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Durham University

Institute of Advanced Study

Professor Robert Levine

“It was an unforgettable experience.”

Professor Bob Levine, California State University, Fresno

IAS Fellow at Collingwood College, Durham University (October - December 2012)

Robert Levine has been studying "time" as a social psychologist for close to thirty years. His research has combined empirical studies, theoretical writings, books and articles for both academic and popular readers.

In one program of research, Levine and his students compared the pace of everyday life in 31 countries around the world. In one experiment, for example, they timed the average walking speed of randomly selected pedestrians over a distance of 60 feet. Another experiment sampled speed in the workplace; specifically, how long it took postal clerks to fulfill a standard request for stamps. They found large cross-national differences on these and other measures. The fastest big cities, for example, tended to come from Western Europe and industrialized Asia while those in economically struggling nations (such as Mexico, Brazil, and Indonesia) tend to be slowest. The differences were often substantial. For example, they found that pedestrians in Rio de Janeiro walk only two-thirds as fast as do pedestrians in Zurich, Switzerland.

Next they asked whether there are characteristics of places and cultures that might be related to their tempo. They identified five principal factors: People are prone to move faster in places with vital economies, a high degree of industrialization, larger populations, cooler climates and a cultural orientation toward individualism. Finally, Levine and his students looked at the consequences of a culture's pace of life for the psychological, social, physical and economic well-being of its people. Here, too, they found strong differences between fast and slow cultures. People in faster places tend, for example, to say they are happier with their lives. On the other hand, people in faster cultures suffer greater stress, as exemplified by greater incidence of coronary artery disease (i.e. there are Type A cities). In subsequent studies, Levine found that people are less willing to help strangers in need in faster places.

His studies lead to three general conclusions: Places differ markedly in their overall speed of life. These differences are to at least some degree predictable by demographic, economic and environmental characteristics. And, these differences have consequences for the well-being of individuals. He will be expanding upon this work during his residence at the IAS.

Robert Levine grew up in Brooklyn New York. After graduating high school in 1963, he enrolled at the University of California, Berkeley where he says he had the blind good luck to experience the sixties from hippy central. He received a master's degree in clinical psychology from Florida State University in 1969 and a Ph.D. in personality/social psychology from New York University in 1974. He is a Professor of Psychology and former Associate Dean of the College of Science and Mathematics at California State University, Fresno where he has won awards for both his teaching and research. He has also served Visiting Professorships at Universidade Federal Fluminense in Niteroi, Brazil, at Sapporo Medical University in Japan, and at Stockholm University in Sweden.

He has written four books including A Geography of Time (Basic Books/Perseus) which received the Otto Klineberg Intercultural and International Relations Award. It has been translated into six languages and has been the subject of numerous feature stories, including Newsweek, The New York Times Magazine, CNN, the BBC and ABC's Primetime. A subsequent book, The Power of Persuasion: How We're Bought and Sold (John Wiley & Sons), has been translated into seven languages. Dr. Levine has also published more than 60 articles in professional journals as well as articles in trade periodicals such as Discover, American Demographics, The New York Times, Utne Reader, and American Scientist. Levine is a Fellow in the American Psychological Association and is currently President of the Western Psychological Association. (author website:

IAS Fellow's Public Lecture - A Geography of Time

26th November 2012, 20:00, Penthouse Suite, Collingwood College, Professor Robert Levine

Social psychologist Robert Levine asks us to explore a dimension of our experience that we take for granted--our perception of time.

When we travel to a different country, or even a different city in our own country, we assume that a certain amount of cultural adjustment will be required, whether it's getting used to new food or negotiating a foreign language, adapting to a different standard of living or another currency. But it is often the alien pace of life that shocks us most. Levine takes us on a tour of time-keeping around the world, raising some questions along the way: How do we use our time? Are we being ruled by the clock? What is this doing to our cities? To our relationships? To our own bodies and psyches? Perhaps, Levine argues, our goal should be to try to live in a "multitemporal" society, one in which we learn to move back and forth among nature time, event time, and clock time.

Listen to the lecture in full.

Professor Robert Levine Publications

Levine, R. (2016) Stranger in the Mirror: The Scientific Search for the Self. Princeton: Princeton University Press


Time a conversation with Prof Robert Levine

Time a conversation with Prof Robert Levine

Views: 1254

IAS Insights Paper


This paper examines the importance of time use and temporal values for the achievement of happiness and draws implications for public policy. First, it reviews literature concerning the inter-relationships of time, money and happiness, with a focus on the relevance of time use to well-being and happiness. Second, it reviews data and issues concerning work and non-work hours around the world, with an emphasis on the quality of time use within these activities. Third, it describes a broader range of temporal issues to be considered in policymaking decisions, e.g. clock versus event time-keeping, monochronic versus polychronic approaches, the definition of wasted time, the pace of life and temporal orientation. Finally, based on this review, suggestions are offered for the formulation of time-use policies intended to increase individual and collective happiness.

Insights Paper