While there are a number of disagreements over maritime jurisdiction in the Arctic region, so far all of the Arctic states claiming exclusive rights to the seabed more than 200 nautical miles from coastal baselines have followed the rules set out in the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) by making submissions to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS). Norway's and Iceland’s submissions were the subject of CLCS recommendations in 2009 and 2016, respectively. Denmark’s 2014 submission, Russia’s 2015 resubmission and Canada’s 2019 submission await review by the CLCS. The USA continues to gather data in preparation for a submission to the CLCS, although it will probably need to ratify UNCLOS before it can make a submission.
In response to numerous enquiries relating to maritime jurisdiction in the Arctic, IBRU has prepared a series of maps (with accompanying briefing notes) on the current state of play in the region. The maps identify known claims and agreed boundaries, plus potential areas that might be claimed in the future, as well as illustrations of sea ice decline in the region. Comments and questions concerning the maps should be sent to firstname.lastname@example.org