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Durham University

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Publication details

Young, Laura K., Morris, Timothy J., Saunter, Christopher D. & Smithson, Hannah E. (2018). Compact, modular and in-plane AOSLO for high-resolution retinal imaging. Biomedical Optics Express 9(9): 4275-4293.

Author(s) from Durham


The adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AOSLO) was first developed in
2002 and since then the technology has been adopted in several laboratories around the world, for
both clinical and psychophysical research. There have been a few major design implementations
of the AOSLO. The first used on-axis tilted spherical mirrors in a planar arrangement, and the
second minimized the build up of astigmatism present in the first design by using a non-planar
arrangement. Other designs have avoided astigmatism by using custom-made toroidal mirrors or
by using lenses on-axis, rather than mirrors.
We present a new design implementation for an AOSLO that maintains a planar optical
alignment without the build up astigmatism using compact, reconfigurable modules based on an
Offner relay system. We additionally use an off-the-shelf digital oscilloscope for data capture and
custom-written Python code for generating and analyzing the retinal images. This design results in
a compact system that is simple to align and, being composed of modular relays, has the potential
for additional components to be added. We show that this system maintains diffraction-limited
image quality across the field of view and that cones are clearly resolved in the central retina. The
modular relay design is generally applicable to any system requiring one or more components
in the pupil conjugate plane. This is likely to be useful for any point-scanned system, such as a
standard scanning laser ophthalmoscope or non-ophthalmic confocal imaging system.