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Durham University

Institute of Advanced Study

Junior Research Fellowship - previous Fellows

This page may soon be archived. Kept as a record until the formal end of the COFUND contract. This Fellowship is permanently closed for recruitment. Visitors interested in early career fellowships should visit the Durham University Vacancies Site or the Addison Wheeler Fellowship page. Information about other Senior Fellowships can be found on the IAS Fellowships page.

Between 2011 and 2019 the Durham International Junior Research Fellowship recruited the following scholars, researchers, policy makers and practitioners from around the world and across the full spectrum of science, social science, arts and humanities to address themes of global significance in collaboration with Durham's Research Institutes, Centres, Departments and researchers. Details of the Fellows and their research projects can be found below.

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Dr James Aird

The Co-Eval Growth of Supermassive Black Holes and Galaxies Over Cosmic Time. A supermassive black hole (SMBH), with a mass around a million to a billion times the mass of the Sun, is thought to lie at the centre of most galaxies, including our own Milky Way. In some galaxies matter swirls around and falls into the SMBH which causes the SMBH to grow (i.e., to become more massive). Before falling in, this matter emits huge amounts of radiation that can outshine all of the stars in the galaxy and makes the SMBH “identifiable” out to great cosmological distances. James aims to understand why the SMBHs in some galaxies are growing rapidly while others are not. He will achieve this using sensitive observations of the night sky taken with the latest ground and spacebased observatories, which will pinpoint the sites of SMBH growth. His studies will utilise observations from NuSTAR, a new 160 million dollar NASA X-ray observatory with which Durham is playing a leading scientific role, and combine these with new data that he has recently obtained from some of the largest telescopes on Earth. In this extensive scientific programme James will peer back in time to understand how SMBHs and galaxies evolved together over the history of the Universe. Post Fellowship Dr Aird accepted a position at the Institute of Astronomy, Cambridge.

Dr George Athanasopoulos

The fundamentals of emotional responses to music: Cross-cultural comparison of variations caused by harmonic elements of music using self-reports and psychophysiology. Emotional reactions are the cornerstone of music’s existence, regardless of socio-cultural setting. At the same time, whilst undoubtedly music can vibrantly influence our emotions, different cultures appear to place dissimilar weight on which aspects of music carry emotional content. The aim of the project is to investigate the emotional impact of specific cues of music (in this case harmonic context) on self-reported levels of affect, empathy and psychophysiology using heart rate variation (HRV) and galvanic skin response (GSR) recordings; this will be utilized through a pre-test and post-test experimental within-subjects design and conducted cross-culturally, between western (British) and non-western (Kalash) participants. Overall, should changes in the emotional state of participants appear, this would reveal for the first time the crucial role harmonizations have in carrying emotional content, as well as emphasise the role of participants’ culture in emotion-based music experiments. The outcomes of whether perceptual effects of harmonicity are culture-specific or may have traits which deem them universal will have the potential to enhance our understanding of the cognitive consequences of listening to music and possibly provide further insight on the cognitive aspects of music perception to the area of emotion. Dr Athanasopoulos’ career progression has not been checked since the end date for both the Fellow and the Programme coincide.

Dr Shankha Banerjee

The research of Dr Banerjee focuses on Beyond the Standard Model (BSM) physics with a major emphasis on the Higgs sector, study on dark matter models especially the collider aspects and on next to leading order (NLO) corrections to SM and BSM scenarios. Projects undertaken at Durham included: 1) Higgs interactions in the context of the Large Hadron Collider and future colliders, 1.1) Anomalous Higgs couplings with and without new Lorentz structures 1.2 Exotic decays in Higgs pair production 1.3) Constraining CP nature of t¯tH coupling, 1.4) Lepton flavour violation in the Higgs sector, 1.5) Studies pertaining to heavy scalars, 1.6) Viability of 4th generation chiral fermions, 1.7) Invisible Higgs decays in an extended CMSSM, 2) Dark Matter studies and 3) Long lived tracks at the LHC. Dr Banerjee’s career progression has not been checked since the end date for both the Fellow and the Programme coincide.

Dr George Bepete

Seeding graphene growth to produce gram quantities of monolayer graphene powders and in situ spectroscopy of single layer graphene in water. Graphene is a true wonder material and has the potential to generate disruptive technologies. Since it was isolated in 2004 a wide range of impressive and often unsurpassed properties have been reported, including high electrical conductivity, high thermal conductivity, impermeability to gasses as well as being “the strongest material ever measured”. In spite of this, it is still only at the early stages of commercial development as a number of challenges need to be addressed. The first of these has been a lack of scalable synthetic routes to produce graphene in the quantities required for industrial applications. The second problem relates to the difficulties in processing graphene, in particular graphene's poor stability in most common solvents. This project will investigate new methods to produce graphene and how the material can be assembled into a film. It will also explore the potential of Raman spectroscopy to evaluate the efficiency and quality of graphene production in-situ along with liquid phase stability. Effects like, doping, strain, water pH, temperature and concentration can be determined from the measured Raman spectra. Post Fellowship Dr Bepete became the Eberly Research Fellow at the Pennsylvania State University.

Dr Marco Bernini

Beckett and the Cognitive Method: Narrative theorists have recently begun to develop interests in the cognitive sciences and in the work of contemporary philosophy of mind whilst philosophy and some areas of cognitive science have taken a ‘narrative turn’. The potential fruitfulness of this collaboration is immense, enhancing understanding of processes of intentionality, communication and how the brain constructs and inhabits a world, but also what happens when these processes fail and pathological constructions displace the activities of the ‘ordinary mind’. Philosophers of mind David Chalmers and Andy Clarke have posited the idea of the ‘extended’ or ‘distributed’ mind (somewhat along the lines of Dawkins’ extended phenotype): here consciousness is regarded not as an entity housed in an autonomous brain, but extended across body, environments, prostheses, objects and other minds. Literary Modernism provides a particularly fertile area for application and extension of theories of distributed consciousness and the extended mind: its practitioners were unusually self-aware in their attempts to mediate mind and explore the ways in which minds build worlds. The work of Samuel Beckett has not, until now, been approached from this perspective, despite Beckett’s interests in philosophy of mind, neurology and abnormal psychology and his exploration of the complexities of meta-representation, failures in communication, confabulatory processes and the like. This project promises to contribute enormously to Beckett studies, narratology, philosophy of mind and the cognitive sciences.Post Fellowship Dr Bernini remained at Durham University as a core member of the Wellcome Trust interdisciplinary project on auditory-verbal hallucinations ‘Hearing the Voice' before becoming Assistant Professor in Cognitive Literary Studies in the Department of English Studies.

Dr Ivana Bicak

‘Satire and the Anatomy of Experiment in Early Modern England’. The proposed research project offers the first comprehensive examination of the rich and influential satiric tradition that accompanied the development of early modern experimental philosophy from 1600 to 1700. The new methods of experimentation in the seventeenth century provoked heated debates concerning ethical and practical issues, which were instantly reflected in contemporary satire. Early modern satire dissected the scientific experiment itself, asking fundamental questions about its purpose and the possible detrimental effects on its human and animal subjects, a topic still relevant today. Unlike the more measured responses to the new science, satire expressed its stance overtly and directly, partly owing to its traditional function of correcting society’s vices. However, despite their unprecedented cultural value, these satires have not received much critical attention to this day. Drawing on previously untapped literary sources and relying on the latest advancements in the history of science, technology, and medicine, this project promises to uncover forgotten and neglected seventeenth-century English and Neo-Latin satires on seventeenth-century scientific experiments. During the Fellowship the Centre for the Study of Medicine and the Body in the Renaissance (CSMBR) Committee awarded Dr Bicak a Santorio Fellowship.

Dr Srinjoy Bose

Democracy promotion and statebuilding in ‘post-conflict’ societies is in crisis. Whilst few dispute the inherent desirability of democracy as an end point, getting there is typically conflictual and there is a growing critique of externally promoted democratisation. Advocates of democracy promotion argue that the transition from war to peace can be facilitated through the judicious introduction of institutions—i.e. processes and practices—that create the right incentives for cooperation. In Afghanistan, this has involved a focus on re-creating the formal structures and practices of Western democracies, too often without sufficient attention to history and the underlying preconditions for democratisation—with frequently unintended and negative consequences. This ‘historical blindness’ helps account for many of the shortcomings in internationally-assisted statebuilding. This project seeks to add to this critique of the rise of democracy promotion, and employs a political economy framework to understand the more focused research on the perverse effects of elections in Afghanistan. Post Fellowship Dr Bose became a lecturer at the University of New South Wales.

Dr Nicholas Boterf

During the fellowship Dr Boterf investigates how poets in archaic Greece interacted with their local communities and how they positioned themselves within the community through their poetry. Archaic Greece (ca. 800-480 BC) was a time of great political and social change as interactions between the various autonomous Greek city-states intensified. During this period a variety of local identities developed in tandem with a nascent, translocal “Greek” identity. This project analyzes the tensions between these two identities by concentrating on the figure of the poet and how he appeals to different “local” audiences.

Dr Nassim Bozorgnia

Overcoming Astrophysical Uncertainties in Dark Matter Searches. To reveal the nature of the elusive DM particle which permeates our Galaxy, a variety of direct, indirect, and collider searches are being undertaken, with great prospects of discovering DM in the coming decade, and enabling us to test many theories beyond the Standard Model of particle physics. The correct interpretation of the data from these searches is of paramount importance, and necessary to identify the properties of the DM particle and decode its nature.

Uncertainties in the astrophysical distribution of DM in the halo of our Galaxy are the major barrier preventing a precise determination of the properties of the DM particle. With the upcoming high precision and revolutionary data from the Gaia space observatory, and the rapid advances in high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations of galaxy formation, now we will finally be able to understand and probe the DM distribution in the Milky Way.

The JRF will use three strategies to significantly improve our understanding of the DM distribution in our Galaxy: (a) search for DM substructures using upcoming Gaia data, (b) extract the DM distribution from hydrodynamic cosmological simulations, and (c) probe the DM distribution and interaction type with directional detection. The JRF will use innovative machine learning techniques, state-of-the-art high-resolution simulations, and upcoming publicly available astronomical data.

Dr Bozorgnia’s career progression has not been checked since the end date for both the Fellow and the Programme coincide.

Dr Thomas Bristow

Elegy: Death, Time and Scale in Contemporary Lyricism. The research proposal adopts a new and striking critical approach in its study of elegy as the poetry of loss and mourning. First, it investigates the capacity of elegy to represent, embody and elicit emotions over time. This is important, as very few studies of the genre of elegy have sought to emphasise not just the feelings of loss articulated by the poet, but those stimulated in the reader or listener. Second, the proposal opens up the study of elegy to new international perspectives, drawing on Australian and Canadian literature as well as classical texts and English poetic sources. Third, the proposal promises a new investigation of pastoral elegy by re-examining the human relationships to nature posited in poetry fundamentally concerned with death, but also with fertility and resurrection. The proposal has a powerful social relevance in the context of environmental politics today, claiming that elegy still has the capacity for passionate reasoning in the face of drastic change. Dr Bristow’s career progression has not been checked since the end date for both the Fellow and the Programme coincide.

Dr Hannah Burrows

The project accessed and investigated: medieval world views and intellectual and textual communities; ways of understanding and defining the world and human relationships with it via riddles and riddling language in Old Norse-Icelandic poetry, and the contexts in which they are found. In 2014 Dr Burrows accepted a lectureship at Aberdeen University.

Dr Yan-Chuan Cai

Precision cosmology using simulations and galaxy surveys. Dr Cai preformed a varied portfolio of research using survey astronomy to place precise constraints on cosmological models. Post fellowship, in 2014 Dr Cai joined the Royal Observatory, University of Edinburgh.

Dr Megan Cavell

Where the Wild Things Were: Portraying Animals in Anglo-Saxon Poetry. The research will examine the entire range of references to animals in the whole corpus of Old English poetry to reveal Anglo-Saxon perceptions of the animal world and its relationships with humanity. It will engage powerfully with modern theory while being soundly based on Old English philological techniques, with the main focus being on compound words and formulae analysed in relation to their contexts. By covering all the animals mentioned in the corpus it will redress an imbalance in Old English scholarship, which has been unduly concerned with animals associated with the aristocracy and its activities. At the same time it will fill a gap left by recent studies that focus on later medieval perceptions of the animal world as embodied in Middle English, rather than Old English, literature. Post Fellowship Dr Cavell accepted a position at Pembroke College, Oxford.

Dr Mujeeb Ullah Chaudhry

Light Emitting Transistors. The Fellowship concerns the fabrication and evaluation of organic light emitting transistors (LETs). These are comparatively new devices that combine the switching (logic operation) capabilities of transistors with the ability to emit light. The devices could lead to wide ranging applications in displays, sensors, communication devices and electrically pumped lasers. Dr Ullah proposes to investigate a novel LET architecture (heterostructure) that separates the charge transport and light emission processes. State-of-the art phosphorescent materials developed in Professor Bryce’s Group (Chemistry Department) will be incorporated into these devices, which will be fabricated using the clean room facilities in the School of Engineering and Computing Sciences (with Professor Petty). A theoretical model to explain the physics of the LET operation will be developed in collaboration with Dr Groves. Dr Ullah proposes an extensive programme of research. The work is novel, ambitious and challenging and a three-year Fellowship is entirely appropriate. During the period of the Fellowship, it is anticipated that Dr Ullah will also engage with other members of Durham CMNE staff (e.g. Professor Monkman and Dr Cross in Physics for optical spectroscopy and sensor development, respectively). There is an obvious route for exploitation for any commercially relevant results from this research, namely the Centre for Process Innovation at Sedgefield (UK’s National Centre for Printable Electronics), with which CMNE staff have excellent relationships. Post Fellowship Dr Chaudhry remained at Durham University as Assistant Professor in Electronics in the Department of Engineering.

