Magna Carta: the 1216 issue
There follows a transcription and translation of the 1216 issue of Magna Carta, the only surviving copy of which is held in Durham Cathedral's archive (Ref: DCM 1.2.Reg.3). Each section in the original Latin is followed by a new English translation by Dr Michael Stansfield, Assistant Keeper. The Latin was transcribed by Katie Hay, The British Library. Abbreviations in the original Latin text have been expanded in italics, and line endings are indicated with a vertical bar.
Henricus dei gratia Rex Anglie, Dominus Hybernie, Dux Normannie, Aquitanie et Comes Andegavie, Archiepiscopis, Episcopis, Abbatibus, Comitibus, Baronibus, Justiciariis, Forestariis, Vicecomitibus, Prepositis, Ministris, Ballivis et Omnibus Fidelibus suis, Salutem. | Sciatis nos intuitu dei et pro salute anime nostre et omnium antecessorum et successorum nostrorum, ad honorem dei et exaltationem sancte ecclesie et emendationem Regni nostri per consilium venerabilium patrum nostrorum Domini Gualonis Tituli Sancti Martini Presbiteri Cardinalis, Apostolice Sedis Legati, Petri Wintoniensis, Reineri de Sancto Asapho, Jocelini Batthoniensis et Glastoniensis, Simonis Exoniensis, Ricardi Cicestrensis, Willelmi Coventrensis, Benedicti Roffensis, Henrici Landavensis, Menevensis, Bangorum et Sylvestri Wygorniensis Episcoporum; et Nobilium Virorum Willelmi Mariscalli Comitis Penbrocie, Ranulfi Comitis Cestrie, Willelmi de Ferrariis Comitis | Derebie, Willelmi Comitis Albemarle, Huberti de Burgo Justiciarii nostri, Savarici de Maloleone, Willelmi Brigwerre patris, Willelmi Brigwerre filii, Roberti de Curtenay, Falkesii de Breaute, Reginaldi de Vautort, Walteri de Lascy, Hugonis de Mortuo mari, Johannis de Monemute, Walteri de Bello Campo, | Walteri de Clifford, Rogeri de Clifford, Roberti de Mortuo mari, Willelmi de Cantilupe, Mathei filii Hereberti, Johannis Mariscalli, Alani Basset, Philippi de Albiniaco, Johannis Extranei et aliorum fidelium nostrorum:
Henry, by the grace of God, King of England, Lord of Ireland, Duke of Normandy and Aquitaine, and Count of Anjou, to the archbishops, bishops, abbots, earls, barons, justices, foresters, sheriffs, reeves, ministers, bailiffs, and to all his faithful subjects, greeting. Know that we, out of reverence for God and for the salvation of our soul and of all our ancestors and successors, for the honour of God and the exaltation of Holy Church and the reform of our kingdom, on the advice of our venerable fathers, the lord Guala titled cardinal priest of St Martin and legate of the apostolic see, Peter of Winchester, Reiner of St Asaph, Jocelin of Bath and Glastonbury, Simon of Exeter, Richard of Chichester, William of Coventry, Benedict of Rochester, Henry of Landaff, ___ of St David’s, ___ of Bangor, and Sylvester of Worcester, bishops, and of the noble men, William Marshal Earl of Pembroke, Ranulph Earl of Chester, William de Ferrers Earl of Derby, William Count of Aumale, Hubert de Burgh our justiciar, Savari de Mauléon, William Brewer the father, William Brewer the son, Robert de Courtenay, Fawkes de Breauté, Reginald de Vautort, Walter de Lacy, Hugh de Mortimer, John de Monmouth, Walter de Beauchamp, Walter de Clifford, Roger de Clifford, Robert de Mortimer, William de Cantilupe, Matthew Fitzherbert, John Marshal, Alan Basset, Philip de Aubeney, John Lestrange, and of others, our faithful subjects:
 In primis concessisse deo, et hac presenti carta nostra confirmasse, pro nobis et heredibus nostris in perpe- | tuum, quod Anglicana ecclesia libera sit et habeat iura sua integra et libertates suas illesas. Concessimus etiam omnibus liberis hominibus Regni nostri pro nobis et heredibus nostris in perpetuum omnes libertates subscriptas habendas et tenendas eis et heredibus suis de nobis et heredibus nostris.
