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Durham University

The Department of Philosophy


Publication details for Professor Nancy Cartwright

Cartwright, N.D. (1975). A Non-Negative Wigner-Type Distribution. Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications 83(1): 210-212.

Author(s) from Durham


The Wigner function, which is commonly used as a joint distribution for non-commuting observables, is shown to be non-negative in all quantum states when smoothed with a gaussian whose variances are greater than or equal to those of the minimum uncertainty wave packet.