Systematic Reviews are most frequently conducted in the fields of education, health & medicine, social policy or psychology. Increasingly, with the focus on multidisciplinary research, researchers in other areas may find yourselves involved in conducting or supporting a systematic review.
Whilst Durham University Library does not currently offer a dedicated systematic review support service, the Library may be able to help. Whether you are involved in a systematic review for the first time as part of your postgraduate study or a grant proposal, or have previous experience conducting one as part of wider research projects, the resources collected here offer practical guidance and support, and you can contact your department's Liaison Librarian for assistance in constructing effective and comprehensive search strategies and identifying appropriate resources.
"A Systematic Review is a literature review that is designed to locate, appraise and synthesise the best available evidence relating to a specific research question and provide informative and evidence-based answers." (Boland et al, 2014)
It aims to review the available research evidence with the same level of rigour that should be used in producing the research evidence in the first place (Hemingway & Brereton, 2009), taking steps to "reduce/make transparent hidden bias and 'error'" (Newman & Dickson, 2012) and allowing "potentially unmanageable amounts of literature to be managed in a scientifically credibel and reliable way (Torgerson, Hall & Light, 2012).
To achieve this, a Systematic Review seeks to:
- answer a pre-defined and clearly formulated research question.
- use a transparent, comprehensive and pre-defined (to reduce the potential bias in the search and identification process) search strategy to locate the best available evidence, and to allow others to replicate that search process.
- set and apply pre-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria (to reduce potential bias in the selection process) for research evidence identified as part of the search process.
- critically assess the selected studies in terms of quality and relevance, and to identify and account for potential bias.
- provide a balance and impartial summary and interpretation of the findings of the studies, drawing any relevant conclusions or identifying any identified gaps or flaws in the available research evidence.
The end goal is to produce more reliable findings that can be used to inform future decision-making in that field (Higgins & Green, 2011).
Systematic Review vs Literature Review
A Systematic Review is not just a 'big' literature review. Whilst both seek to provide a summary of the available literature on a topic, a Systematic Review is expected to be more rigorous, and ultimately to be transparent and replicable.
|Systematic Review||Literature Review|
|Objectives||Focussed on and by a single, pre-determined research question, with clear objectives identified and stated prior to conducting the primary search of the literature.||Not necessarily focussed on a single research question. May describe an overview around a theme or topic of research. Clear objectives for the literature search may not be clearly identified.|
|Preparation||Methods of identification, selection, evaluation and synthesis are pre-defined to minimise the risk of bias.||Methods of identification, selection, evaluation and synthesis may change subject to authors changing awareness and knowledge of evidence presented, building in the authors subjective knowledge and bias into the review.|
|Design & Methodology||Based on clear identifiable steps with the purpose of being replicable.||No clear rationale, based on expert substantive knowledge of author(s).|
|Selection of Evidence||
Explicit over how reviews included were identified and selected.
|Selection is not made explicit. Unclear whether selected evidence is representative, comprehensive or a (biased) sample.|
|Evaluation of Evidence||All assumptions and judgments are made explicit against identified criteria and open to scrutiny and replication.||Subject to author(s) knowledge and opinion.|
|Outcomes and data synthesis||Clear summary of studies, including an objective assessment of the quality of the evidence presented and potential for bias in the studies selected.||Summary based on studies may not address in detail quality of data or presence of potential bias.|
The above table was based upon comparisons found in Torgerson, Hall and Light (2012) (in Arthur et al. (2012)) and Bettany-Saltikov (2012).
Stages of a Systematic Review
Any Systematic Review should be approached in a methodical way, with several key steps outlined below. There are various ways this process is outlined in the literature, although all roughly following a similar process. Examples form the literature are included in the References section below.
- Define a formulate the research question.
- Define inclusion/exclusion criteria.
- Define a transparent and comprehensive search strategy.
- Search for studies based on pre-defined search strategy.
- Selection of studies based on pre-defined inclusion/exclusion criteria.
- Coding of data collected and selected.
- Critical assessment of studies in terms of quality, relevance, and addressing potential bias in each study.
- Synthesis of findings.
- Interpret the results with an eye on impartiality and reducing potential bias of the authors, and draw any conclusions.