 First, that we have granted to God, and by this our present charter have confirmed, for ourselves and our heirs in perpetuity, that the English church shall be free and shall have its rights undiminished and its liberties unimpaired. We have also granted to all free men of our kingdom, for ourselves and our heirs in perpetuity, all the following liberties, to be had and held by them and their heirs from us and our heirs.
 Si quis Co- | mitum vel Baronum nostrorum sive aliorum tenentium de nobis in capite per servitium militare, mortuus fuerit, et cum decesserit heres suus plene etatis fuerit et relevium debeat, habeat hereditatem suam per antiquum relevium; scilicet heres vel heredes Comitis de Baronia Comitis | Integra per centum libras; Heres vel heredes Baronis de Baronia integra per centum libras; Heres vel heredes Militis de feodo militis integro per centum solidos ad plus, et qui minus debuerit minus det secundum antiquam consuetudinem feodorum.
 If any of our earls or barons or any other person holding of us in chief by knight service dies and, when he dies, his heir is of full age and owes a relief, he shall have his inheritance for the ancient relief: namely the heir or heirs of an earl £100 for the whole barony of an earl, the heir or heirs of a baron £100 for a whole barony, the heir or heirs of a knight 100s. at most for the whole knight’s fee, and anyone who owes less shall give less according to the ancient custom of fees.
 Si autem heres alicujus talium | fuerit infra etatem dominus eius non habeat custodiam eius nec terre sue antequam homagium eius ceperit, et postquam talis heres fuerit in custodia, cum ad etatem pervenerit, scilicet viginti unius anni, habeat hereditatem suam sine relevio et sine fine Ita tamen quod si ipse dum infra eta- | tem fuerit fiat miles, nichilominus terra remaneat in custodia domini sui usque ad terminum predictum.
 If, however, the heir of any such person is under age, his lord shall not have the wardship of him or of his land before he has received his homage, and after such an heir has been in wardship, when he comes of age, that is he is of 21 years, he shall have his inheritance without relief and without fine; however, if, while he is under age, he becomes a knight, nevertheless the land shall remain in the wardship of his lord for the said term.
 Custos terre huiusmodi heredis qui infra etatem fuerit non capiat de terra heredis nisi rationabiles exitus et rationabiles consuetudines et rationabilia servitia et hoc sine destructione | et vasto hominum vel rerum. Et si nos commiserimus custodiam alicuius talis terre Vicecomiti vel alicui alij qui de exitibus terre illius nobis respondere debeat, et ille destructionem de custodia fecerit vel vastum, nos ab illo capiemus emendam, et terra committatur duobus legali- | bus et discretis hominibus de feodo illo, qui de exitibus nobis respondeant vel ei cui illos assignaverimus si dederimus vel vendiderimus alicui custodiam alicuius talis terre, et ille destructionem inde fecerit vel vastum, amittat ipsam custodiam et tradatur duobus legalibus et discretis hominibus | de feodo illo qui similiter nobis respondeant sicut predictum est.
 The guardian of the land of any such heir who is under age shall not take from the heir’s land anything except reasonable revenues and reasonable customs and reasonable services, and without the destruction or waste of men or possessions. And if we commit the wardship of any such land to a sheriff or anyone else who ought to answer to us for the revenues of that land, and he destroys or lays waste to the wardship, we shall take compensation and the land shall be committed to two lawful and discreet men from that fee, who shall answer to us for the revenues or to whomever we will have assigned it; and if we give or sell the wardship of such land to anyone and he destroys or lays it waste, he shall lose that wardship, which will be transferred to two lawful and discreet men from that fee, who will likewise answer to us as stated above.
 Custos autem quamdiu custodiam terre habuerit, sustentet domos, parcos, vivarios, stagna, molendina, et cetera ad terram illam pertinentia de exitibus terre eiusdem et reddat heredi cum ad plenam etatem pervenerit terram | suam totam instauratam de carucis et omnibus aliis rebus ad minus secundum quod illam recepit. Hec omnia observentur de custodiis Archiepiscopatuum, Episcopatuum, Abbatiarum, Prioratuum, Ecclesiarum, et Dignitatum vacntium excepto quod custodie huiusmodi vendi non debent.