Dr Esther Clarke

Primate vocalisations as sexual signals. Gibbon songs are thought to have evolved under strong sexual selection because the duet is a prominent feature of an adult mated pair’s daily routine. Their other song types also have hypothesised functions in mate attraction. However, thorough empirical observations testing the predictions of the sexual selection hypothesis are lacking. This study seeks to test the hypothesis that gibbon songs evolved under sexual selection, and in particular, that certain call elements specifically function to convey information about the caller's reproductive status - a novel examination of the role of physiology in sexual signalling. To test this we will measure female fertility directly via hormone analysis and compare these data with accompanying changes in acoustic structure of specific call sequences. We will then use playbacks to study the behaviours associated with, and elicited by, call sequences, which after initial acoustic analyses could be artificially modified to determine the most salient elements of the calls. Together these findings could end the debate over the functions of gibbon songs, and have wider implications for the evolution of communication in the primate lineage. Post Fellowship Dr Clark remained affiliated to Durham University as an Honorary Research Fellow in the Department of Anthropology.

Dr Sarah Collins

Music and the Liberal Imagination. The aim of this project is to investigate the relationshiop between ideas about music and the structures of liberal thought in Victorian and Edwardian Britain. In particular, it will explore the hypothesis that ideas about music can be historically investigated in terms of their role in the cultivation of a particular attitude towards life that has been conventionally associated with liberalism.

To this end, I will undertake the first large-scale examination of English-language writings about music between 1820 and 1914, and read this literature alongside works by prominent 'public moralists' such as John Stuart Mill, Matthew Arnold, Leslie Stephen and others, in order to trace the contours of the liberal ethos in musical thinking. Liberalism describes not only a political and economic ideology, but also a type of disposition or stance toward the world, involving the cultivation of character. This imaginative or aesthetic facet of liberalism has been traced in Victorian literature, but these claims have not yet extended to the musical sphere. By extrapolating the way in which the liberal imagination found expression in ideas about music and positing a specifically musical mode of liberall thinking, the project will shed fresh light on the relationship between culture and politics.

Dr Andrew Cooper

Gaia and Galactic Archaeology in the Halo of the Milky Way. Construction of mock catalogues for surveys of the Galactic stellar halo, in particular the European Space Agency’s Gaia mission. Use of these catalogues to test and develop ways to constrain the assembly history of the Milky Way, to measure its dark matter content, to determine the relative importance of halo stars formed in the Milky Way itself, and to relate observations of halo structures in other galaxies to those in the Milky Way (and vice versa). Post Fellowship Dr Cooper became an Assistant Professor at the Institute of Astronomy at National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan.

Dr April Dalton

Constraining numerical ice sheet models with geological observations through the last glacial cycle for improved predictions of ice sheet dynamics and sea level change. Sea level rise from the recent thinning of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets is a serious concern given that ~10% of the world’s population lives in low-lying coastal areas. However, the response of ice sheets to climate variability is complex and difficult to study because observational data only cover the last few decades. To examine the links between ice sheets and sea level, I will study the evolution of the North American Ice Sheet Complex (NAISC) during the last glacial cycle (~120,000 to ~20,000 years before present). I will assemble a dataset of geological constraints from the footprint of the NAISC (700+ sites) during the last glacial cycle to develop the first ever ice margin chronology (e.g. 1000-yr intervals) to track the continuous evolution of NAISC. These data will then be used to calibrate a new iteration of a numerical ice sheet model that will enable the first rigorous assessment of the magnitude and rate of sea level rise associated with this ice sheet, which is a valuable analogue for future sea level scenarios. Dr Dalton’s career progression has not been checked since the end date for both the Fellow and the Programme coincide.

Dr Celine Degrande

A model-independent approach to new physics at the LHC. After the discovery of the Higgs-like boson in July 2013, it is now of paramount importance to understand if the Standard Model (SM) is the ultimate theory of particles, or, as it is expected, new Physics beyond the SM exists. A model-independent approach to study these extensions is to use an effective Lagrangian approach. The project will exploit this method in order to identify possible signals of physics BSM at the LHC without the need to rely of specific and limited models. It will make extensive use of the FeynRules package, the leading publicly available code to convert theoretical models in experimental predictions, of which the applicant is an author and which will be further developed during the project. Following her Fellowship Dr Degrande accepted a position at CERN.

Dr Mathieu Dellinger

Carbon Dioxide release to the atmosphere by oxidative weathering reactions. Oxidative weathering (OW) of sedimentary rocks, which contain sulphide minerals and fossil organic matter, is thought to have played a central role in the long-term cycles of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and oxygen, and governed the evolution of Earth’s environment over geologic time. These “natural” processes set the boundary conditions for understanding present-day global change. Despite this recognition, we do not know the global magnitude of OW fluxes in the present-day, nor properly understand how they might vary over the continents and in the past. The primary objective of the work in this proposal is to develop and apply new promising geochemical tools, based on trace metal rhenium (Re) and selenium (Se) in rivers, for quantifying OW fluxes today and in the past. Despite their promise as proxies, we still require more information on the source and behaviours of Re and Se during weathering. This project will fill these knowledge gaps with an original approach of combining precise measurement of both isotope composition and concentration of Re and Se in well studied river catchments. The new measurements will help accurately quantify OW fluxes and CO2 release, determining the key controls and rates at Earth Surface. Dr Dellinger’s career progression has not been checked since the end date for both the Fellow and the Programme coincide.

Dr Daniel Derrin

The Laughable and the Moral Imagination in Early Modern Comedy: A new approach to the persuasiveness of humour. This project re-evaluates ideas exchanged in the early modern period about what is and is not laughable, with several significant implications. The ultimate goal is to identify a fresh scholarly language with which to speak of humour in early modern drama and satiric writing: that is, as something genuinely persuasive and not just merely playful or chaotic. The project will provide new insights into the comic literature of the early modern period. It will examine the laughable specifically as an emotion-concept, and meaningful therefore within the sphere of complex embodied ethical experience, and not just as a reflection of ideological structures. This will provide a means of moving beyond the largely structuralist language of previous scholarship and will contribute to major current research interests in emotion and medical humanities. Across its three year lifespan, the project will uncover debates in the early modern period about the laughable, which were conducted through commentary on ancient Roman comedy. It will use that research to revisit the meanings and representations of persuasive humour in scenes from early modern dramatic comedy. Finally, the project will come to a close by using the understanding of seventeenth century ‘humours comedy’ gained from that work as a basis for the first major investigation of the word ‘humour’ in seventeenth century English, as it develops functions beyond medical discourse and becomes associated also with the emotional experience of the funny and of funny characters. Post Fellowship Dr Derrin remained affiliated to Durham University as Honorary Fellow in the Department of English Studies.

Dr Amalia Di Girolamo

In the Durham University Business School Dr Di Girolamo focussed her Behavioural and Experimental Economics, in particular studying the role of literacy, time preferences and risk aversion on the individual decision making process. Post fellowship Dr Di Girolamo joined the Department of Economics at Birmingham University as a Lecturer in Experimental Economics.

Dr Celine Dinet

The origin of friction forces between cells. E-cadherins bind cells together in tissues by linking their membranes and cytoskeletons in a continuous mechano-sensitive network. Whereas a significant progress was made in identifying the molecular structure of the cadherin junctions and how they transmit forces from and to the cell cytoskeleton, nothing is known about the friction force they generate between cells. Yet the friction interaction was recently highlighted as a crucial factor in tissue and embryo development.

The aim of this fellowship is to provide biophysical insights on the cell friction force by a direct comparison of living cells and their artificially reconstituted analogues. The fellow will use synthetic membranes bound to deformable substrate via cadherin proteins to deduce how the interplay between the lifetime of the bonds, their spatial distribution, the external forces and the fluidity of the membrane control the origin and the magnitude of the cell friction. Parallel experiments on adhered living cells will allow for a comparison and verification of the deduced physical mechanisms. Such combination of physical and biological systems, perfectly suited for the expertise available at Durham University and that of the applicant, offers a unique and powerful approach for unveiling complex biological processes. Dr Dinet’s career progression has not been checked since the end date for both the Fellow and the Programme coincide.

Dr Jessica Dinh

In the Durham University Business School Dr Dinh examined Implicit Leadership (Followership) Theories and Values Predict (Un)ethical Leadership. The research related to the topic of leadership and ethical decision making and behaviour.

Dr Stefanie Dornschneider

The project looked to explain why the Arab Spring broke out when and as it did, offering an alternative methodology to those normally utilised and which generally address causes rather than timing. The research used a Cognitive Mapping Approach to model the Arab Spring as the outcome of chains of interconnected beliefs which resulted in sudden and specific forms of mobilisation. Dr Dornschneider took up a lectureship at University of Buckingham in 2015 before accepting a lectureship / assistant professorship at University College Dublin.

Dr Christoph Englert

As a Fellow in the Institute of Particle Physics Phenomenology Dr Englert’s research comprised precision phenomenology of multi-electro-weak boson production processes, new methods in jet physics phenomenology, and physics beyond the standard model. Post fellowship Dr Englert took up a lectureship in Physics and Astronomy at the University of Glasgow.

Dr Christos Filippidis

Urban Fragility as Military Object: The case of Rio de Janerio: This research examines the rise of urban militarisation and policing practices in the global South as a means to control the populations living in informal and marginal areas of quickly growing cities. Contemporary practitioners in the fields of urban planning and urban governance have a tendency to focus on questions of fragility, sustainability and resilience as it relates to informal populations and infrastructure in cities. While these questions are important, little attention has been paid to how informal populations have turned into an object of military interest. This project focuses on the site of Rio de Janerio, Brazil, where urban marginality comprises an intense field of ongoing police-military operations to control informal populations in the favelas. The aim of the project is to examine urban militarisation in Rio’s societal and spatial context, investigating military-police involvement in the production of urban space, the management of urban marginality, and the problematisation of urban fragility and resilience. As climate change and population displacement continue as key drivers of contemporary urbanisation, this project aims to address key policy questions in international development in a changing world. Dr Filippidis’ career progression has not been checked since the end date for both the Fellow and the Programme coincide.

Dr Paula Franklin

Forming European Health Strategy: An Ethnographical Study of Stakeholder Positions and Governance in EU Policy Making. Public health policy covers a range of complex issues, such as smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, (unhealthy) food products and global pandemics, thereby having a direct impact on the everyday lives of citizens. Health involves everyone, but who has a say in determining how and which interests are prioritised? This study aims to analyse the process through which a multistakeholder policy comes into existence. By analysing formal documentation of the development of the current European Health Strategy 2008-2013, the study will map out the key stakeholders in this field. Furthermore, a new strategy will be developed in the coming two years (2012-2013). The study will include interviews of people who participate in the process, thereby accounting for their experience, and follow closely how the negotiations between the stakeholders unfold, who is included in the new policy and who is left out, what kinds of networks are formed, and, importantly, whose views are represented in the final strategy that is published. The results will offer an insight into the policy making process, and make the power relations in this field more explicit.

Dr Guido Furci

“Witnessing Voices: Primo Levi and the Auditory Imagery of the Survivor”. Some historical events are so problematic that they require a new vocabulary to convey the experience. In the case of the Holocaust, literature provides forms and devices that enable us to pay witness in some way to the individual and collective trauma that occurred. Building on his prior research – which considered Primo Levi, Philip Roth, and Aharon Appelfeld’s approach to such “literary witnessing” of the Holocaust – Dr Furci proposes a new project, focuses specifically on the role of voices in the work of Levi. For Levi, the polyphonic potential of literature is paralleled by the growing obsession with voices for those confined in the concentration camps, or remembering them many years later. The barrage of external voices and orders, the internalisation of others, and the inner dialogue of the survivor are all key to understanding Levi’s experiential approach. Dr Furci’s career progression has not been checked since the end date for both the Fellow and the Programme coincide.

Dr Ed Garrett

Palaeogeodesy for improved seismic hazard assessment. Recent failures in anticipating the size of devastating earthquakes and tsunamis have emphasised the weakness of current hazard assessments based on recent history. Longer records of past earthquake activity are urgently needed to better understand subduction zone processes and the role of supercycles and rupture variability in releasing accumulated strain. Developing such an understanding will enable better preparation for and management of future earthquakes and tsunamis. This fellowship will combine field- and laboratory-based approaches to identify abrupt earthquake-generated land-level changes with cutting-edge geophysical models to identify and evaluate potential impacts on future events. Focusing on the Chilean subduction zone as a carefully selected test case, Ed will reconstruct the magnitude and location of earthquakes occurring over the last 2000 years. The proposed research marks a step-change for the field; the results will have fundamental implications for understanding subduction zone behaviour, leading to better seismic and tsunami hazard assessments both in Chile and worldwide. With multiple potential beneficiaries ranging from coastal populations to major engineering projects and the insurance industry, the project’s impacts will be realised through close collaboration with seismic hazard practitioners and dialogue with industry stakeholders, drawing on the extensive expertise of the Institute of Hazard, Risk and Resilience. Dr Garrett’s career progression has not been checked since the end date for both the Fellow and the Programme coincide.

Dr David Gehring

Via Media and Via Alia: Lutheranism, Calvinism, and the Spectrum of Religion in Elizabethan and Jacobean England. This project examined the domestic impact of Anglo-German relations in England, showing the further latitude of English society during the later Reformation. Post fellowship Dr Gehring became Assistant Professor in Early Modern British History at the University of Nottingham.

Dr Matthieu Giaime

Geoarchaeology and Geomorphology of Ancient Harbours of the Egyptian Red Sea coast. The aim of the project is to initiate a multidisciplinary study of ancient harbour environments, along the Egyptian coast of the Red Sea, in to better understand human occupation of the coastline, in particular the occupation and structure of ancient harbours, since 3500 years in this area. This project will discuss how multifaceted geoarchaeological approaches to the study of ancient ports can contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms and logistics of maritime trade, as well as fluctuations in its quality and quantity. It will also shed light on the significance of local and regional landscapes, seascapes and environmental changes on the development and decline of the ports, and the impact these factors had on Red Sea trade. The objective is to develop a comparative multidisciplinary approach to avoid repetitive case studies and compare and contrast data with sites already investigated in the Mediterranean. The realisation of several sedimentary cores on each site and their bio-sedimentological study (grain-size, ostracods, pollens) will help to reach three main goals: (1) the restitution of Relative Sea-Level changes, (2) the study of palaeo-environmental evolution of harbour basins and finally (3) the restitution of vegetation dynamics. Dr Giaime’s career progression has not been checked since the end date for both the Fellow and the Programme coincide.

