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Durham University

Research and Innovation Services


Those who have made a substantial contribution to a published study should be included as authors where appropriate. The University recommends the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) criteria for authorship, based on:

  • Substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data for the work; AND
  • Drafting the work or revising it critically for important intellectual content; AND
  • Final approval of the version to be published; AND
  • Agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.

It is expected that anyone making a substantial contribution should have the opportunity to participate in the review, drafting, and final approval of the published version, should they wish to do so.

These criteria provide a widely recognised standard, however there is variation between different disciplines and it may be appropriate to use discipline-specific standards or practice. Responsibility for decisions about authorship lies with those who conducted the study; such decisions are best addressed early in a project to avoid misunderstanding and later disputes.