 Moreover, the guardian, for as long as he has the wardship of the land, shall maintain the buildings, parks, enclosures, ponds, mills, and the other things pertaining to that land from the revenues of the same land, and he shall return to the heir, when he reaches his full age, his land fully stocked with ploughs and all other things, at least such as he received it. All these things shall be observed in the wardships of vacant archbishoprics, bishoprics, abbeys, priories, churches, and dignities, except that wardships of this sort ought not to be sold.
 Heredes mari- | tentur absque disperagacione.
 Heirs shall be married without disparagement.
 Vidua post mortem mariti sui statim et sine difficultate aliqua habeat maritagium suum et hereditatem suam nec aliquid det pro dote sua vel pro maritagio vel hereditate sua, quam hereditatem maritus suus et ipsa tenuerint die obitus ipsius mariti; et maneat in | domo mariti sui per quadraginta dies post mortem ipsius mariti sui, infra quos ei assignetur dos sua nisi prius ei fuerit assignata vel nisi domus illa sit castrum; et si de castro recesserit statim provideatur ei domus competens in qua possit honeste morari quousque dos sua ei assignetur | secundum quod predictum est.
 After the death of her husband, a widow shall have at once, and without any difficulty, her marriage portion and her inheritance, and she shall not pay anything for her dower or for her marriage portion or her inheritance, which she and her husband held on the day of her husband’s death; and she may remain in her husband’s house for 40 days after her husband’s death, within which time her dower shall be assigned to her, unless it has already been assigned to her or unless that house is a castle; and if she moves out of the castle, immediately a suitable house shall be provided for her, in which she may stay honourably until her dower is assigned, according to what has been stated above.
 Nulla Vidua distringatur ad se maritandum dum voluerit vivere sine marito, ita tamen quod securitatem faciet quod se non maritabit sine assensu nostro si de nobis tenuerit vel sine assensu domini sui de alio tenuerit.
 No widow shall be forced into marriage so long as she wishes to live without a husband, provided that she gives security that she will not marry without our consent if she holds of us, or without the consent of her lord for anything held of another.
 Nos vero vel Ballivi nostri non seisiemus terram aliquam nec | Redditum pro debito aliquo, quamdiu Catalla debitoris presentia sufficiunt ad debitum reddendum, et ipse debitor paratus sit inde satisfacere. Nec Plegij ipsius debitoris distringantur quamdiu ipse capitalis debitor sufficiat ad solutionem debiti. Et si capitalis debitor defecerit in solucione debiti, non habens unde | reddat, aut reddere nolit cum possit, plegij respondeant de debito, et si voluerint, habeant terras et redditus debitoris quosque sit eis satisfactum de debito quod ante pro eo solverint, nisi capitalis debitor monstraverit se inde esse quietum versus eosdem plegios.
 Neither we nor our bailiffs will seize any land or rent for any debt, so long as the available chattels of the debtor are sufficient to repay the debt and the debtor himself is prepared to make payment from these. Nor shall the sureties of the debtor be distrained so long as the principal debtor himself is able to pay the debt. And if the principal debtor does not pay the debt, having neither the means to pay nor the will to pay, though he may have the means, the sureties shall answer for the debt; and, if they wish, they may have the lands and rents of the debtor until they have had satisfaction of the debt that they previously paid for him, unless the principal debtor shows that he has discharged his obligation to the same sureties.
 Civitas Londoniarum habeat omnes antiquas liber- | tates et liberas consuetudines suas. Preterea volumus et concedimus quod omnes alie Civitates et Burgi et Ville, et Barones de Quinque Portubus et omnes portus, habeant omnes libertates et liberas consuetudines suas.
 The city of London shall have all its ancient liberties and free customs. Moreover, we will and grant that all other cities, boroughs, and towns, and the barons of the Cinque Ports, and all ports, have all their liberties and free customs.
 Nullus distringatur ad faciendum maius servitium de feodo militis nec de alio libero te- | nemento quam inde debetur.