Dr Georgios Giannakopoulos

Weather Men: British Intellectuals, National Questions and Imperial Order in Europe in the age of nationalism and internationalism. The project offers an intellectual history of British engagement with Eastern Europe in a period marking the transformation of imperial rule, and the rise of nationalism and internationalism across the continent. It is primarily a study in British intellectual history focusing on the writings and regional experiences of a network of British intellectuals with an interest in the politics and the history of national questions across the continent. The project has a wide scope. First, it tracks the debates on ‘the Eastern Question’ and on the national questions in the Habsburg monarchy, from the end of the nineteenth century to the period of the Great War and the subsequent redrawing of the boundaries of east-central Europe and the Middle East. Second, it shows how such discussions deflected concerns about the unity and multi-national composition of Great Britain. The project therefore aims to recover a set of common considerations underpinning British and European politics.

Britain’s ‘weather men’ carried into the twentieth century a mid-Victorian concern with Europe’s small nationalities and their struggle for local self-government within imperial and quasi-imperial structures. They were epigones of the so-called Gladstonian moment of championing the extension of self-government against despotic rule in eastern Europe. They lived through times of imperial crisis and conflict and offered lasting interpretations of regional conflicts and national questions in eastern Europe. The debates in which they engaged still resonate to this day when intellectuals are confronted with the rise of nationalism and movements for regional autonomy across the continent. Dr Giannakopoulos’ career progression has not been checked since the end date for both the Fellow and the Programme coincide.

Dr Nathan Gilbert

Philosophical Allegiance in Republican Rome. This project aims to question the restrictive, essentialist and a-prioristic assumptions that are often brought to the study of philosophy in ancient Rome. They effectively filter out important evidence by making assumptions about the sort of philosophy Romans preferred (Stoic rather than Epicurean; practical rather than theoretical), and how profoundly it was integrated into their thinking (it is often characterised merely as ‘cultural performance’, for example). Recent work has shown that this approach fails for exceptional figures, such as Cicero or Seneca; Gilbert aims to demonstrate that it fails across the board. His re-evaluation of the place of philosophy in the lives of the Roman ruling classes (for which we have rich evidence) will make a substantial contribution to our understanding of the political and intellectual life of late Republican Rome, and improve out appreciation of the vitality and relevance of philosophical thinking in this era more generally. Post Fellowship Dr Gilbert remained at Durham University as an Assistant Professor in the Department of Classics and Ancient History.

Dr Katarzyna Granat

Legislative Oversight in EU Administrative Law. While we traditionally think of “Parliament” as the central lawmaker, this perception has been anachronistic ever since the rise of the “administrative state” in the twentieth century. In the latter, the absolute majority of norms are generated by “delegated legislation”, that is; norms adopted by the executive – not the legislature. This phenomenon of executive law-making has however, not gone uncontrolled, since parliaments have traditionally insisted on oversight rights to “monitor and control” executive legislation. Within the European Union, this idea of legislative oversight has become extremely topical and pertinent since 2009, as the new European Union Treaties have created a revolutionary new system. However, we do not know much about the actual workings of this system yet, nor is there much research on the comparative constitutional dimension. And the perhaps most intriguing and interesting question here is whether in addition to the legislative oversight by the European Parliament national parliaments should also be allowed to check on the Union executive. This is the question that the applicant wants to research, and I think it is one of the most brilliant and interesting research questions in European law at the moment. Dr Granat’s career progression has not been checked since the end date for both the Fellow and the Programme coincide.

Dr Leonardo Gregoratti

Geographical and political spaces at the periphery of the Parthian and Roman empires. Dr Gregoratti’s proposal deals with those lands situated in the Middle East that found themselves in between the two super powers of the ancient world, the empires of Parthia and of Rome. In the steppe and desert zones of what is presently Syria, Jordan, Iraq and Eastern Turkey, a number of powerful mini-states appeared that came to play a major role in the long-distance, caravan trade of the ancient world, while on the other hand a number of fortified cities along the frontier zone were heavily disputed and changed hand regularly due to their strategic importance also with regard to the control over the desert population. Case studies of places such as the Parthian stronghold Hatra, the Euphrates small-town Dura-Europos, and the caravan city of Palmyra, will throw light on the various modes of interaction between imperial centre and periphery, and on the various ways in which local societies in these frontier areas could be constructed and perceived. Post Fellowship Dr Gregoratti remained in Durham as a Member of the Department of Classics and Ancient History.

Dr Barbara Gribling

Consuming the middle ages: how the ‘age of chivalry’ was sold to British children 1880-1938. This project examines how the middle ages was marketed to children of all ages through toys, games, books, theatre, pageants, popular exhibits and heritage sites. It explores the intersection between childhood consumerism and the past as it became a commodity, considering questions about the public use of the past, about who promoted and retold that past as history, and about the responsibility of museums and heritage sites in depicting historical topics for consumption. The project will highlight the tension between entertainment and instruction, moving beyond history in an educational classroom setting to understanding the past through public display and products. Post Fellowship Dr Gribling became a Research Associate at Newcastle University.

Dr Ramona Gröber

Previously Dr Gröber’s research had been focused on the phenomenology of the Standard Model (SM) of particle physics and its extensions, especially from the point of view of Higgs physics. This included work on: programming, several High Energy Physics Tools, Monte Carlo methods, higher order calculations (at one and two loop level) and Higgs and SUSY phenomenology. At Durham four projects were undertaken: 1) NLO QCD corrections to Higgs pair production, 2) SUSY QCD corrections to Higgs pair production, 3) New Physics effects in Higgs pair production and 4) Higgs boson masses in the NMSSM. Post Fellowship Dr Gröber became a Professor in the Institute of Physics at the Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin.

Dr Jianhua He

Using galaxies to probe the nature of gravity. This project will strengthen and extend to the new research area opened up by members of the ICC, which aims to probe the nature of gravity using cosmological observations to understand the origin of the accelerating expansion of the Universe. This is one of the most challenging open questions in contemporary physics, as shown by the award of the 2011 Nobel Prize in Physics in this topic. Previous work in this area focuses on various cosmological probes of gravity using dark matter. While this already results in strong constraints on theories, future improvements on these constraints depend critically on our ability to model the formation and properties of galaxies in such theories. This has not yet happened because galaxy formation is a complicated process and not many groups (of which Durham is one) have the right combination of expertise to tackle this problem. Jian-hua’s proposal fits well with the long-term research plan of the ICC members, including Professors Baugh, Frenk and Dr Li. The successful application of a JRF will enable us to be a pioneer in this important area and will strengthen the ICC’s leadership role in large international survey projects, such as DESI and Euclid. Dr He’s career progression has not been checked since the end date for both the Fellow and the Programme coincide.

Dr Dominikus Heift

Hypervalent antimony and bismuth compounds for catalytic and biomedical applications. The project will explore the synthesis and reactivity of a new family of molecular cage-supported hypervalent antimony and bismuth compounds, which have received scant attention in the literature. These new systems will show significant Lewis basicity combined with unusual (tuneable) steric demands, which in concert will endow these complexes unusual chemical reactivity, primarily as reagents for the activation of small molecules such as CO2 and SO2. Moreover, the intramolecular interactions within the proposed cage framework provides the opportunity to elaborate systems in which the chemistry of the group 15 centre to vary the overall Lewis acidity/basicity of the ensemble. In an extension to this work, the applicant seeks to explore the synthesis of a range of systems in which the recently reported anti-tumour activity of certain antimony and bismuth compounds can be exploited, primarily through the design of bio-compatible cage frameworks. Dr Heift’s career progression has not been checked since the end date for both the Fellow and the Programme coincide.

Dr Monica Hellstrom

To build for Romanis suis: Diocletian and the city of Rome investigates the use of public building as social communication, using Diocletianic-period building in the city of Rome as its central case study. The main output will be a monograph, but two preliminary articles are also proposed. Analysis of the presentation and audience of different building projects will explore how Diocletian and his co-rulers created differentiated discourses of legitimacy aimed at multiple social strata; the first article will read two such projects in detail, while the second will trace their use across time to help build a richer picture of how later authorities modified and drew on these discourses. The monograph will incorporate material from the candidate’s dissertation and postdoc work to date to investigate whether and how such patterns continued across the empire in Diocletian’s time.The deliberate use of building to engage new groups in direct relationships with the central power suggests that a model based on the work of Charles Tilly can provide new insights into Rome as a proto-nation state. Post Fellowship Dr Hellstrom remained at Durham University as a Leverhulme Early Research Fellow in the Department of Classics and Ancient History.

Dr Lucas Herchenroeder

Making Sense of the Past: Discipline and Text in Hellenistic Historiography. This project examined the correlation between historiography and the empirical and theoretical sciences in the Hellenistic world. More specifically, the research investigated how innovation in the methods and scope of scientific inquiry stimulated new paradigms for historical research and writing. Post Fellowship Dr Herchenroeder accepted an Assistant Professorship (Teaching) of Classics at the University of Southern California, Dornsife.

Dr Philip Heron

Starting and Maintaining Early Earth Plate Tectonics. Plate tectonics recycles mantle volatiles (water, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, sulfur, halogens and noble gases) in processes that affect habitability. The current theory of what governs plate tectonic can explain mountain ranges and earthquakes, but the fundamentals of how it all began remain unresolved. Present-day geophysical imaging of the deep mantle show anomalous chemical piles thought to originate from the beginnings of Earth. However, their interaction with mantle convection in the early Earth is not well known. In global 3-D numerical experiments, I offer the first investigation into what role these deep chemical heterogeneities may have played in the initial breaking of the lithosphere (to begin proto-subduction, and possibly kickstart plate tectonics). Furthermore, I wish to investigate what is required to sustain plate tectonics once it is initiated. Using geochemical and geodynamic expertise from the Department of Earth Sciences, these new numerical models will explore if local plate tectonics may have operated before a global movement of continents occurred. A comparison will also be made into how today’s tectonics differ from that of the early Earth, and what possible changes may occur in the future. Post Fellowship Dr Heron remained at Durham University as a Marie SkÅ‚odowska Curie Research Fellow (Geodynamics).

Dr Anthony Hooper

Immortality in the Symposium: Plato’s Appropriation of Traditions of Post-Mortem Fate. Discussions of personal immortality in Plato tend to be rather narrowly focussed on the question of whether and how a soul can be disentangled from its body, and survive without threat of destruction. This project explores the fascinating idea that Plato pursues the idea of immortality along another axis as well – within the realm of the body, through the philosopher’s ‘divine’ progeny of benefit and improvement in later generations. This is an angle on the question that has been eclipsed by the focus on the fate of the soul, but it is one which sits within a rich cultural tradition. Its exploration, apart from being philosophically interesting in its own right, will open up a significant new perspective on Plato, and make a substantial contribution to the growing appreciation of the ways in which Plato reworks material familiar to his readers in developing and presenting his own thought. Dr Hooper’s career progression has not been checked since the end date for both the Fellow and the Programme coincide.

Dr Dhana Hughes

'Soldiering On’: the Transition from Military to Civilian Life in Sri Lanka. The proposal is to conduct the first ethnographic study of Sri Lankan combat veterans' transition to, everyday life in the civilian world. Despite profound social, economic, and political implications, little is known about how Sri Lankan combat veterans are re-integrated into the civilian world, postmilitary service. Researchers have found in other settings that military life impacts on the lives of soldiers, their families, and communities long after they leave military service. Much of this work focuses on the mental health consequences that mark combat veterans' readjustment to civilian life (e.g. PTSD, suicide, depression). While this is significant, it is important to recognise that the transition from soldiering to civilian life also entails a social, economic, and cultural shift. This study will consider the complex interactions between military enculturation, combat experience, and civilian sociality. The project will advance social science research on the military, violence, masculinities, post-conflict, and reintegration. It will fill an important gap in knowledge, and will have impact beyond.

Dr Nick Hughes

Dilemmic Epistemology. Epistemic principles are principles that concern what one ought to believe. In his Junior Research Fellowship project, Nick Hughes will develop the view that these principles can conflict with one another. This gives rise to ‘epistemic dilemmas’. Consider, for example, the following three epistemic principles: one’s beliefs ought to be rational; one’s beliefs ought to be true; one ought not to believe contradictory propositions. These are the kinds of basic principles that Hughes argues can conflict, giving rise to epistemic dilemmas Hughes’s project is novel, interesting and well-conceived. Whilst moral dilemmas have been subject to much philosophical discussion, epistemic dilemmas – though potentially no less significant – have not. Studying them promises to shed light on the nature of belief, and the relationship between the principles we use to regulate and modify it. Hughes’s project is an excellent fit with my own research interests, which primarily concern the relationship between morality and epistemology. Dr Hughes’ career progression has not been checked since the end date for both the Fellow and the Programme coincide.

Dr Christopher Hurl

Governing by Review: Service Reviews and the Restructuring of Solid Waste Management in Toronto and London. In the wake of the 2008 economic crisis, city governments across Canada and the United Kingdom have undertaken comprehensive reviews evaluating the financial, environmental and political risks associated with the provision of waste management services. The research will investigate the influence of such reviews on municipal decision-making, risk management and urban resilience with a focus on two recent case studies - Toronto (Canada) and London (United Kingdom). In 2010, both cities initiated reviews of solid waste management for the first time at the metropolitan regional level. Through a comparitive analysis, the research will examine the variable governmental rationalities, understandings of risk, institutional scales and modes of community engagement through which these reviews were orgnanised. Specifically, it is concerned with how the review process has reframed the management of municipal solid waste management through i) opening up the governance process to non-political authorities, including private consulting firms, waste management companies, third sector organisations and community groups, and ii) establishing networked governance structures that link together central government and local agencies across the city region. This research is important given how widespread service reviews have become in the restructuring of local government services.

