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Durham University

Research & business

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Publication details for Prof Steve Lindsay

Mbare, O., Lindsay, S.W. & Fillinger, U. (2014). Aquatain® Mosquito Formulation (AMF) for the control of immature Anopheles Gambaie sensu stricto and Anopheles arabiensis dose-responses, persistence and sub-lethal effect. Parasites & Vectors 7: 438, 1-9.

Author(s) from Durham

Abstract

Background:
Persistent monomolecular surface films could benefit larval source management for malaria control by reducing programme costs and managing insecticide resistance. This study evaluated the efficacy of the silicone-based surface film, Aquatain® Mosquito Formulation (AMF), for the control of the Afrotropical malaria vectors, Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto and Anopheles arabiensis in laboratory dose–response assays and standardized field tests.

Methods:
Tests were carried out following guidelines made by the World Health Organization Pesticide Evaluation Scheme (WHOPES). Sub-lethal effects of AMF were evaluated by measuring egg-laying and hatching of eggs laid by female An. gambiae s.s. that emerged from habitats treated with a dose that resulted in 50% larval mortality in laboratory tests.

Results:
Both vector species were highly susceptible to AMF. The estimated lethal doses to cause complete larval mortality in dose–response tests in the laboratory were 1.23 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.99-1.59) ml/m2 for An. gambiae s.s. and 1.35 (95% CI 1.09-1.75) ml/m2 for An. arabiensis. Standardized field tests showed that a single dose of AMF at 1 ml/m2 inhibited emergence by 85% (95% CI 82-88%) for six weeks. Females exposed as larvae to a sub-lethal dose of AMF were 2.2 times less likely (Odds ratio (OR) 0.45, 95% CI 0.26-0.78) to lay eggs compared to those from untreated ponds. However, exposure to sub-lethal doses neither affected the number of eggs laid by females nor the proportion hatching.

Conclusion:
AMF provided high levels of larval control for a minimum of six weeks, with sub-lethal doses reducing the ability of female mosquitoes to lay eggs. The application of AMF provides a promising novel strategy for larval control interventions against malaria vectors in Africa. Further field studies in different eco-epidemiological settings are justified to determine the persistence of AMF film for mosquito vector control and its potential for inclusion in integrated vector management programmes.