 No one shall be forced to perform greater service for a knight’s fee, or for any other free tenement, than is thereby due.
 Communia placita non sequantur curiam nostram, sed teneantur in aliquo certo loco.
 Common pleas shall not follow our court, but shall be held in some fixed place.
 Recognitiones de nova disseisina, de morte ancessoris, de ultima presentacione non capiantur nisi in suis comitatibus et hoc modo; Nos, vel, si extra Regnum fuerimus capitalis | Justiciarius noster, mittemus duos Justiciarios per unumquemque Comitatum per quatuor vices in anno, Qui cum quatuor Militibus cujuslibet Comitatus electis per Comitatum capiant in Comitatu in die et loco Comitatus assisas predictas.
 Recognizances of novel disseisin, mort d’ancestor, and darrein presentment shall not be held elsewhere than in their own county courts, and they shall be held in this way: we, or if we are outside our kingdom, our chief justiciar, shall send two justices through every county four times a year who, with four knights from each county chosen by the county, shall hold the said assizes in the county on the day and in the place of meeting of the county court.
 Et si in die Comitatus assise predicte capi | non possint, tot Milites et libere tenentes remaneant de illis qui interfuerint Comitatui die illo per quos possint sufficienter iudicia fieri secundum quod negotium fuerit maius vel minus.
 And if the said assizes cannot all be held on the day of the county court, there shall stay behind as many knights and free tenants of those present at the county court as may be sufficient to make judgements, depending on the amount of business to be done.
 Liber homo non amercietur pro parvo delicto, nisi secundum modum ipsius delicti, et pro magno delicto secundum mag- | nitudinem delicti, salvo contenemento suo, et Mercator eodem modo salva mercandisa sua, et Villanus eodem modo amercietur salvo Wainagio suo, si inciderit in misericordiam nostram. Et nulla predictarum misericordiarum ponatur nisi per sacramentum proborum et legalium hominum de Visneto.
 A free man shall be amerced for a trivial offence only according to the degree of that offence, and for a serious offence he shall be amerced according to the gravity of that offence, saving his livelihood, and a merchant in the same way, saving his merchandise, and a villein in the same way, saving his wainage, if he falls into our mercy. And none of the aforesaid penalties shall be imposed except by the oath of reputable and lawful men of the neighbourhood.
 Comites | et Barones non amercientur nisi per pares suos, et non nisi secundum modum delicti.
 Earls and barons shall not be amerced except by their peers, and only according to the degree of their offence.
 Nullus Clericus amercietur nisi secundum formam predictorum et non secundum quantitatem beneficij sui ecclesiastici.
 No clerk shall be amerced except according to the form of the aforesaid, and not according to the size of his ecclesiastical benefice.
 Nec Villa nec homo distringatur facere Pontes ad Riparias nisi qui ab antiquo et de jure facere debet.
 No vill or person shall be forced to make bridges at river banks, unless they ought to do so by custom and by law.
 Nullus Vicecomes, | Constabularius, Coronatores, vel alij Ballivi nostri teneant placita Corone nostre.
 No sheriff, constable, coroners, or other of our bailiffs shall hold pleas of our crown.
 Si aliquis tenens de nobis laicum feodum moriatur, et Vicecomes vel Ballivus noster ostendat litteras nostras patentes de summonitione nostra de debito quod defunctus nobis debuit, liceat vicecomiti vel ballivo nostro attachia- | re et inbreviare catalla defuncti inventa in laico feodo, ad valentiam illius debiti per visum legalium hominum Ita tamen quod nichil inde amoveatur donec persolvatur nobis debitum quod clarum fuerit, et residuum relinquatur executoribus ad faciendum testamentum defuncti. Et si nichil nobis debeatur ab ipso | omnia catalla cedant defuncto Salvis Uxori ipsius et pueris suis rationabilibus partibus suis.
 If anyone holding a lay fee of us dies, and our sheriff or bailiff shows our letters patent for our summons of a debt that the deceased owed us, it shall be lawful for our sheriff or bailiff to attach and list the chattels of the deceased found in the lay fee to the value of that debt, by view of lawful men, so that nothing is removed until the debt, which was evident, is paid to us in full, and the residue shall be left to the executors for carrying out the will of the deceased. And if he owes us nothing, all the chattels shall come to the deceased, saving to his wife and to his children their reasonable shares.