Dr Inchan Hwang

During his fellowship in the Department of Physics and the DEI Dr Hwang investigated the delocalisation of excitons and polarons in polymer blend films and its impact on organics photovoltaic devices. Organic solar cells based on conjugated polymers are some of the cheaper solar cells in production and have properties of low-toxicity, flexibility and optical/electrical tunability. However, their efficiency is not high enough for commercialization. Dr Hwang’s research looked at delocalising photoexcited states to make significant performance improvements. Post fellowship Dr Hwang became an Assistant Professor at Kwangwoon University.

Dr Åsa Jansson

The History of Unreality as Psychiatric Concept: In contemporary psychiatry, unusual states of belief – delusions – are typically distinguished from non-veridical perceptions (hallucinations). But this was not always the case: the division of belief and perception is not clearly evident in the medical and psychiatric literature of the 19th century, with it instead coming to prominence in psychiatric thinking in the early 20th century. At the same time, both delusions and hallucinations have increasingly been separated from emotional disorders. The aim of Dr Jansson’s project is to examine how these divisions came about and the consequences of defining and separating unreal experiences in this way. The project – which will involve archive work with case reports, medical notes and institutional records as well as published material such as journal articles and text books – builds on her doctoral research on the 19th century emergence of “mood disorders (eg depression or bi-polar disorder) in modern psychiatry. Dr Jansson’s career progression has not been checked since the end date for both the Fellow and the Programme coincide.

Dr Richard Jones

Revealing a signal of dynamic sheet fluctuations hidden in geological data: Very little is known about the extent and thickness of ice sheets prior to the last ice age, when the Earth transitioned between periods that were warmer and cooler than today, yet these fluctuations are critical to understanding the future behaviour of ice sheets. Geological data collected from ice-free margins of Antarctica and Greenland usually inform us about the final phases of ice sheet retreat. However, these data also record multiple phases of ice advance and retreat, but which have not yet been systematically investigated because of the complexities associated with analysing such data. I propose to exploit this hitherto unaccessed record, using an innovative modelling approach that analyses the chemical signature within rocks. In collaboration with colleagues in the Geography Department, who have thus far focused on reconstructing ice sheet retreat since the last ice age, I will develop and apply the model to new and existing data from Antarctica and Greenland. The outcomes will underpin tests of ice sheet models that are being used to predict the amount of sea level rise that will occur in the coming centuries. Dr Jones’ career progression has not been checked since the end date for both the Fellow and the Programme coincide.

Dr Charles Jose

Understanding the connection between galaxies and dark matter. One of the most powerful probes of the origin, evolution and contents of the Universe is the distribution of matter in it. The dominant component of matter in the universe is however dark, which can in principle be traced by luminous galaxies. Understanding the connection between galaxies and the underlying dark matter density field is then crucial to pin down the physical parameters of the Universe. I will address this issue using a physically motivated galaxy formation model, GALFORM, combined with the extremely large numerical simulations of cosmological structure formation available at the Institute for Computational Cosmology. GALFORM, combined with the simulations, gives a state-of-the-art description of the complex galaxy formation process and hence can be used to investigate the relation between galaxies and dark matter in the observable Universe. This work is expected to reveal the physical nature, complexity and evolution of the galaxy-dark matter connection, thereby making a crucial impact on the exploitation of major international galaxy surveys that Durham is participating in (PAUCam, DESI, Euclid and LSST). This project is expected to greatly enhance the utility of galaxy clustering as a probe of the basic cosmological parameters. Post Fellowship Dr Jose became an Assistant Professor at CUSAT, India.

Dr Sacha Kacki

Bioarchaeology of plague: epidemiology and biosocial consequences of a devastating epidemic disease: The plague (Yersinius pestis) has been responsible for a wave of devastating epidemics across Europe over the last two millennia (notably the Justian Plague, 6th to 8th centuries, and the Black Death, mid-14th century). Despite the enormity of these events, there still remains a number of unanswered questions regarding the epidemiology of the disease, as well as the social responses to these catastrophes. Sacha’s research aims, for the first time, to analyse and synthesise data from multiple mass burial sites associated with the plague from across Europe. He will examine the palaeodemography of these burials as well as the skeletal evidence for underlying poor health, to address questions of mortality selectivity. These results will be interpreted in relation to sites with normal attritional mortality in order to properly contextualise the plague burials. Finally, Sacha will explore the variable social responses to plague epidemics, in terms of the burial rites accorded to the victims, within differing contexts across Europe. The proposed research is ambitious and innovative and will have implications for the study of present-day epidemics as well as the modelling of future disease outbreaks. Dr Kacki’s career progression has not been checked since the end date for both the Fellow and the Programme coincide.

Dr Aglae Kellerer

Direct phase determination: A new approach to adaptive optics. The project addressed an issue fundamental to the design and scientific operation of the next generation of large ground-based telescopes, namely their ability to negate the effects of the atmosphere on their imaging performance. Post felloship Dr Kellerer lectured at the Battcock Centre for Experimental Astrophysics, Cavendish Laboratory at the University of Cambridge.

Dr Gary King

Discerning insect vectors for the transmission of infectious disease epidemics in the past. This project sought to identify insect fauna associated with human remains from historic era archaeological sites.

Dr James Christian Kirby

African states and the international human rights movement: The proposed project looks at the role of ‘small’ (in population terms, not necessarily geographically) African states in the emergence of the international human rights movement, and develops earlier work by the applicant which has argued that non-Western actors played an important part in this process. The applicant will use the fellowship to extend previous work on Botswana to a longer period, and will complement this with studies of Mauritius and the Gambia. The research speaks to a new historical literature on human rights internationally, which has made a strong case for the role of anti-colonialism in the development of ideas about human rights, and has emphasised that this was a global movement in which apparently marginal players – like these African states – could play a significant role. Dr Kirby’s career progression has not been checked since the end date for both the Fellow and the Programme coincide.

Dr Hara Kouki

InnCities: Innovative Economic and Political Spaces in Athens and Madrid: This project concerns the study of alternative economic spaces and practices (indicatively: workers’ collectives, voluntary organisations and foundations, non-product enterprises, co-housing, community-supported agriculture, solidarity initiatives, movements) that have emerged in Athens, the Southern European city arguably most severely hit by the most recent wave of austerity (2008-2015). The project asks: what innovative experiences, knowledges and relations are produced in these emergent spaces? To what degree may these innovations then challenge dominant economic practices and social relations? Alternatively, how may they be adapting to and compensating for the gradual loss of national sovereignty stemming from the ongoing financial crisis? The project builds on the applicant’s past historical and internationally comparative work to develop a unique spatio-temporal comparative methodological framework, in order the compare and contrast Athens’ emergent urban politics to those in Madrid which has undergone similar processes in the recent past. Adopting an ethnographic, historical and transitional approach, the proposed project will complement and extend (geographically and historically) the scope of the Geography Department’s current ESRC-funded research on the Urban Politics and Governance of Social Innovation in Austerity (led by Professor Painter and part of the ESRC’s Urban Transformations portfolio). Dr Kouki’s career progression has not been checked since the end date for both the Fellow and the Programme coincide.

Dr Astrid Krenz

Firm-level analyses of Agglomeration Externalities, Knowledge Spillovers and Productivity Growth: The JRF – working with Professor Harris and Dr Moffat – would work with the German and other firm-level data to analyse determinants of productivity growth, the influence of agglomeration externalities, the effects of knowledge spillovers and similar issues. The official German firm-level data set has (to date) not been used for comprehensive regional analyses and the plan is to do this and make comparisons with other countries using similar micro-level data. The JRF has access to official firm-level data from the German Federal Statistical Office, covering both plants and enterprises in the economy, and all economic sectors for the period 1995-2014 at the LAU2-level (communities). This project would complement and extend the extensive published work of Harris and Moffat, which to date, has mostly concentrated on productivity issues in the UK and China (although further work is in hand to extend to Demark and New Zealand – Harris is an associate of the NZ productivity research centre based in Waikato University). It is planned that a number of 3-4 publications will result from the planned work as well as developing stronger network ties across Europe in this important area of productivity. Dr Krenz’s career progression has not been checked since the end date for both the Fellow and the Programme coincide.

Dr Adriano Lameira

Great ape linguistics and human cogntitive evolution. This study will test the hypothesis that great ape voiceless calls, voiced calls, and syllable-like call-combinations are homologous to human consonants, vowels, and syllables, respectively. Thus, that human linguistic building blocks and elementary units stem from similar calls and call-combinations in our last common ape ancestor. Namely, we will examine putative deferential selection between consonant- and vowel-like calls, the evolutionary ecology of proto-consonants and-vowels, and their respective communicative functions in orangutans. Methods will include analyses of the largest database of orangutan calls ever assembled (and possibly among great apes), primarily collected and held by the applicant. Complementary playbacks following established ethically-approved protocols will be conducted in the wild and captivity – techniques that will be implemented in the context of extensive experience of the applicant in both settings. Results will produce the first evidence as to why and under which circumstances the primate vocal repertoire acquired linguistic features within the human lineage. Together with the academic host, a world-leading expert on human brain evolution, findings will be scrutinized under the light of our understanding on the major evolutionary transformations and expansions experienced by the human brain, and could have wider implications for an advanced theory of language and cognitive evolution. His research was featured here:

Dr Hermine Landt

Understanding the Near-Infrared Broad Emission Line Region of Active Galactic Nuclei and Black Hole Mass Determination. The proposed project aims to improve and extend the methodology of a newly discovered relationship for determining black hole masses at the centres of galaxies. To this day one of the key questions in astrophysics remains unanswered: How do galaxies form and evolve? Significant progress in constraining galaxy evolution models have come from the discovery that the central black hole mass and the luminosity and velocity dispersion of stars in the stellar bulge, are tightly correlated. However, this method cannot be used on distant bright quasars whose host galaxy is not visible. The new method uses infrared observations to determine black hole masses. Post Fellowship Dr Landt remained at Durham University as a Research Associate in the Department of Physics.

Dr Donald Lavigne

Based in the Department of Classics and Ancient History, Dr Lavigne investigated archaic Greek authorship by focusing on the interrelationship between the poetry of Homer, Hesiod and Archilochus on the one hand, and early Greek epigram on the other. The texts at the core of this project represent the most important literary contribution of archaic Greece, and yet are rarely studied as components of a coherent poetic system. The poems of Homer, Hesiod and Archilochus (all publicly performed by professional bards) and authorless epigrams (inscribed on public monuments) are generally treated as fundamentally different poetic modes. By putting aside a largely anachronistic model of genre that privileges form, content and occasion and focusing instead on the strategies of authorial self-presentation inherent in the poems (both performed and inscribed), this project offers a radically new analysis of archaic Greek poetics that accounts for the construction of different authorial personae, and for the authority of epigram within a wider poetic system. Further, this project contributes to modern theoretical debates concerning the idea of authorship and its historical development. Post fellowship Dr Lavigne became an Associate Professor at Texas Tech University.

Dr Elias Lopez-Asamar

Dark matter physics and the SuperCDMS experiment: This research project attempted to contribute to the search for dark matter. More specifically, Lopez-Asamar worked with one of the leading experimental groups, the SuperCDMS collaboration, which is attempting the direct detection of these particles through their scattering off a germanium target. SuperCDMS takes data and one of the tasks was to contribute to the determination of backgrounds for the current experimental setup, as well as the different data analysis. The Fellow also contributed to phenomenological studies of dark matter properties determination (mass and couplings) from direct detection experiments, attempting to address the most general case of dark matter interactions with nuclei (that can be described in terms of an effective Lagrangian) and the combination of future targets. Post Fellowship Dr Lopez-Asamar took a position at LIP, Coimbra, Portugal.

Dr Mark Lovell

Galaxy Formation and the Nature of Dark Matter: The candidate will model and simulate the full process of galaxy formation within cosmologies with novel dark matter candidates. Through collaborations he has built with Particle Physicists he will develop techniques to simulate galaxy formation in such scenarios in order to reveal key observational diagnostics that will enable such models to be distinguished from the standard LambdaCDM model. Dr Lovell’s career progression has not been checked since the end date for both the Fellow and the Programme coincide.

Dr Aaron Ludlow

Probing the nature of dark matter through the small scale structure of the Universe. Within the prevailing framework for cosmic structure formation galaxies form within dark matter (DM) halos whose hierarchical growth is seeded by primordial gravitational instabilities. A variety of observational tests of this model have been successfully carried out, and compelling evidence for its validity spans scales from the observable horizon down to the typical sizes of Milky Way-type galaxies. Nonetheless, below these scales – where observations are arguably the most robust – the model faces severe challenges. The abundance and internal densities of low mass galaxies, for example, falls considerably short of the model’s predictions. Possible solutions are found in the uncertain physics of galaxy formation or, more radically, in models that abandon the CDM particle completely. The latter possibility bestows a sense of urgency as it may herald the end of the well-established CDM model, and offer guidance to future experimental dark matter searches. Disentangling the imprint of baryons from those of other viable particle candidates is therefore essential if astronomers are to continue to assess observational evidence for alternative models. As a Durham Junior Research Fellow I will tackle these issues by designing and analyzing a sophisticated suite of numerical simulations aimed at modeling the small-scale structure of the Universe. Post Fellowship Dr Ludlow secured a Future Fellowship at the Faculty of Engineering and Mathematical Sciences, Int Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR), University of Western Australia.

Dr Elisabeta Lusso

AGN Feeding and Feedback: two sides of the same coin: As a Junior Research Fellow, Dr. Lusso is proposing to investigate how black holes affect the evolution of their host galaxies by: (1) constraining for the first time the shape of the spectral energy distribution in the extreme UV in low luminosity quasars; (2) studying the direct impact of black holes on the gaseous environment of host galaxies with an unprecedented sample of high-resolution spectra spanning the UV-IR wavelengths. Her work will establish the contribution of faint AGN to the ultraviolet background and provide new observational constraints for the next-generation of simulations that are being developed at the Institute for Computational Cosmology. Dr Lusso’s career progression has not been checked since the end date for both the Fellow and the Programme coincide.