(Boland et al, 2014)
- Definition of question / problem
- Identification of available evidence
- Critical assessment of available evidence
- Synthesis of findings and drawing of conclusion(s)
(Newman & Dickson, 2012)
- Formulate a review question
- Search and selection of studies
- Coding to describe studies
- Critical assessment of studies (quality and relevance)
- Synthesis of results
- Deriving conclusions and implications
(Torgerson, Hall and Light, 2012)
- Transparent, comprehensive search strategy
- Clear pre-specified inclusion/exclusion criteria
- Explicit methods for coding, quality appraising and synthesising included studies
(Cochrane Collaboration, eight stages of doing a systematic review)
- Define review question and develop criteria for inclusion of studies
- Search for studies
- Select studies and collect data
- Assess risk of bias in selected studies
- Analyse data and undertake meta-analyses
- Address reporting biases
- Present results and summary of findings
- Interpret results and draw conclusions
Useful Examples of Systematic Reviews
Below we have tried to provide some useful examples of systematic reviews where you can access and review the search strategy's employed. This may be of interest when approaching your own Systematic Review, but also even if you are not engaged in a systematic review, as visible examples of how other researchers have employed various search tools and techniques to construct a well-focussed but comprehensive search strategy.
- Christie, A. (2014) Are there intervention-generated inequalities in type 2 diabetes care? A systematic review and analysis of routine data. Doctoral thesis, Durham University.
- Doctoral Thesis (Durham): Provides an outline of search strategy and selection of studies (p45-6) and a comprehensive outline of search terms and search strategy employed (Appendix A, p219-221)
- Kyriakou, A. and Higgins, S. (2016) 'Systematic review of the studies examining the impact of the interactive whiteboard on teaching and learning : what we do learn and what we do not.', Preschool and primary education., 4 (2). pp. 254-275.
- Peer-reviewed journal article (Version of Record) (Education): Provides an outline of how the authors approached conducting a systematic review (p258) and the search strategy (p259) and selection and evaluation of studies (p260-269).
- Weed, M. et al (2015) 'The olympic games and raising sport participation: A systematic review of evidence and an interrogation of policy for a demonstration effect.', European Sport Management Quarterly., 15 (2). pp. 195-226.
- Peer-reviewed journal article (Accepted Manuscript) (Applied Social Sciences): Provides an outline of how the authors approached conducting a systematic review (p10-12) and the search strategy (Table 1, p43) and evaluation of studies (Table 2, p44).
- Lockwood,J. et al (2017) 'Impulsivity and self-harm in adolescence: a systematic review', European Child & Adolscent Psychiatry, 26(4). pp. 387-402.
- Peer-reviewed journal article (Version of Record) (Psychology): Provides a summary of methodology employed (p389-90), although an example of where a detailed search strategy is not included within the published article, but is available on request to the corresponding author.
Books in the Library
- Boland, A., Cherry, M. G., & Dickson, R. (2014). Doing a systematic review : a student’s guide
- Bronson, D. E. (2011). Finding and evaluating evidence : systematic reviews and evidence-based practice.
- Newman, N. & Dickson, K. (2012) A Systematic Review in Waring, M., Coe, R., & Arthur, J. (2012). Research methods and methodologies in education.
- Torgerson, C. (2003). Systematic Reviews
- Torgerson, C., Hall, J., & Light, K. (2012) Systematic reviews, in Waring, M., Coe, R., & Arthur, J. (2012). Research methods and methodologies in education.
Online Guides and Resources
- Systematic Reviews: An open Access journal (provided by Biomed Central), encompassing all aspects of the design, conduct and reporting of systematic reviews.
- Systematic Review Toolbox: A community driven resource led by academics at York University, to allow users to search for software tools which can be used to support systematic review activity.
- Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions: the official guide that describes in detail the process of preparing and maintaining Cochrane systematic reviews on the effects of healthcare interventions.
- Cochrane Training: An introduction to Systematic Reviews provides an overview of the rationale and process of undertaking a systematic review, with some additional information about the history and aims of Cochrane.
- RGU: Guide to Systematic Reviews
- KCL: Guide to Systematic Reviews
- Wikipedia: Systematic Reviews
Finding Published Systematic Reviews
The resources below are available to identify if a systematic review of your topic of research already exists, beyond subject databases you may already be familiar with where published in academic journal articles.
- Campbell Collaboration Online Library
- Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (also including Cochrane Reviews)
- Prospero: International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews
- PubMed Clinical Studies