 Nullus Constabularius vel eius Ballivus capiat blada vel alia catalla alicuius qui non sit de villa ubi Castrum situm est, nisi statim inde reddat denarios aut respectum inde habere possit de voluntate | Venditoris: Si autem de villa fuerit, teneatur infra tres septimanas precium reddere.
 No constable or his bailiff shall take the corn or other chattels of anyone who is not from the vill where the castle is situated, unless he pays money for them immediately, or he can delay payment with the agreement of the seller. If the seller is from the vill, he shall be bound to pay within three weeks.
 Nullus Constabularius distringat aliquem Militem ad dandu[m] denarios pro custodia Castri si ipse eam facere voluerit in propria persona vel per alium probum hominem si ipse eam facere non possit propter rationabi- | lem causam. Et si nos duxerimus vel miserimus eum in excercitum erit quietus de custodia, secundum quantitatem temporis quo per nos fuerit in excercitu.
 No constable shall force any knight to pay money for castle guard duty if he is willing to perform it, in person or by another reputable man, if he himself is unable to perform it for a good reason. And if we take or send him to perform military service, he shall be discharged of the castle guard duty in proportion to the length of time spent in our army.
 Nullus Vicecomes vel Ballivus noster vel alius capiat equos vel carettas alicuius pro cariagio faciendo nisi reddat liberationem antiquitus statutam | scilicet pro caretta ad duos Equos decem denarios per diem et pro caretta ad tres equos quatuordecim denarios per diem.
 No sheriff or bailiff of ours or anyone else shall take horses or carts of any sort for use for carriage, unless he pays the old established rate: namely 10d. a day for a cart with two horses and 14d. a day for a cart with three horses.
 Nec nos nec Ballivi nostri capiemus alienum Boscum ad Castra vel alia agenda nostra nisi per voluntatem ipsius cuius boscus ille fuerit.
 Neither we nor our bailiffs shall take timber that is not ours, for a castle or any other of our works, unless with the agreement of the person whose wood it is.
 Nos non tenebimus terras eorum | qui convicti fuerint de felonia nisi per unum annum et unum diem et tunc reddantur terre dominis feodorum.
 We will hold the lands of convicted felons only for a year and a day, after which the lands shall be returned to the lords of the fees.
 Omnes Kydelli decetero deponantur penitus per Tamisiam et Medeweiam et per totam Angliam nisi per costeram Maris.
 Henceforth all fish-weirs shall be completely removed from the Thames and the Medway, and from the whole of England, except from the sea coast.
 Breve quod vocatur Precipedecetero non fiat alicui de aliquo | tenemento unde liber homo amittere possit curiam suam.
 The writ called ‘praecipe’ shall not, in future, be issued to anyone for any tenement whereby a free man may lose his court.
 Una mensura Vini sit per totum Regnum nostrum, et una mensura Cervisie, et una mensura Bladi, scilicet Quarterium Londoniense, et una latitudo pannorum tinctorum et Russetorum, et Haubergetorum, scilicet due Ulne infra listas. | De ponderibus autem sit ut de Mensuris.
 There shall be one measure of wine throughout our kingdom, and one measure of ale, and one measure of corn, namely the quarter of London, and one width of cloth, whether dyed, russet, or halberjet, namely two ells within the selvedges. Let it be the same with weights as with measures.
 Nichil detur decetero pro brevi inquisitionis de Vita vel Membris, sed gratis concedatur et non negetur.
 Nothing shall be given in future for the writ of inquisition of life or limbs, but it shall be granted freely and not refused.
 Si aliquis teneat de nobis per feodi firmam, vel Sokagium vel per Burgagium, et de alio terram teneat per servicium militare, nos non habebimus | custodiam heredis nec terre sue que est de feodo alterius occasione illius feodi firme vel Sokagij vel Burgagij, Nec habebimus custodiam illius feodi firme vel Sokagij vel Burgagij nisi ipsa feodi firma debeat servitium militare. Nos non habebimus custodiam heredis vel terre alicujus quam tenet | de alio per servitium militare occasione alicuius parve Serganterie quam tenet de nobis per servitium reddendi nobis Cultellos vel Sagittas vel huiusmodi.