Dr Philippe Lynes

Dearth: Eco-Deconstruction after Speculative Realis: ‘Eco-deconstruction’ works at the intersections of contemporary continental philosophy and the environmental humanities. Dr Lynes offers a new reading of material from well-known thinkers associated with deconstruction (Martin Heidegger, Jacques Derrida, Maurice Blanchot) and deploys it in relation to contemporary thinking on the environmental crisis and interspecies ethics. His work also draws on his own, very pertinent archival research (undertaken at the Institut Mémoires de l’Écrit Contemporain (IMEC) in Caen, France, and the Critical Theory Archives at the University of California). The project builds on the deconstructive reading of time as a multiple and inherently divided horizon of human finitude, relating this to contemporary schools of thought that have arisen, to a significant degree, in relation to thinking the multifarious global ecological crisis, ‘Speculative Realism’ (and also ‘New Materialism’). Dr Lynes’s main argument concerns the inattention, on the part of ‘Speculative Realism,’ to the role played by temporality in these three authors, particularly with respect to the literary/poetic imagination. A more sensitive, ecodeconstructive thinking of time would not only free them from the charges of a lingering anthropocentricism (the charge of so-called ‘correlationism’), but afford us a better environmental philosophy. Dr Lynes’ career progression has not been checked since the end date for both the Fellow and the Programme coincide.

Dr Andreas Maier

Theoretical high-energy physics and Standard Model phenomenology: The project concentrated on computations of higher-order perturbative corrections to the Standard Model processes. These are of critical relevance for collider physics and applications at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiment at CERN. The project covered multi-loop perturbative computations in QCD, applications to Higgs physical and the Next-to-Leading Order precision for the High Energy Jets (HEJ) technology developed at Durham for the LHC. Post Fellowship Dr Maier took a postdoc at DESY Zeuthen.

Dr Eleni Mamoulaki

Exile Islands, Exile Memories: Understanding, Redefining and Preserving Experience and Remembrance of Political Deportation in the Aegean Archipelago: The project revisits the social memory of political exile on remote islands, in the Aegean Archipelago. A number of islands in this region served as deportation camps for political detainees in various conflict-ridden historical periods from the 1930’s to the early 1970’s Greece. While the political detainees were deported to these islands as ‘threats to security’, and ‘enemies of the state’, some local inhabitants, guided by the cultural idiom of ‘hospitality’, developed feelings of solidarity with the exiles, organically redefining the dominant, hegemonic meaning of what constitutes ‘threat to national security’.

The two year research fellowship will be devoted to a new comparative project of experiences and memories of exile on more islands in the region on a scale never attempted before. It is a project on ‘urgent anthropology’ which will link survivors’ testimonies, material remains and historical accounts that are so far largely preserved through individual initiatives. Part of the project is devoted to building capacity in the communities under study, through co-designing with them a spatiotemporal ‘living museum’. The ‘living museum’ will involve spaces and times of commemoration, rendering the memory of turbulent political periods a dynamic part of everyday life on the islands. The project will preserve an important cultural resource and give it back to the communities in innovative ways. It will result in significant research outputs an it will create long-term sustainable links of academic cooperation between Durham, Europe and the US. Dr Mamoulaki’s career progression has not been checked since the end date for both the Fellow and the Programme coincide.

Dr Alberto Mariotti

The fellowship studied dynamical supersymmetry breaking and its signatures at the Large Hadron Collider. The ground breaking nature of the project consisted in the contemporaneous development of formal and phenomenological aspects. Post Fellowship Dr Mariotti accepted a position at the Vrije Universiteit Brussel.

Dr Andrew Martin

Interoceptive accuracy and visual perspective taking: The ability to understand how others perceive, think and feel about the world is a central feature of human psychology and social interactions. One way in which we do this is to ‘put ourselves in another’s shoes’ – to take another’s visual perspective on the world, for example, and thus to understand what that person can see or know. Dr Martin has recently developed a novel visual perspective-taking task that provides distinct measures of 3 different types of perspective-taking whilst also distinguishing between the perspective of the participant from their own point of view, the perspective of the other person, and the ‘perspective’ of an inanimate object (Martin et al, 2017). In a subsequent, ongoing study Dr Martin has collected data on this task from over 150 volunteers and found that, when required to take a self-perspective, older adults are more influenced than younger adults by information from the other person’s or object’s perspective that is incongruent with the self-perspective, and that, overall, older adults are disproportionately slower to take the other perspective. During his time in Durham Dr. Martin will validate these results in an independent sample of young and older adults and, importantly, will test whether these age-related changes in perspective-taking are related to a known decline in interoceptive accuracy, i.e. in the ability to accurately sense internal bodily responses, such as heart rate. Dr Martin’s career progression has not been checked since the end date for both the Fellow and the Programme coincide.

Dr Olivier Mattelaer

New methods for optimal LHC precision. Abstract: This project plans to improve the experimental sensitivity of Higgs and new physics searches by two different research directions. First, a new data-analysis technique, dubbed Event Deconstruction, will be implemented. It combines the approach of the matrix-element method with the shower deconstruction algorithm via a method inspired by the matching/merging method. This will result in a Matrix-Element Method enhanced by the radiation information and will be for the first time correctly defined on the theoretical level. A phenomenological study on the challenging associated production of a Higgs with a top quark pair will be performed and should provide a clear illustration of the power of the method. Secondly, a new method of phase-space integration will be developed to compute the cross-section and to generate Monte-Carlo events for processes with many particles in the final state (more than eight). A precise description of such processes is particularly useful for understanding the backgrounds (top quark pair with jets, W with jets, W pair with jets and so on). This integrator will therefore reduce theoretical uncertainty on a large class of experimental analysis. This method will be implemented inside the MadGraph5 framework.

Dr Marc-Alban Millet

Osmium isotope insights into the formation and earliest differentiation of the earth. We know little about the Earth’s origin and why it supports life. The Earth formed ~4600 million years ago from meteorites and evolved from an enormous mass of unsorted material into a planet with a metal core and rocky exterior. During this process, most of the Earth's iron and many other elements were distributed into the core. Many aspects of this process are still poorly understood, such as the influence of core formation on the planet's chemistry, and whether the Earth continued to grow after the core was formed by the addition of volatile-rich meteorite material. I will develop osmium stable isotopes as a new tracer of core formation and late additions of meteoritic material. I will compare results from ancient rocks, meteorites and experiments that simulate core formation. These results will allow me to assess the roles of core formation and late meteorite additions in the early chemical evolution of the Earth’s interior. The development of osmium stable isotopes will also have wide impacts beyond the scope of this project as they can be applied to a wide spectrum of problems such as ocean circulation and dynamics, weathering processes, ore formation, mantle dynamics and the provenance of archeological artifacts. Post Fellowship Dr Millet accepted a lectureship in Isotope Geochemistry at Cardiff University.

Dr Franz-Julius Morche

Da Ferrara niente: Venetian Letters and the Birth of Journalism: While a rich body of literature explores the gradual emergence of the European news market, relatively little is known about the circumstances that triggered a demand for general political news in the first place. This research investigates the significance of merchant letters as a medium of early modern news exchange. On the basis of unpublished Venetian archival material—the personal archives of the merchants and public servants Biagio Dolfin (c. 1370-1420) and his nephew Lorenzo (c. 1399-1474)—I will use a sample of letters sent between Venice and London to explore their role as conduits of general political news that was not directly linked to business interests, thus inquiring into factors that made early fifteenth-century actors interested in matters seemingly unrelated to their daily lives. The research will frame the merchant letter, alongside contemporary chronicles and early newsletters, as one of the key pillars of an emerging “news sphere”, and illuminate the gradual transformation from a personal to an impersonal or ‘journalistic’ communication of news. I will further publish a critical edition of the examined letters, highlighting their significance to various fields of historical inquiry, including economic history, political history, and the history of science and medicine. Dr Morche’s career progression has not been checked since the end date for both the Fellow and the Programme coincide.

Dr Chris Murray

The proposed project on Romantics Reading China, intended to culminate in a monograph, traces the formation of persistent attitudes to China from literature of the Romantic period. Specifically, it posits that Classical Reception is central to the reception of Chinese culture in the Romantic period. The Romantics’ use of artistic and philosophical paradigms derived from Classical learning to assess Chinese culture originates certain Western perceptions of China. The theoretical context for this study is Orientalism as hypothesised by Edward Said, Homi Bhabha and subsequent critics. While scholarship on the ‘Orient’ – the Western construct of an imagined and generalised Asia – primarily refers to the Middle East and India, China and Chinese Malaya are demonstrably subject to similar stereotypes. This project draws on two understudied aspects of Romanticism. First, Romantic engagements with China have been neglected in literary studies. There is an opportunity to analyse how Chinese philosophical and literary works were received in translation, and how thinkers of the period perceived Chinese culture more generally. Secondly, the study of Classical Receptions offers insight into how Romantic attitudes to Asia were informed. Following his Fellowship Dr Murray accepted a permanent position at Monash University

Dr Tehseen Noorani

Modelling Psychosis: Psychedelic Science in the Age of Post-Psychiatry: Since the 1830s, the effects of psychedelic drugs have been proposed as providing a model for the understanding of the hallucinatory and unreal experiences of psychosis. This “model psychosis” approach was popular until the advent of biological psychiatry in the 1970s, which firmly rejected the counter-cultural endorsement of psychedelics and any suggestion that they may inform psychosis research. However, the idea of a “model psychosis” has enjoyed a recent resurgence, with a move back to psychedelia being seen within psychopharmacology, alongside a wider rise in “consciousness cultures” and a growing underground movement of psychedelic experimenters. This is relevant for understanding psychedelia and psychosis research, but also for tracking how antimedical and grassroots movements carve a place for their own research to be recognised. Building on his prior research in mental health service-user movements, Dr Noorani proposes to conduct an ethnographic investigation of psychedelic communities in the UK and US. This will involve fieldwork and interviews with a range of user groups, and collaboration with the Hearing Voices Network in the UK and the Society for Community Research and Action (for whom Dr Noorani chairs a special interest group for Self-Help and Mutual Support). A Junior Research Fellowship would allow the applicant to fully explore the return of the “model psychosis” concept and conduct a comprehensive investigation of its socio-cultural, historical and scientific implications via a monograph on the topic. Dr Noorani’s career progression has not been checked since the end date for both the Fellow and the Programme coincide.

Dr Katarzyna Nowak

Risk, fear and cognition in a multi-predator environment. Dr Novak examined monkeys’ foraging decisions and cognition using innovative, non-invasive field experiments conducted in “risky” and “safe” parts of the monkeys’ home ranges determined through Dr. Hill’s novel “Landscape of Fear” approach. The project aimed to enhance our understanding of how predators and risk may have affected human cognitive evolution, and inform the conservation management of cognitively-complex species. Post fellowship Dr Novak took posts as Consultant, WildAid (USA) and Research Associate, University of the Free State, Qwaqwa, Zoology & Entomology.

Dr Caitlin Nunn

Dispersed Belongings: The experiences of young forced migrants in regional cities in the United Kingdom and Australia: The project examined experiences of belonging among young forced migrants in regional cities in the United Kingdom and Australia using an innovative arts based/action research approach. Under differing policies of dispersal aimed at burden-sharing and regional development, both nations settle forced migrants outside of metropolitan centres, with significant ramifications for participation and inclusion. Yet little was known about the effects of dispersal on young people. What did these policies mean for those transitioning into adulthood outside of established settlement locations? What were the practical and psychosocial effects of local non/belonging? And how did local, national and global socio-political contexts intersect to foster or impede belonging in regional settings? An arts-based, action research approach to address these questions was taken in two sites: Newcastle-Upon-Tyne (UK) and Bendigo (Aus). Culminating in a report, publications and a multi-arts event featuring young peoples’ artistic representations of belonging in both locations, this project provided an opportunity to share the experiences of young forced migrants with a broad audience, and evaluated the effectiveness of participatory and arts-based interventions for fostering belonging. This project made an important contribution to understanding how dispersal impacts young people, and the role of local belonging in broader processes of multi-scalar and intersectional belonging. Post Fellowship Dr Nunn became a Research Fellow at MCYS Manchester Metropolitan University.

Dr Leonidas Oikonomakis

On the borderlines of accumulation by dispossession and social change: A transatlantic comparison on the cases of Yasuní (Ecuador) and Halkidiki (Greece): This project is a comparative study of local, grassroots resistance to primary material extraction activities in Ecuador (Yasuní) and Greece (Halkidiki). Both Halkidiki and Yasuní find themselves on the borderlines of neoliberal “accumulation by dispossession”, neoextractivism and the struggles of grassroots movements against the neoliberal transformation of state economies. Both Greece and Ecuador have elected left-wing governments that promised to fight such neoliberal expansion and to protect local communities and environments. Nonetheless, the communities in both cases now witness the U-turn of their respective governments and the break of those original promises. The development models in both Greece and Ecuador continued to follow neoliberal and asymmetrical models of development. Building on the literature of social movements and comparative politics, this project is an anthropological research of the following questions: a) How do local populations perceive the invasion of global capital in their local communities and environments? b) How does the relationship between these communities and left-wing power-contenders develops in time (before and after they enter office)? c) What is the effect that elections have internally on grassroots movements especially when a left wing party becomes an oppositional contender? d) Is there any diffusion, brokerage, or any other way of transfer of know-how, between the two continents and movements? Dr Oikonomakis’s career progression has not been checked since the end date for both the Fellow and the Programme coincide.

