We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. You can change your cookie settings at any time. Otherwise, we'll assume you're OK to continue.

Durham University

Research & business

View Profile

Publication details for Professor Andy Monkman

S. Hofmann, M. Hummert, R. Scholz, R. Luschtinetz, C. Murawski, P.A. Will, S.I. Hintschich, J. Alex, V. Jankus, A.P. Monkman, B. Lussem, K. Leo & M.C. Gather (2014). Engineering Blue Fluorescent Bulk Emitters for OLEDs: Triplet Harvesting by Green Phosphors. Chemistry of Materials 26(7): 2414-2426.

Author(s) from Durham


Triplet harvesting in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) from a blue fluorescent to a green phosphorescent emitter is important for the development of highly efficient white OLEDs for lighting applications. Here, we report new blue fluorescent bulk emitters with high triplet energies for triplet harvesting in OLEDs. Based on the chemical structure of the highly efficient blue emitter N,N'-di-1-naphthalenyl-N,N'-diphenyl-[1,1':4',1 '':4 '',1'''-quaterphenyl]-4,4''' diamine (4P-NPD), two new quarterphenylene compounds are designed and synthesized. Their experimentally obtained ionization potentials, singlet, and triplet levels are compared to quantum chemical calculations. We show that the incorporation of repulsive methyl groups leads to a twist of the outer phenyl rings of the molecule and increases the triplet level. Finally, triplet harvesting OLEDs comprising these two new compounds as bulk emitters are electrically and optically characterized. We demonstrate that both materials allow triplet harvesting by the green phosphorescent emitter iridium(III)bis(2-phenylpyridinato-N,C2')acetylacetonate (Ir(ppy)(2)(acac)).