 If anyone holds of us by fee farm, by socage, or by burgage, and holds land of someone else by knight service, we will not, by reason of that fee farm, or socage, or burgage, have the wardship of his heir or of his land that is of the fee of another; nor will we have the custody of that fee farm, or socage, or burgage, unless that fee farm owes knight service. We will not, by reason of any petty serjeantry that is held of us by the service of rendering to us knives or arrows or such-like, have the wardship of the heir or of the land of anyone who holds of another by knight service.
 Nullus Ballivus ponat de cetero aliquem ad legem simplici loquela sua sine testibus fidelibus ad hoc inductis.
 Henceforth no bailiff shall put anyone to law by his word alone, without bringing forward trustworthy witnesses for this purpose.
 Nullus liber homo capiatur vel impri- | sonetur aut dissaisiatur aut utlagetur aut exulet aut aliquo alio modo destruatur nec super eum ibimus nec super eum mittemus nisi per legale iudicium parium suorum vel per legem terre.
 No free man shall be arrested, or imprisoned, or dispossessed, or outlawed, or exiled, or in any other way ruined, nor will we proceed against him or send others to do so, except by the lawful judgement of his peers or by the law of the land.
 Nulli vendemus nulli negabimus aut differemus rectum aut iusticiam.
 To no one will we sell, to no one will we refuse or delay, right or justice.
 Omnes Mercatores nisi | pubblice ant[e] prohibiti fuerint habeant salvum et securum exire de Anglia, et venire in Angliam et morari et ire per Angliam, tam per terram quam per aquas, ad emendum et vendendum, sine omnibus malis toltis per antiquas et rectas consuetudines preterquam in tempore Guerre, et si sint de terra contra nos Guer- | rina, Et si tales inveniantur in terra nostra in principio Guerre, attachientur sine dampno Corporum vel rerum donec sciatur a nobis, vel a Capitali Justiciario nostro, quomodo mercatores terre nostre tractentur qui tunc invenientur in terra contra nos guerrina; et si nostri salvi sint ibi, alij salvi sint in terra nostra.
 Unless publicly prohibited beforehand, all merchants shall be safe and secure to leave and come to England, to stay and travel through England, both by land and by water, to buy and sell free from all evil tolls, according to the ancient and right customs, except in time of war and if they are from a land at war with us. And if such persons are found in our land at the start of the war, they shall be detained without damage to their persons or goods until it is known by us, or by our chief justiciar, how merchants from our land, who then find themselves in a land at war with us, will be treated; and if our merchants are safe there, the merchants of other lands shall be safe in our land.
 Si quis tenu- | erit de aliqua Escaeta sicut de honore Walingeforde, Notingeham, Bolonie, Lancastrie, vel de aliis Escaetis que sunt in manu nostra et sunt Baronie, et obierit, heres eius non det aliud relevium nec faciat nobis aliud servitium quam faceret Baroni si terra illa esset in manu Baronis et nos eodem modo eam tenebimus | quo Baro eam tenuit.
 If anyone dies who holds of any escheat, such as the honours of Wallingford, Nottingham, Boulogne, Lancaster, or of other escheats that are in our hands and are baronies, his heir shall not give any relief or do any service to us other than he would have done to the baron if that land had been in the baron’s hands, and we shall hold it in the same way as the baron held it.
 Homines qui manent extra forestam non veniant decetero coram Justiciariis nostris de Foresta per communes summonitiones nisi sint in placito vel plegij alicuius vel aliquorum qui attachiati sunt pro foresta.
 Henceforth men who live outside the forest shall not come before our justices of the forest through the common summonses, unless they are impleaded or are sureties of any person or persons who have been attached for forest offences.
 Omnes Barones qui fundaverint Abbatias, unde habent cartas Regum Anglie | vel antiquam tenuram, habeant earum custodiam cum vacaverint sicut habere debent et sicut supra declaratum est.
 All barons who have founded abbeys, for which they have charters of the kings of England or ancient tenure, shall have custody of them when they are vacant as they ought to have and as has thus been declared above.
