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Durham University

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Publication details for Paul Sutcliffe

Gillard, M. & Sutcliffe, P.M. (2010). Hopf solitons in the Nicole model. Journal of Mathematical Physics 51(12): 122305.

Author(s) from Durham


The Nicole model is a conformal field theory in a three-dimensional space. It has topological soliton solutions classified by the integer-valued Hopf charge, and all currently known solitons are axially symmetric. A volume-preserving flow is used to construct soliton solutions numerically for all Hopf charges from 1 to 8. It is found that the known axially symmetric solutions are unstable for Hopf charges greater than 2 and new lower energy solutions are obtained that include knots and links. A comparison with the Skyrme–Faddeev model suggests many universal features, though there are some differences in the link types obtained in the two theories.