Dr Angela Perri

Parasites as proxies for ancient lives in early Europe: Recent research has shown pathogens to be a key selective pressure through human evolutionary history, leading to rapid reciprocal adaptation. Parasites can be used as proxies to better understand human-animal relationships, migration and regional variation, seasonality, climatic and environmental changes, and ancient health. Parasitic infection represents the most significant global disease burden, yet very little is known about the origins or spread of parasitic disease in the past. Understanding the conditions that led to the rise and transmission of parasites through history can contribute to modern research on these diseases within human populations. My research focuses on the development of advanced techniques to recover intestinal parasites from archaeological sites and the analysis of those parasites to better understand the everyday lives and health of ancient peoples. My Fellowship work will concentrate on tracking parasitic infection in early Europe, from the 3rd century A.D. back to its earliest occurrences. To do this my proposed research program will include (a) developing advanced methods for better recovery and identification of early parasitic remains, (b) combining paleoparasitological findings with human paleopathology to develop research questions related to past parasitic disease and health implications, and (c) using identified paleoparasites as proxies to understand human interactions with animals and their environments across early Europe. Dr Perri’s career progression has not been checked since the end date for both the Fellow and the Programme coincide.

Dr Federico Petrucci

Transfiguring Exegesis: Middle Platonist Commentary, Philology and Ideology in Context. Commentary on Plato lies at the heart of the philosophical activity of ‘Middle Platonism’ (the seminal and dominant philosophical movement of the period from the first century BC to the third AD). Indeed, earlier scholarship has viewed it as distinctive of and essential to the character of the movement. But this is to ignore the deep roots of the commentary tradition, across the whole field of intellectual activity, in the preceding centuries. This project proposes a fresh approach to Middle Platonist commentary in the light of this prior tradition based on the genre-expectations of its readership: only in this way can we appreciate the techniques and subtleties of its approach, and ultimately see philosophical purpose where existing scholarship has found mere ‘scholasticism’. Post Fellowship Dr Petrucci became an Associate Professor at the University of Turin.

Dr Nicola Polloni

‘The Metaphysics of Grosseteste and Bacon: Between Philosophy and Science’: The research project will focus on the metaphysics of two of the most important figures in western medieval thought, Robert Grosseteste (c.1170-1253) and Roger Bacon (c.1214-c.1292). Fresh light will be shone on the extent to which both were indebted to two Arabic thinkers, Avicenna (Muslim) and Ibn Gabirol (Jewish). These philosophers were, it will be argued, crucial to how Grosseteste and Bacon problematized the question of being. This question is, for both, an essential element of their scientific thought. How and why their conclusions differed is another important avenue to be explored, especially regarding the question about hylomorphic composition, its extension and cosmological causation, that is to say the conjoining of matter and form to make being, and through extension, body, including the largest body of them all, the universe. The project investigates the complex intellectual transmission from the world of medieval Iberia to the scholars of northern Europe, from Toledo to Paris and Oxford. The modalities through which the Arabic sources enabled Grosseteste and then Bacon to challenge Aristotle more effectively, and more boldly than hitherto possible. Post Fellowship Dr Polloni took a postdoc position at the Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin

Dr Exequiel Porta

Activity-based protein profiling for target discovery in Neglected Tropical Diseases: With >350 M people at risk and >1M new cases annually, Leishmania is one of the most prevalent of the ‘Neglected Tropical Diseases’. There is no vaccine available and current treatments are challenged by toxicity, delivery and resistance. Consequently, there is a major need for new drugs. To support a drug discovery programme to meet this there is a need to identify new drug targets. This project proposes to address this using chemical proteomics. In brief, a series of compounds that label proteins with specific activities within the parasite will be prepared. These are then combined with parasites and the labelled proteins are isolated by SDS–PAGE and characterised. Subsequently the roles of the enzyme in the parasite are identified and validated as essential (a drug target). The probe then acts as an initial lead for a future drug discovery programme. In this project the enzymes to be targeted are the serine proteases. This is a significant choice of target as, in contrast to many other organisms, this is a surprisingly understudied class of enzyme in Leishmania, and one that has reported roles in modulating the host parasite interaction and thus the virulence of the parasite. Dr Porta’s career progression has not been checked since the end date for both the Fellow and the Programme coincide.

Dr Adam Powell

Hearing Sacred Voices: Early Mormon ‘Revelation’ and the Limits of Expectation: Dr Powell proposes to investigate the experience of spiritual voices within the Mormon church, focusing on two key questions; 1) the relationship between expectation, frequency and nature of voice-hearing experiences in early Mormonism, and 2) how these relationships bear on the distinction between spiritual and non-spiritual voices in the present day. He plans to conduct this work primarily via a historical analysis of key Mormon scripture, but also with reference to contemporary neuroscientific investigation of religious experiences. The work fits well within the ‘Study of Religion’ domain as specified in the department research strategy and is closely allied to the interests of Professor Cook (who is a Co-Investigator on the Hearing the Voice Project) and Professor Davies (who has published extensively on Mormonism). Dr Powell’s career progression has not been checked since the end date for both the Fellow and the Programme coincide.

Dr Luke Powell

The birds, the bees and the chocolate trees: Achieving sustainable agriculture through DNA metabarcoding and food web models: Widespread human destruction of natural ecosystems for agricultural purposes has created an urgent need to balance agriculture and biodiversity. To achieve this balance, we must manage ecosystems to prioritise both “ecosystem service species”, those that benefit agriculture (e.g., by eating crop pests), and “keystone species”, those that maximise biodiversity. However, two principle components are missing: 1) a method to rapidly map connections in the food web, and 2) ecological models that can accommodate realistic scenarios of complex interactions among species. To overcome these issues, I will first characterize species interactions using state-of-the-art diet metabarcoding. Metabarcoding can simultaneously identify the diets of hundreds of animals through DNA contained in predator faeces. With these identifications, I will build a novel food web model of African cacao plantations to address three objectives: 1) Identify the species that consistently increase biodiversity and productivity, 2) Determine how spatial isolation from biodiverse primary forest (i.e., landscape context) affects the agricultural ecosystem and, 3) Identify optimal management strategies of this multi-billion dollar agricultural ecosystem. This cutting edge approach will provide an ecosystem-level understanding of factors affecting the relationship between biodiversity and agricultural production, allowing sustainable management and many further applications in agriculture, ecology, disease control and beyond. Dr Powell’s career progression has not been checked since the end date for both the Fellow and the Programme coincide.

Dr Jesse Proudfoot

The pleasure of addiction: This project will theorise the fundamental character of drug addiction through the psychoanalytic theory of the pleasure principle. Drug addiction is connected to pleasure in multiple and seemingly contradictory ways. On the one hand, drug addicts appear to seek excessive pleasures that end up causing them to suffer. At the same time, however, addicts often speak of using drugs to “self-medicate” that is to manage unpleasant feelings. These two modes correspond to Freud’s theory of the pleasure principle – where by subjects seek pleasure by reducing mental excitations to a minimum – and Lacan’s proposal that subjects also seek to transgress the limits of the pleasure principle in search of an excessive, traumatic enjoyment. Despite the potent connections between drug addiction and the pleasure principle, few studies have considered them. This project will be an empirical and cultural-theoretical exploration of drug addiction and the place of pleasure within it. Drawing on ethnographic interviews with former drug users and reading these against the psychoanalytical literature on the pleasure principle, this project asks: to what extent should addiction be understood as the pursuit of rest and stasis, or the pursuit of highs and hedonism? Dr Proudfoot’s career progression has not been checked since the end date for both the Fellow and the Programme coincide.

Dr Azadeh Rahmati Fattahi-Savadjani

The coevolution of galaxies and the intergalactic medium: Studying galaxies is a fundamental part of modern astrophysical research. Galaxies are not isolated and actively interact with their environments, the so-called intergalactic medium (IGM) and circumgalactic medium (CGM). While the IGM feeds galaxies with large quantities of fresh gas required to sustain their star formation, galaxies change the evolution of cosmic gas drastically, both around them and out to large distances. Despite the very strong interconnection between the evolution of galaxies and the IGM, studying them separately has been a common practice both in theoretical and observational work. I will use cosmological radiation hydrodynamical simulations to investigate the coevolution of the IGM and galaxies in a coherent and holistic framework by focusing on: -1 how ionizing radiation from galaxies changes the IGM evolution by ionizing it and by raising its temperature, and how galaxies themselves respond to this IGM phase transition, and 2- how studying the interface between galaxies, the CGM and the IGM can help us to constrain complex but poorly understood feedback processes that regulate galaxies. I will confront model predictions with observations to improve our understanding of galaxy-IGM coevolution, and to identify main limitations of our current models in order to improve them. Dr Rahmati Fattahi-Savadjani career progression has not been checked since the end date for both the Fellow and the Programme coincide.

Dr Natalya Reznichenko

Glacier-Rock Avalanche Interactions – Reinterpreting the Palaeoclimatic Record. Glacier. This project re-examined the palaeoclimate reference datum produced as a result of glacial landform interpretation in Central Asia (etc., Alai valleys of the Northern Pamir) and Western European Alps (France, Italy, Switzerland). This included the validation of the origin of moraines (climatic or rock-avalanche induced) and of the role of rock avalanches.

Dr Jeremy Richardson

Including quantum nonadiabatic effects into molecular dynamics simulations. Richardson has recently developed a method for efficiently simulating quantum nuclear effects in complex molecular systems, in particular going beyond the Born-Oppenheimer approximation to include interactions with excited electronic states. Unlike many quantum dynamical approaches, the methods are based on classical trajectories and can thus be applied to large systems with many atoms. It shows promise in describing a range of interesting chemical processes inaccessible to standard theoretical techniques.

The project proposes to apply the new method to experimentally relevant problems, including computing the rate of electron transfer in chemical and biological systems as well as proton-coupled electron-transfer reactions in organic chemistry. The method will also be further developed to simulate electronic spectra in a novel way. Suggested applications include the absorption of UV radiation of DNA bases and the important question of the mechanism of energy dissipation.

This is an ambitious and original project suggesting a radically new way to simulate nonadiabatic processes, increasing the accuracy that theoretical calculations can achieve, and giving a better comparison with experimental results. The proposed applications of the method will advertise its potential to the wider community and should lead to interesting discoveries both during the fellowship period and in future studies.

Dr Alexander Richings

Simulating Interstellar Chemistry on Galactic Scales: The chemistry of galaxy formation (the synthesis of elements heavier than hydrogen and helium in stars) is as yet poorly understood. Although the first simple “closed box” models were produced in the early 80s, understanding realistic galaxies is complex because the heavy elements produces in one generation of stars may be lost from the galaxy by stellar winds. Durham’s EAGLE simulation project has made a major step forward in allowing us to understand how gas flows out of galaxies, and the timescales on which it returns. In this program we will combine this work with Alex’s world-leading models for chemical evolution. An important aspect of Alex’s work is that it takes full account of the formation of molecules making it possible to interpret measurements of lower temperature gas (whether CO emission is commonly observed) and thus to make a full census of cosmic metal production. Alex’s work provides a powerful building block that will allow us to build on the success of the EAGLE simulations and to make contact with a wider range of observational data. Dr Richings’ career progression has not been checked since the end date for both the Fellow and the Programme coincide.

Dr Felix Ringel

Ringel’s exceptionally timely project examines the sustainability of sustainable projects (in this case renewable energy as a socio-economic solution to a post-industrial German city) in the context of uncertain and mutable political commitment. Since the 1970s, Germany’s renewables landscape has been characterised by a readiness for upfront investment to be underwritten and/or subsidised by the state in one form or another. This certainty meant banks were ready to loan money. Germany appeared to be in the vanguard of shifting to an energy economy with reduced reliance on carbon – and simultaneously finding an answer to the depressed economies of post-industrial cities. Renewables were also to be the answer to nuclear power reduction after Fukushima. Shockingly, for many, in 2014 subsides for wind energy and other renewables (e.g. biogas) were cut, with a move to unprotected market competition for energy. On the basis of considerable fieldwork, Ringel aims to chart the effects of this volte face at a series of levels and with multiple communities in the city of Bremerhaven: the collision between the long-term futures and promises of urban infrastructural planning and abrupt shifts in the environment in which planning occurs; what happens to families and individuals who believed themselves secure; and the reappearance of precarious employment. Dr Ringel’s career progression has not been checked since the end date for both the Fellow and the Programme coincide.

Dr Joshua Robinson

Contesting widsom: Proclus and theology in middle Byzantium. This will engage the larger context in which the later Byzantium reception of the neo-platonic contribution of Proclus (d. 485) is to be situated. The project will focus on the 11th century work of Michael Psellos and culminate in an analysis of the refutation of Proclus by Nicholas of Methone in the 12th century. The goal the author is setting himself is twofold; first, a combined critical edition of Proclus' Elements and Nicholas' Refutation, and second, a monograph on Proclus in the Middle Byzantium period. The author is superbly qualified to undertake this highly specialised linguistic and philosophical work. His innovative study has the potential of advancing very significantly our understanding of middle Byzantine philosophy and the ways in which mature Greek Christianity was able to engage non-Christian wisdom traditions.

Dr Tom Robinson

Response and recovery planning for large earthquakes in Nepal: This research project aims to develop an innovative series of detailed and realistic earthquake scenarios for Nepal, to build a template for better informing planning emergency response and recovery. The research will use a combination of fieldwork in Nepal, GIS modeling, analysis of historic events, and expert elicitation to build detailed and realistic earthquake scenarios via the co-production of knowledge with a series of Nepalese stakeholders. Opposed to previous conventional scenario analyses for disasters, this study will include empirically informed estimates of the secondary hazards that result from the most recent models of the geomorphological impacts of earthquakes developed previously by the Fellow, as manifest via landsliding and sediment mobilization. Following uniquely the project will model the evolution of each scenario both temporally and spatially in an attempt to identify medium term risks that emerge in the aftermath of the event which are rarely considered. This information will be used to consider disaster recovery and planning protocols, the manner in which geoscience is utilised for risk management in the context of critical infrastructure that is vital to security and sustainability of Nepal. Post Fellowship Dr Robinson remained at Durham University as an Addison Wheeler Fellow.