 Omnes Foreste que afforestate sunt tempore Regis Johannis patris nostri statim deafforestentur, et ita fiat de Ripariis que per eundem Johannem tempore suo posite sunt in defenso.
 All forests that were made forest in the time of King John, our father, shall be disafforested immediately, and river banks that were enclosed by the same John in his time shall be treated similarly.
 Nullus capiatur | vel imprisonetur propter apellum femine de morte alterius quam viri sui.
 No one shall be arrested or imprisoned on the appeal of a woman for the death of anyone other than her husband.
 Et si Rex Johannes pater noster disaisierit vel elongaverit Wallenses de terris vel libertatibus vel aliis rebus sine legali juditio parium suorum in Anglia vel in Wallia, eis statim reddantur, et si contentio super hoc orta fuerit, tunc inde fiat in Mar- | chia per iuditium parium suorum, de tenementis Anglie secundum legem Anglie, De tenementis Wallie secundum legem Wallie, De tenementis Marchie secundum legem Marchiae. Idem facient Wallenses nobis et nostris.
 And if King John, our father, dispossessed or removed Welshmen from lands or liberties or other things without the legal judgement of their peers in England or in Wales, they shall be restored to them immediately; and, if a dispute arise over this, it shall be decided in the March by judgement of their peers: for tenements in England according to the law of England, for tenements in Wales according to the law of Wales, and for tenements in the March according to the law of the March. Welshmen shall do likewise to us and ours.
 Omnes autem istas consuetudines predictis et libertates quas nos concessimus in Regno nostro | tenendas quantum ad nos pertinet erga nostros, omnes de Regno nostro tam Clerici quam laici observent quantum ad se pertinet erga suos.
 All these aforesaid customs and liberties that we have granted to be held in our kingdom as far as it pertains to us towards our men, all the men of our kingdom, both clergy and laity, shall observe as far as it pertains to them towards their men.
 Quia vero quedam capitula in priori carta continebantur que gravia et dubitabilia videbantur, scilicet de Scutagiis et auxiliis assidendis, de Debitis | Judeorum et aliorum, et de libertate exeundi de Regno nostro vel redeundi in Regnum et de Forestis, et Forestariis, Warennis et Warennariis, et de Consuetudinibus Comitatuum, et de Ripariis et earum custodibus, placuit supradictis prelatis et Magnatibus ea esse in respectu quousque plenius | consilium habuerimus et tunc faciemus plenissime tam de hiis quam de aliis que occurrerint emendenda, que ad communem omnium utilitatem pertinuerint et pacem et statum nostrum et Regni nostri. Quia vero Sigillum nondum habuimus presentem Cartam Sigillis venerabilis patris | nostri Domini Gualonis Tituli Sancti Martini Presbiteri Cardinalis Apostolice Sedis Legati et Willelmi Mariscalli Comitis Penbrocie, Rectoris nostri et Regni nostri, fecimus sigillari. Testibus omnibus prenominatis et aliis multis. Datum per manus predictorum Domini Legati et Willelmi Mariscalli | Comitis Penbrocie apud Bristollum Duodecimo die Novembris anno Regni nostri PRIMO.
 However, since there were certain articles contained in the former charter that seemed to be weighty and uncertain, namely concerning the levying of scutage and aids, concerning the debts of Jews and others, concerning the freedom to leave and return to our kingdom, and concerning forests and foresters, warrens and warreners, and concerning the customs of counties, and concerning river banks and their wardens, it has pleased the abovesaid prelates and magnates to defer them until we have had fuller counsel, when we will, most fully in these as in other matters that will need to be reformed, do what is necessary for the common good of all and for the peace and estate of ourselves and of our kingdom. Since we do not yet have a seal, we have had this present charter sealed with the seals of our venerable father, the lord Guala titled cardinal priest of St Martin, legate of the apostolic see, and William Marshal Earl of Pembroke, guardian of us and of our kingdom. Witnessed by all the aforesaid and many others. Given by the hands of the aforesaid lord, the legate, and William Marshal Earl of Pembroke at Bristol on the twelfth day of November in the first year of our reign.