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Durham University

Research and Innovation Services




Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

A reference that enables permanent identification and location of objects, such as datasets and journal articles. This means a reference to a dataset elsewhere (e.g. in the journal article it supports or in the University’s database) is not going to break or become outdated as a web address might do.

Research Data

Data that are collected, observed, generated, created or obtained from commercial, government or other sources, for subsequent analysis and synthesis to produce original research results.


The sponsor is the individual, company, institution or organisation, which takes on ultimate responsibility for the initiation, management (or arranging the initiation and management) of and/or financing (or arranging the financing) for that research.


Research is defined by the Frascati definition:

Research and experimental development (R&D) comprise creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications. (See Work with Outside Bodies Policy, Appendix 1 for additional detail on activity definitions).


Metadata is data that describes and gives information about other data. Metadata summarises basic information about data, which can make finding and working with particular instances of data easier.