184.
  • Jia, Boru, Smallbone, Andrew, Zuo, Zhengxing, Feng, Huihua & Roskilly, Anthony Paul (2016). Design and simulation of a two- or four-stroke free-piston engine generator for range extender applications. ENERGY CONVERSION AND MANAGEMENT 111: 289-298.
  • Jia, Boru, Zuo, Zhengxing, Feng, Huihua, Tian, Guohong, Smallbone, Andrew & Roskilly, A. P. (2016). Effect of closed-loop controlled resonance based mechanism to start free piston engine generator: Simulation and test results. APPLIED ENERGY 164: 532-539.
  • Jia, Boru, Mikalsen, Rikard, Smallbone, Andrew, Zuo, Zhengxing, Feng, Huihua & Roskilly, Anthony Paul (2016). Piston motion control of a free-piston engine generator: A new approach using cascade control. APPLIED ENERGY 179: 1166-1175.
  • Azadi, Pooya, Brownbridge, George, Mosbach, Sebastian, Smallbone, Andrew, Bhave, Amit, Inderwildi, Oliver & Kraft, Markus (2014). The carbon footprint and non-renewable energy demand of algae-derived biodiesel. APPLIED ENERGY 113(SI): 1632-1644.
  • Brownbridge, George, Azadi, Pooya, Smallbone, Andrew, Bhave, Amit, Taylor, Benjamin & Kraft, Markus (2014). The future viability of algae-derived biodiesel under economic and technical uncertainties. BIORESOURCE TECHNOLOGY 151: 166-173.
  • Taylor, Benjamin, Xiao, Ning, Sikorski, Janusz, Yong, Minloon, Harris, Tom, Helme, Tim, Smallbone, Andrew, Bhave, Amit & Kraft, Markus (2013). Techno-economic assessment of carbon-negative algal biodiesel for transport solutions. Applied Energy 106: 262-274.
  • Kelley, A. P., Smallbone, A. J., Zhu, D. L. & Law, C. K. (2011). Laminar flame speeds of C-5 to C-8 n-alkanes at elevated pressures: Experimental determination, fuel similarity, and stretch sensitivity. PROCEEDINGS OF THE COMBUSTION INSTITUTE 33(1): 963-970.
  • Kelley, A. P., Liu, W., Xin, Y. X., Smallbone, A. J. & Law, C. K. (2011). Laminar flame speeds, non-premixed stagnation ignition, and reduced mechanisms in the oxidation of iso-octane. PROCEEDINGS OF THE COMBUSTION INSTITUTE 33(1): 501-508.
  • Morgan, Neal, Smallbone, Andrew, Bhave, Amit, Kraft, Markus, Cracknell, Roger & Kalghatgi, Gautam (2010). Mapping surrogate gasoline compositions into RON/MON space. COMBUSTION AND FLAME 157(6): 1122-1131.
  • Smallbone, A. J., Liu, W., Law, C. K., You, X. Q. & Wang, H. (2009). Experimental and modeling study of laminar flame speed and non-premixed counterflow ignition of n-heptane. PROCEEDINGS OF THE COMBUSTION INSTITUTE 32(1): 1245-1252.
  • Smallbone, Andrew, Tsuneyoshi, Kousaku & Kitagawa, Toshiaki (2006). Turbulent and Stable/Unstable Laminar Burning Velocity Measurements from Outwardly Propagating Spherical Hydrogen-Air Flames at Elevated Pressures. JOURNAL OF THERMAL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY 1(1): 31-41.

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Selected Grants

  • 2019: A network for hydrogen-fuelled transportation (Network-H2), £966,000, Engineering and Physical Sciences Council (EP/S032134/1), U.K., 2019-2023
  • 2019: CCS from Industrial clusters and their Supply chains (£230598.90 from Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council)