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Research

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Publication details for Dr Wenting Wang

Anderson, Michael E., Gaspari, Massimo, White, Simon D. M., Wang, Wenting & Dai, Xinyu (2015). Unifying X-ray scaling relations from galaxies to clusters. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 449(4): 3806-3826.

Author(s) from Durham

Abstract

We examine a sample of ∼250 000 ‘locally brightest galaxies’ selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to be central galaxies within their dark matter haloes. We stack the X-ray emission from these haloes, as a function of the stellar mass of the central galaxy, using data from the ROSAT All-Sky Survey. We detect emission across almost our entire sample, including emission which we attribute to hot gas around galaxies spanning a range of 1.2 dex in stellar mass (corresponding to nearly two orders of magnitude in halo mass) down to M* = 1010.8 M⊙ (M500 ≈ 1012.6 M⊙). Over this range, the X-ray luminosity can be fit by a power law, either of stellar mass or of halo mass. From this, we infer a single unified scaling relation between mass and LX which applies for galaxies, groups, and clusters. This relation has a slope steeper than expected for self-similarity, showing the importance of non-gravitational heating. Assuming this non-gravitational heating is predominately due to AGN feedback, the lack of a break in the relation shows that AGN feedback is tightly self-regulated and fairly gentle, in agreement with the predictions of recent high-resolution simulations. Our relation is consistent with established measurements of the LX–LK relation for elliptical galaxies as well as the LX–M500 relation for optically selected galaxy clusters. However, our LX–M500 relation has a normalization more than a factor of 2 below most previous relations based on X-ray-selected cluster samples. We argue that optical selection offers a less biased view of the LX–M500 relation for mass-selected clusters.