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Durham University

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Publication details for Dr Martyn Griffin

Fraser, R. & Griffin, M. (2020). "Why sit ye here and Die"? Counter-Hegemonic Histories of the Black Female Intellectual in Nineteenth Century America. Journal of American Studies 54(5): 1005-1031.

Author(s) from Durham


This paper examines the work and lives of black female activist-Intellectuals in the years before
the formation of the National Association of Colored Women’s Clubs (NACWC) in 1896.
Looking deeper at arguments originally made by Maria Stewart concerning the denial of black
women's ambitions and limiting potential in their working lives, the analysis employs the
work of the Italian Marxist Antonio Gramsci, in particular his notion of the intellectual, to help
reflect on the centrality of these black women in the development of an early counterhegemonic movement.