Publication details for Dr Laura Turnbull-LloydTurnbull, L., Wainwright, J., Brazier, R.E. & Bol, R. (2010). Biotic and Abiotic Changes in Ecosystem Structure over a Shrub-Encroachment Gradient in the Southwestern USA. Ecosystems 13(8): 1239-1255.
- Publication type: Journal Article
- ISSN/ISBN: 1432-9840, 1435-0629
- DOI: 10.1007/s10021-010-9384-8
- Keywords: Ecohydrology, Spatial autocorrelation, Grassland, Shrubland, Structure, Function - Land degradation.
- Further publication details on publisher web site
- Durham Research Online (DRO) - may include full text
Author(s) from Durham
In this study, we investigate changes in ecosystem structure that occur over a gradient of land-degradation in the southwestern USA, where shrubs are encroaching into native grassland. We evaluate a conceptual model which posits that the development of biotic and abiotic structural connectivity is due to ecogeomorphic feedbacks. Three hypotheses are evaluated: 1. Over the shrub-encroachment gradient, the difference in soil properties under each surface-cover type will change non-linearly, becoming increasingly different; 2. There will be a reduction in vegetation cover and an increase in vegetation-patch size that is concurrent with an increase in the spatial heterogeneity of soil properties over the shrub-encroachment gradient; and 3. Over the shrub-encroachment gradient, the range at which soil properties are autocorrelated will progressively exceed the range at which vegetation is autocorrelated. Field-based monitoring of vegetation and soil properties was carried out over a shrub-encroachment gradient at the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge in New Mexico, USA. Results of this study show that vegetation cover decreases over the shrub-encroachment gradient, but vegetation-patch size increases, with a concurrent increase in the spatial heterogeneity of soil properties. Typically, there are significant differences in soil properties between non-vegetated and vegetated surfaces, but for grass and shrub patches, there are only significant differences for the biotic soil properties. Results suggest that it is the development of larger, well-connected, non-vegetated patches that is most important in driving the overall behavior of shrub-dominated sites. Results of this study support the hypothesis that feedbacks of functional connectivity reinforce the development of structural connectivity, which increases the resilience of the shrub-dominated state, and thus makes it harder for grasses to re-establish and reverse the vegetation change.