Dr Oystein Rolandsen

During his fellowship Dr Rolandsen worked on analysing conflict and state failure in South Sudan since 1955. On 9th July 2011 following decades of war South Sudan became and independent country. The new state faces profound challenges of continuing violence, internally and along its border with the north. Dr Rolandsen’s research offers a new analysis of the history of this violence and improves our empirical knowledge and understanding of South Sudan’s history since 1955. Post fellowship Dr Rolandsen became a Senior Researcher at the Peace Research Institute Oslo (PRIO).

Dr Alanna Rudzik

Reconsidering Infant Sleep. This project examined how infant breastfeeding method and sleep location influence the development of sleep among infants during the first year of life, using well-established techniques of movement monitoring (actigraphy), video observation of sleep and parental sleep diaries. Post fellowship took a post of Assistant Professor in Biocultural Anthropology at State University of New York College (SUNY) at Oneonta.

Dr Helen Russell

Molecular gas, AGN variability and feedback in galaxy cluster cores Using a unique combination of sub-mm interferometry with ALMA, high resolution X-ray imaging with Chandra and multi-frequency radio observations it is possible to determine the energy generated by AGN in the cores of clusters of galaxies. The “feedback” produced by this activity works to stop gas cooling and the production of stars. This truncation of star formation is believed to be ubiquitous at high redshift but observationally very difficult to quantify. By studying this process in more local systems will give important clues to how the mechanism works at higher redshift. Helen Russell has the broad, multi-wavelength skills to tackle the combination of diverse observations and theoretical modelling required to lead this high impact research. Post Fellowship Dr Russell accepted positions, including the STFC Ernest Rutherford Fellow at the Institute of Astronomy, Cambridge.

Dr Morgan Salisbury

Plateau Building and Volcanism on the Andean Altiplano. This project collected geochemical data that will constrain the timing and composition of volcanic activity within the little-studied Intrasalar Volcanic Field, in the heart of the Altiplano-Puna Plateau, in order to understand the timing and mechanisms of plateau construction. Post fellowship Dr Salisbury took a post as the Rock Collection Archivist at Central Washington University.

Dr Sebastian Sapeta

Next-to-Next-to-leading order calculation. Many important observables from the LHC are only calculated to the first sub-leading order in the perturbative expansion in the strong coupling. This project looked to extend these calculations to higher orders for key processes. Post fellowship Dr Sapeta took a research fellowship at CERN.

Dr Ernesto Schwartz-Marin

Forensic science and nation building in Mexico and Colombia. Imaginaries of kinship, race and nation in forensic genetics and the search for truth. This project aims to explore how imaginaries of national and ethno-racial difference relate to the practice of forensic science in Latin America and how the growing role of genetics in forensic science (gradually taking over from methods based in physical anthropology) is changing this relationship. Forensic science is a particularly interesting location to examine relationships between nation, race and genetics i) because “race” has persisted as an explicit concept in some areas of this science (e.g., physical anthropological forensics); and ii) because forensics has come to the fore in some Latin American countries as a tool in processes of national reconciliation and truth-finding, making intimate connections between biologised notions of kinship (linking relatives via their DNA) and attempts to heal the nation by revealing the “truth” to which DNA appears to give access. Forensic science thus constitutes a fascinating domain to assess how new bio-technologies shape and are shaped by the social context - the “nation” - of which they are a part, participating (or not) in the reputed geneticisation of social life and the biologisation of citizenship. During his Fellowship Dr Schwartz-Marin secured Newton Fund-ESRC funding 2016-2019 for Mobile Solutions Against the Mexican Kidnapping Epidemic and an ESRC Transformative Grant 2018-2020 for Data Justice in Mexico's Multiveillant Society. Post Fellowship Dr Schwartz-Marin became a lecturer in Sociology at Exeter University.

Dr Jakub Scholtz

Dark Matter Phenomenology: The unknown nature of dark matter is one of the most intriguing physics problems of our lifetime. As a result, the candidate will spend a significant portion of his time on dark matter phenomenology. In particular, the candidate is interested in what the small-scale structure of dark matter –dwarf galaxies and smaller – can reveal about the properties of dark matter itself:

• To what degree is dark matter self-interacting?

• Is there more than one type of dark matter?

• Was dark matter coupled to the Standard Model?

• If so, when did dark matter decouple from the Standard Model?

Some of the answers to these questions can be found in astrophysical data – and this data potentially holds complementary information to colliders and direct detection experiments. Not only do we see the influence of dark matter on dwarf galaxy scales, but we also see hints of departure from the standard cold dark matter predictions. As a result, we are likely to learn something from their observations. However, there are also independent areas in collider physics and cosmology that I find fascinating, and plan to devote my research time to as well. These fields present great puzzles worth working on.

Project deliverables:

1) Constraints on self-interactions of dark matter from current astronomical data.

2) Develop and test a high-level trigger designed to capture collinear photon final states inside the ATLAS detector.

Dr Scholtz’ career progression has not been checked since the end date for both the Fellow and the Programme coincide.

Dr Yasmine Shamma

Voices from the Camps: Voices from the Camps will chronicle the stories of Syrian refugees living in exile throughout the camps of Jordan. It is based on interviews already begun at Zaatari and Azraq camps, and will be complemented by further interviews and research carried out during the period of the Fellowship. It will consider the refugee experience of settling into camps as a part of a wider shared experience of home-making, and it will look at stories of exile in relation to broader narratives about home and homelessness. It asks how we might better understand ‘home’ through the voices of the indefinitely homeless. The proposed book-length study will be strongly interdisciplinary, drawing on narrative theory, anthropology (especially kinship and ethics), politics, and gender studies. It aims not only to communicate the stories of refugees, but to provide a sustained study of ‘the lost home and the new home’ with far-reaching international significance. Post Fellowship Dr Shamma became a Literature in English at the University of Reading.

Dr Kimberley Skelton

Sensory Architecture: Empiricism, Mechanism,and the Early Modern Viewer. This examines an historical conundrum underlying a familiar argument reiterated by sociologists, philosophers, and architects across debates about remedying the growing anonymity of our globalised world; that sensory stimulation can mold our psychological and social reactions - for instance pedestrian-scale towns reigniting community identity. This argument emerges as seventeenth-century empirical scientists and mechanistic philosophers challenged the Aristotelian emphasis on the intangible essences, or natures, of objects; they asserted that humans were enmeshed in sensory stimuli, learning by alternately observing and reflecting and perceiving by reacting to bodily vibrations received from nearby objects. Yet, scientists and philosophers also averred, sensory observations might inevitabily doom human comprehension since the senses had limited powers and produced erroneous information. I probe how contempraneous architectural theorists and designers regrounded the relationship between viewer and building on this contradictory trust and distrust of the senses through bulding, book, and drawing. With case studies encompassing Italy, England, Austria and France, I combine recent cultural historical inquiry into early modern notions of the senses with art and architectural analysis of the social and psychological effects of sensory experience to suggest how the vulnerable, fallible viewer could become an ideal beholder. Post Fellowship Dr Skelton became an independent scholar.

Dr Anders Dahl Sorensen

Virtue, Trust, and Democracy: A Commentary on the Anonymus Iamblichi, Including a Translation and Interpretative Essays: The aim of the project is to compose the first book-length philosophical and historical commentary in English on the text of the so-called ‘Anonymus Iamblichi’, an anonymous Greek author from the 5th century BCE whose work survives only in the form of extensive citations by the 3rd century CE Neopythagorean philosopher Iamblichus in his book Exhortation to Philosophy. Approximately ten pages of Attic Greek contain a series of fascinating reflections on ethical and political themes that are likely to strike 21st century readers as remarkably ‘modern’ – and as all too pertinent: the corrosive social effects of envy and mistrust between citizens, the emergence of tyranny from democratic lawlessness, and the central role of economic analysis for thinking about society. The proposed project will explore and explain the intellectual and historical background for this important but little discussed text, identifying three areas where the new commentary is expected to make valuable contributions to the field of ancient philosophy: (1) the author’s analysis of the social conditions for individual virtue/excellence; (2) the author as a social critic of Athenian democracy; and (3) the background for the author’s discussion of trust and the primacy of ‘private activities’ as essential to a well-functioning society. Dr Sorensen’s career progression has not been checked since the end date for both the Fellow and the Programme coincide.

Dr Vitale Sparacello

The contribution of skeletal biology to an assessment of Italian Late Paleolithic lifestyle and funerary behavior. Under the JRF scheme, I will study the biological evidence for pathologies and trauma, skeletal functional adaptations, and funerary treatment in Late Paleolithic “Epigravettian” burials (20-11,000 years ago). Those people were the descendants of the “Gravettian” mammoth hunters of the last Ice Age (30-20,000 years ago), for which selective burial practices had been evidenced. Gravettian burials show a prevalence of tall and robust males, suggesting that the formal burial was accorded only to specific individuals, possibly successful hunters. Multiple inhumations show a different pattern: different sexes are buried, and often one individual shows skeletal evidence of pathologies. The occurrence of simultaneous deaths led researchers to hypothesize that one of the buried may have been sacrificed. Some evidence of this pattern has been noted among Epigravettian groups. To untangle this issue, I will undertake a comprehensive analysis of all available Italian burials. I will use biomechanical analysis to assess hunting –related skeletal functional adaptations, trauma and pathological analysis to infer causes of death, and I will reconstruct in detail the funerary treatment. Results will provide insights on the culture and biology of Paleolithic people, which are often taken – probably erroneously – as examples of healthy lifestyle (e.g. the “Paleolithic diet” fad). Post Fellowship Dr Sparacello joined the University of Bordeaux as a IdEx Junior Chair (Senior Researcher).

Dr Deodato Tapete

Processing and assimilation of satellite radar imagery for archaeological remote sensing and risk assessment in cultural sites and landscapes facing climatic, natural and human-induced hazards. This project focused on the development of a novel methodology to process satellite radar imagery systematically and assimilate them with optical, aerial and survey data, Post fellowship Dr Tapate joined the British Geological Survey.

Dr Paul Thornton

During his Fellowship in Chemistry / BSI Dr Thornton looked at the highly controlled generation of polypeptide-dendrimer conjugates responsive to the protease neutrophil elastase (NE), an enzyme associated with the non-repair of chronic wounds. Post fellowship Dr Thornton joined Leeds University as a lecturer.

Dr Timothy Topper

The Sirius Passet Biota and Ecological Interactions at the onset of the Cambrian Explosion: The Cambrian Period (542 – 488 million years ago) witnessed one of the most defining periods of evolutionary change in the history of life. Most of the animal phyla that we see today rapidly arose in a short geological period of time, forming marine ecosystems comparable to that of modern seas. One of the best sources of information regarding this animal ‘explosion’ is obtained from what are known as Lagerstätte deposits, which exquisitely preserve the soft-bodied anatomy of animals normally hidden by the fossilization process. One of the oldest, yet most poorly known of these deposits is the Sirius Passet in Greenland. These deposits have given us a range of bizarre organisms, showing peculiar features (e.g. animals with 5 eyes) but what is frequently overlooked is the interaction between these animals. The arrival of X-ray microscopes together with traditional microscopes, have the ability to unlock the finest details of these fossilized creatures providing evidence on the feeding strategies (like gut contents), life modes, mobility and sensory capabilities. Using this information the project provided a rare opportunity to investigate the oldest preserved soft-bodied assemblage in the Cambrian in order to elucidate just how marine communities functioned at the dawn of animal life. Post Fellowship Dr Topper became a Researcher at the Naturhistoriska riksmuseet.

Dr Laura Turnbull-Lloyd

Effects of climate change and human-induced disturbances on the resilience of drylands. The proposed research represents a novel exploration of the effects of short-term (decadal) climate change and anthropogenic disturbance on drylands. While it is clear that understanding dryland response to both natural and human-induced environmental change has critical and societal importance, that understanding has been hampered in the past by the complex web of relationships between geomorphology, ecology and hydrology that governs those environments. This proposal will address this by carrying out two distinct tasks: first, a comprehensive survey of existing data to determine the most important temporal and spatial scales of dryland response to past changes; and second, development of an innovative and world-leading coupled numerical model to forecast dryland response to future climate and anthropogenic change. This model will then allow resilience of dryland systems to be determined in the face of a number of possible disturbance scenarios. The proposed research fits squarely within two of the primary Programmes of Work in IHRR (ecological responses to climate change, and novel forms of resilience), and directly complements existing research expertise within both IHRR and the Department of Geography. Post Fellowship Dr Turnbull-Lloyd remained at Durham University as Assistant Professor in the Department of Geography.

Dr Luke Ulas

The global public and the methodology of international normativity. This project assess the critique six methodological approaches to the development of normative theories of international politics. It will do so via application of the various approaches to a number of important ‘case studies’ in international politics, such as the proposed Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership, aspects of the European Union, international financial regulation, and more abstract political ideas like ‘global distributive justice’. The purpose of this approach is, first, to test the underlying hypothesis that the complexity and diversity of issues faced in international politics recommend a contextual normative methodology, and second to provide a theoretical framework that can help provide an answer regarding which methodologies are the most appropriate when, thereby plotting a course through some persistent debates in international political theory.

Dr Noa Vaisman

The project was entitled ‘The reBorn Identity: human rights, scientific innovation and the restitution of identity’. The broad context examined the legal and moral implications of new technologies for human rights. The very specific issue giving rise to this was the predicament of the ‘living disappeared’ of Argentina, whose previously unknown identity can now be confirmed via DNA testing and can, as such be ‘restituted’. The science, ethics, and law of the restitution of identity raise profound questions for transitional justice and its relationship to human rights.

