Durham University

Department of Mathematical Sciences

Staff

Publication details for Ian Vernon

Formentin, Helena Nandi, Almeida, Forlan la Rosa, Avansi, Guilherme Daniel, Maschio, Célio, Schiozer, Denis J., Caiado, Camila, Vernon, Ian & Goldstein, Michael (2019). Gaining more understanding about reservoir behavior through assimilation of breakthrough time and productivity deviation in the history matching process. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering 173: 1080-1096.

Author(s) from Durham

Abstract

History matching (HM) is an inverse problem where uncertainties in attributes are reduced by comparison with observed dynamic data. Typically, normalized misfit summarizes dissimilarities between observed and simulation data. Especially for long-time series, objective functions (OFs) aggregate multiple events and tendencies relevant to field performance in a single indicator (e.g. water rate and breakthrough time). To capture the attributes influencing the reservoir behavior, we evaluate the assimilation of data series through additional OFs, obtained from splitting time-series data. In this study, two additional OF groups supplement the time-series misfits: Breakthrough Deviation (BD) indicating dissimilarities in water breakthrough time; Productivity Deviation (PD), representing mismatches of the well potential, mainly impacting the transition from history to forecast conditions. The Productivity Deviation (PD) is adapted from previous studies. Instead of simulating the last time of the historical period under forecast conditions, we propose keeping it under historical data. The change is the historical data used as target condition to the simulator: Bottom Hole Pressure (BHP) in place of liquid production and water injection rates; with this, we estimate a mismatch in well productivity, while avoiding the influence of other boundary conditions in the evaluation. Two applications (1 & 2), assimilating different OF quantities, highlight the influence of the additional groups. Application 1 only computes time-series misfit (64 OFs) whereas Application 2 includes the BD and PD (counting 128 OFs). The iterative HM method presents flexibility regarding OFs assimilated and incorporation of uncertain attributes. UNISIM-I-H case allows us to evaluate the HM considering history and forecast data. We examine differences between the 450 scenarios resulting of data assimilation for each application through four perspectives. Application 2 resulted in scenarios with better predictability of the field behavior and smoother transitions between field history and forecast periods. Field cumulative oil production of Application 2 is also forecasted closer to the reference data when compared to Application 1; all forecast periods (1, 5 and 19 years) emphasize this impact. Some wells presented breakthrough time closer to the reference for Application 2. The challenging achievement of exact BD matches leads to the third advantage of the additional indicators. These OFs supply supplementary information to the diagnosis of scenarios, identifying unnoticed problems in the traditional approach. Finally, even with an overall better performance, some of the well OFs presented poorer matches for Application 2. To explain this, we analyzed the relationship between attributes and the OFs used to update the attributes. In conclusion, the improved forecast of the simulation scenarios indicates that superior performance of the HM process is possible by splitting the available dynamic data in relevant additional OFs. This study presents a case application with 11 years of field history, in which additional OFs, derived from dynamic data, add value to the reservoir characterization. They allow the influence of uncertain attributes to be captured for relevant events in reservoir performance. We also show how the increased quantity of OFs assimilated makes the HM harder for some OFs.