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Durham University

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Publication details for Professor Andy Monkman

MONKMAN, AP, STEVENS, GC & BLOOR, D (1991). X-RAY PHOTOELECTRON SPECTROSCOPIC INVESTIGATIONS OF THE CHAIN STRUCTURE AND DOPING MECHANISMS IN POLYANILINE. Journal Of Physics D-applied Physics 24(5): 738-749.
  • Publication type: Journal Article
  • ISSN/ISBN: 0022-3727
  • Keywords: CHEMISTRY; OXIDATION; ENERGIES; STATE; XPS

Author(s) from Durham

Abstract

X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy has been used to investigate the
atomic species, and their bonding, within the conductive polymer
polyaniline (PANi). PANi was grown electrochemically using HCl as the
electrolyte ion and all three of PANi's oxidation states were
investigated. Measurements of the C 1s, N 1s, O 1s and Cl 2p core
levels and the valence band have been made on each of these oxidation
states. Bond potential model calculations have been used to aid the
analysis of the observed spectra. The main findings of this work show
that semi-quinone radical cations are the dominant species in the
conductive form, and that these are localized. Furthermore, evidence
is given to verify that hydrolysis accounts for the principal polymer
electrochemical degradation process, and that ring substitution of the
halogen counter ion also occurs. Valence band measurements indicate a
30-40-degrees torsion angle between adjacent rings along the polymer
backbone. The results are discussed in terms of previously reported
oxidation mechanisms.