Dr Alessandra Varalli

Food and Society Reconstructing Lifestyle, Diet and Mobility during the Metal Ages in Italy: Previous biochemical analyses on Bronze Age Italy have highlighted dramatic changes in dietary habits over time and space. However, much work is still needed in order to explore the research questions aimed at defining subsistence strategies, socio-economic behaviour and mobility during the Metal Ages. This proposal is to explore these issues in Liguria (north-western coast of Italy), by performing analysis on strontium, carbon, nitrogen, and sulphur stable isotopes on botanical, animal and human remains from Copper, Bronze and Iron Age sites. Durham University represents thebest institution to conduct this research due to the outstanding combination of cutting-edge specialists in biochemistry (Dr. Gröcke, Dr. Millard), world-renowned experts in Mediterranean prehistory, including Liguria (Prof. Skeates, Prof. Rowley-Conwy), and excellent isotope facilities at Stable Isotope Biogeochemistry Laboratory. Dr Varalli’s career progression has not been checked since the end date for both the Fellow and the Programme coincide.coincided.

Dr Francesco Venturi

Self-exegesis in the Italian Literary Tradition, 1290-1625. Writers the world over have often accompanied their texts with a variety of commentaries, notes, glosses, rubrics, which represent as many meta-critical reflections in an effort to direct and control the reception of their own works. Late medieval and early modern Italian literature soon became an exceptionally fertile ground for self-exegesis. This project aims to produce the first systematic study of the tradition of self-commentary in Italy by exploring its development from the late thirteenth to the early seventeenth century. By viewing the author as the first reader and a potentially very influential interpreter of his or her own works, the research will address theoretical issues which involve notions of authorship and readership in relation to authorial self-interpretation in Italian as well as other literatures. The research will focus primarily on those features that are most significant for a cross-cultural dialogue. The three-year programme entails: completion of a monograph entitled ‘Self-exegesis in the Italian Literary Tradition, 1290-1625’; submission of two articles in peer-reviewed journals; collaboration with Professor Caruso’s Leverhulme Major Research programme; organisation of two colloquia at Durham (IMEMS) and Oxford, specifically aimed at widening the geographical and interdisciplinary remit of the research. Post Fellowship Dr Venturi remained affiliated to Durham University as an Honorary Fellow in the School of Modern Languages and Cultures and a Member in the Institute of Medieval and Early Modern Studies.

Dr Daniel Viete

Exploring the links between earthquakes, fluid flow and rapid metamorphism in subduction zones. The project will test a novel hypothesis, developed during Daniel Viete’s current postdoctoral work in California, that earthquakes and metamorphism in subduction zones are causally linked via a cycle of: dehydration–pore pressure development–earthquake–pore pressure relief, with high pressure mineral formation occurring during short-lived pressure pulses that follow the dehydration phase of the cycle. Work to test the hypothesis will involve: (1) fieldwork/sample collection; (2) microstructure and petrography; (3) thermobarometry, and (4) comparative geospeedometry. Durham University’s Earth Sciences Department is well placed to host this research, having world-class expertise in fields of tectonics, fault mechanics, geodynamic modelling and subduction zone processes, and the necessary facilities for geochemical analysis.

Results will have wide-ranging impact, from studies of metamorphic processes at the mineral scale, to research on overall subduction zone processes and properties. It will also be highly relevant to understanding how large and destructive earthquakes are generated in subduction zone settings. In addition to the research links already noted with Earth Sciences, the project therefore also sits within the remit of IHRR, and will feed into that institute’s work on earthquakes as natural hazards. Post Fellowship Dr Viete accepted a Assistant Professorship at Johns Hopkins University.

Dr Antonis Vradis

Gentrination. Gentrination addresses the role and consequences of disinvestment-through-austerity at the national level in countries lying at the semi-periphery of the global economy. The process is most apparent in the European periphery - including Greece, where the candidate has focused his research. Gentrination uses knowledge deriving from existing geographical literature on gentrification – this process of devaluation-through-disinvestment followed by an in-pour of capital that alters the urban segment (typically a neighbourhood) to better serve the urban whole (a city). Gentrination comprises a similar cycle at a greater geographical scale. Here, austerity is conceived as a type of disinvestment much akin to the first step in the gentrification process: the core functions of peripheral nations are refashioned to suit the needs of a regional or global economy’s core. Following his Fellowship Dr Vradis became a Vice Chancellor’s Fellow and Lecturer in the Department of Geography, Loughborough University.

Dr Jin Wang

Carbon transfers by large earthquakes in mountain belts: A biomarker perspective: The project will assess the impacts of multiple large earthquakes on carbon (C) export and sedimentary burial. Earthquakes in mountains can result in large transfers of C, by triggering tens of thousands of landslides which erode organic material from the biosphere. Despite this recognition, we do not know whether these events, which are infrequent on human timescales, act as a significant C transfer over hundreds to thousands of years. In addition, the fate of this C is poorly constrained. If landslide mobilised C is oxidised, it is a CO2 source, where as if it is eroded and exported by rivers it can drawdown CO2 from the atmosphere. To address these challenges, lake records which record sediment transfer and accumulation following four large earthquakes over 2000 years will be used. Adopting state-of-the-art geochemistry approaches (organic compound specific isotopes), the organic carbon flux, its provenance and fate, will be quantified for both ‘baseline’ conditions and following earthquakes. For the first time, this research will allow us to assess how large earthquakes impact regional and global carbon transfers to and from the atmosphere. Dr Wang’s career progression has not been checked since the end date for both the Fellow and the Programme coincide.

Dr Wenting Wang

Studies of galaxies evolution processes and the underlying cosmology using satellite galaxies. Satellite galaxies are a specific population of objects whose properties are sensitive to galaxy evolution processes and the underlying cosmology. Previous studies have primarily focused on the photometric colours of satellites by broadly dividing satellites into red and blue populations. In contrast, the JRF will investigate in detail how these satellites are distributed over several basic spectral types and how the luminosity, colour and spatial distribution of satellites depend on their spectral energy distribution, by using data from current spectroscopic and photometric galaxy surveys. Special interests will also be given to satellites around faint dwarfs field galaxies, which can be compared with dwarf galaxies and dwarf galaxy associations in nearby galaxies and our Milky Way, to gain insights into the cosmological debates over the number of satellites around the Milky Way (e.g. Boylan-Kolchin et al. 2011). All the analyses based on observations will be compared with galaxy evolution model predictions to directly confront theory with observations. Post Fellowship Dr Wang remained at Durham University as a Member of the Department of Physics.

Dr Julie Wardlow

Unveiling dust-obscured star-formation out to high redshifts. During this Fellowship Dr Wardlow studied distant galaxies that are rapidly forming new stars – about 1000 times quicker than our Milky Way. These galaxies are very rare locally, but there are many of them in the earlier Universe, so they are thought to be a key stage in the evolution of galaxies into those that we see nearby. Simulations of galaxy formation and evolution struggle to accurately reproduce observations these distant active galaxies, but so far detailed observations have only been made for a few of them, making meaningful comparisons challenging. In recent competitive proposal rounds, oversubscribed by factors of ~5, Dr Wardlow obtained high quality data from the Hubble and Herschel space telescopes of two newly discovered samples of these early active star-forming galaxies. These rare and unique data were used to measure physical properties – such as their shapes and sizes, how many stars they contain, the rate of star formation and black hole growth, and their gas composition. By directly comparing these new measurements with leading galaxy formation simulations produced in Durham Dr Wardlow sought to trace their evolutionary paths, revealing the factors that trigger and curtail the intense episodes of star-formation that shaped local galaxies. During the Fellowship Dr Wardlow secured a prestigious STFC Ernest Rutherford Fellowship, funding research as PI on Understanding obscured star formation through cosmic time and accepted a lectureship at Lancaster University.

Dr Martin Wiebusch

Beyond the Standard Model with Electroweak Precision and Flavour Physics at the LHC. During the fellowship Dr Wiebusch conduced research in phenomenology of models beyond the Standard Model (SM) and the interpretation of LHC, electroweak precision and flavour observables in the context of these Models. Post fellowship Dr Wiebusch moved to the private sector to join a data science team.

Dr Lucas Wood

The Site of Epic Irony, or The Secret Passages of the Chansons de Geste. During the fellowship Dr Wood worked on his book project, Allegory Effects: Romancing Redemption in the ‘Queste del Saint Graal’, on the literary and spiritual implications of open-ended allegorical interpretation in medieval French romance, and began a second project, The Site of Epic Irony, focussing on the way stock topoi in the Old French epic (Chanson de Geste) open up new avenues of narrative possibility by successively or simultaneously invoking distinct, competing models of personal and textual identity tied to gender and genre. Post Fellowship Dr Wood accepted the position of Visiting Assistant Professor of French at the Indiana University Bloomington.

Dr Tessa Young

CobW: A Cobalt Shuttle Service for Vitamin B12?:The project will discover the mechanism of the metal-handling biomolecule CobW in vitamin B12 biosynthesis, in so-doing advancing knowledge of how the correct metals partition to enzymes (nearly a half of the reactions of life are catalysed by metalloenzymes). B12 is unusual in being essential for humans yet only made by bacteria. B12 is obtained from dairy products (the ruminant microbiome is a source of B12 unlike the human microbiome), meat or from microbial contamination of the food chain. The Vegan Society encourages the supplementation of vegan food with B12: A supplement produced by industrial fermentation. B12 is currently the most expensive vitamin on the market partly because it can’t be manufactured none-biologically, and this prohibits supplementation in the poorest and most needy communities. B12 contains cobalt and metal-insertion currently limits B12 production. CobW is thought to deliver cobalt to B12 during biosynthesis, and hence CobW is likely to become crucial to attempts to engineer strains for high yielding fermentations. In addition to supporting efforts to produce B12 for sustainable global nutrition, this project will also advance fundamental understanding of how cells allocate metals to their bona-fide destinations and specifically how the correct metals are acquired by metal delivery pathways. Post Fellowship Dr Young received a fellowship from the Royal Commission for the Exhibition of 1851 offering a 3-year tenure at Durham University.

Dr Guzel Yusupova

The Revitalization of Minority Languages in the Russian Federation: Authoritarian Statehood, Inter-Ethnic Solidarity, and the Digital Media: The project contributes to the study of contemporary ethnic-minority nationalist movements, specifically in the Russian Federation. It examines the recent rise in ethnic-minority activism focused on the revitalization of native languages, which is taking place in the wider context of Vladimir Putin’s drive towards cultural homogenization as a key means of strengthening the Russian state, as well as his regime’s reassertion of political control across the Federation’s multi-ethnic regions. The project looks, in particular, at the deployment of digital media as a key new means of ethno-cultural mobilization. The project’s case-studies are the Tatar and Mari groups, which offer contrasting examples in terms of their economic and political resources. The project also looks at the creation of cross-ethnic activist networks and the generation of inter-ethnic solidarity around the revitalization of minority languages. Analysed are both the production and the consumption of minority-languages digital media, as well as this media’s distinctive means of ethnic mobilization. The project aims to: identify new developments in ethnic-minority cultural nationalisms in the Russian Federation in the context of growing authoritarianism; to explore the nature of multiculturalism in present-day Russia; and to grasp the role played in this by new technologies and modes of connectivity. Dr Yusupova’s career progression has not been checked since the end date for both the Fellow and the Programme coincide.

Dr Brig (Ret.) Iftikhar Zaidi

Deterrence, dialogue and development in the backdrop of military occupation in tribal cultures: a study of the impact of prolonged military presence in Pakistan’s Federally Administered Tribal Areas. This research aimed to bring studies on military occupation together with research on tribal politics and culture. Post Fellowship Dr Zaidi took up a post as a Lecturer at the Centre for Defence Management & Leadership at Cranfield University.

Dr Konstantin Zamyatin

The Meeting of the ‘Finno-Ugric’ and ‘Russian Worlds’? National Minorities in Bilateral Relations on the EU-Russia Border: The project analyses the complexities of transnational ethnopolitics along EU’s eastern border. It explores the similarities and differences, interactions and interdependencies between, on the one hand, the policies of Estonia, Finland and Hungary directed at promoting Finno-Ugric minority languages and cultures in Russia, and on the other, the policy of the Russian Federation in supporting Russian language and culture among ‘Russian-speakers’ in these countries. The project explores how and why ‘ethnic kin’ abroad is being integrated by states on the EU-Russia border into their respective nation-building projects, to what extent these transnational projects are interconnected, whether they foster transnational minority cooperation or interstate tension, and how these transnational projects influence neighbouring countries’ domestic politics around minorities. The aim is to enhance our understanding of the politics of statehood, nationality and ethnicity across the EU-Russia border (and more generally) in the context of 21st-century nation-building and interstate relations, with a view to exploring the possibilities of non-conflictual solutions to transnational minority issues and to identifying tools that international society has to promote minority rights, while containing aggressive nation-building. Dr Zamyatin’s career progression has not been checked since the end date for both the Fellow and the Programme coincide.

Dr Hui Zhao

In Search of Wealth and Strength: Comparative Constitutional Design of Early Meiji Japan and Late Qing China. My research focuses on the functionality (function) and efficacy (effectiveness) of a constitution in the process of modern state building. By contextualising the rise of constitutionalism in early Meiji Japan (1860s to 1890s) and Late Qing China (1890s to 1910s), it asks why authoritarian rulers in both countries found the concept desirable; how they incorporated it into their state-building projects; and why Meiji Japan's constitutional development was more enduring and successul than Late Qing China's. The last question is more puzzling when we consider the fact that China modelled its efforts on Meiji Japan's experience. Why did Meiji Japan and Late Qing China, in pursuing similar goals, experiment with the double-edged sword of constitutions, yet saw their attempts lead to different outcomes? Besides leadership, what were the other factors that account for the divergence? What does the interplay of those factors tell us about the dynamics between constitutions and authoritarian regimes? For instance, how did the constitution affect the durabaility of the authoritarian regime?

The following links provide more information about the COFUND Durham International Fellowships for Research and Enterprise and the Junior Research Fellowship. Visitors interested in early career fellowships should visit the Durham University Vacancies Site or the Addison Wheeler Fellowship page.

DIFeREns (2010 - 2014) and DIFeREns2 (2014 - 2019) received funding from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme for research, technological development and demonstration under grant agreement numbers 267209 and 609412.