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Department of Geography

Staff Profile

Dr Richard J. Hardy

Telephone: +44 (0) 191 33 41973
Fax: +44 (0)191 33 41801
Room number: S111

Contact Dr Richard J. Hardy (email at r.j.hardy@durham.ac.uk)

Biography

My research focuses on open channel hydraulics and sediment transport. Methodologically, this work involves numerical modelling and laboratory experimentation, with a strong emphasis on high resolution process understanding. The numerical modelling work involves both the theoretical development and practical application of Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) codes. This has included both the development of an innovative technique to include complex topography within a numerical scheme and the application of time dependent turbulence schemes (Large Eddy Simulation) to open channel flows. Recently this approach has been further developed to include bio-mechanical models to predict the interaction between flow and vegetation in fluvial systems. Previous research has addressed; (i) flow in individual geomorphological units (e.g. confluences, meander bends) and; (ii) modelling hydraulic and sediment transport schemes for studying reach scale floodplain dynamics. The laboratory experimentation work is focused on furthering our understanding of the origin, propagation and growth of Coherent Flow Structures (CFS) in shallow flows that is thought ultimately to control the structure of turbulent flows. This involves the application of both Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) and Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF).

Examples of Current Projects

1. Monitoring and modelling bedforms in unsteady flow fields. All fluvial systems exhibit temporal variations in flow discharge, which creates unsteady changes in the flow field. The sediment-water interface responds and organises to these changes over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales, primarily through adjustment of a variety of bed roughness elements (i.e. ripples, dunes and larger bar forms). These roughness elements are the key component of overall flow resistance and the magnitude of their form drag significantly influences river stage levels for given discharges. The rationale behind this work is to generate a new quantitative process based understanding of bedform adjustment to unsteady flows through a combined methodology of laboratory investigation, fieldwork and, the development and application of a novel fully three dimensional numerical model which considers unsteady flow and morphological evolution. 2. Reducing uncertainty in flood prediction: the representation of vegetation in hydraulic models. The vast majority of uncertainty in flood model predictions stem from the influence of vegetation on conveyance. In order to move away from an empirical based approach to the parameterisation of vegetation resistance, a new understanding of the flow and turbulence production is necessary to be able to re-formulate a dynamic vegetation roughness treatment for flood models and thus reduce the uncertainty in flood predictions. The central aim of this proposal is enhance our flood modelling capability through the development of a quantitative numerical representation of dynamic vegetation response to river and floodplain flow. 3. The hydrodynamics of microbial landscapes. The aim of this work is to develop a quantitative numerical representation of micro-scale hydraulic response to biofilm forcing. This is being addressed by using pioneering experimental and numerical approaches to meet this challenge. The first task is to accurately measure flow both right at the bed and within the biofilms and pore spaces of the bed themselves. This significant problem will be overcome by using laboratory PIV (Particle Imaging Velocimetry) techniques in a range of small channels containing intact biofilm cultures. The second phase of the project is to develop and test a 3-D numerical model that can be used to further understand and explore the influence of biofilms on the flow processes at and within the bed.

Research Groups

Research Projects

Selected Publications

Journal Article

Chapter in book

  • Marjoribanks, T.I., Hardy, R.J., Lane, S.N. & Parsons, D.R. Dynamic drag modeling of submerged aquatic vegetation canopy flows. In: Schleiss, A.J., De Cesare, G., Franca, M.J. & Pfister, M. River Flow 2014. London: CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group; 2014:517-524.
  • Marjoribanks, T.I., Hardy, R.J., Lane, S.N. & Parsons, D.R. Extending the canopy flow model for natural, highly flexible macrophyte canopies. In: Schleiss, A.J., De Cesare, G., Franca, M.J. & Pfister, M. River Flow 2014. London: CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group; 2014:509-516.
  • Hardy, R.J., Marjoribanks, T.I., Parson, D.R., Reesink, A.J., Murphy, B., Ashworth, P.J. & Best, J.L. Modelling time dependent flow fields over three dimensional dunes. In: Schleiss, A.J., De Cesare, G., Franca, M.J. & Pfister, M. River Flow 2014. London: CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group; 2014:1045-1052.
  • Hardy, R.J. Modelling granular sediment transport over water worked gravels within a CFD framework. In: Ferreria, R. M. L., Alves, E. C. T. L., Leal, J. G. A. B. & Cardos, A. H. River Flow 2006. London: Taylor & Francis Group; 2006:913-918.
  • Parsons, D. Best, J.L., Lane, S.N., Hardy, R.J., Kostaschuck, D., Shugar, D. & Orfeo, O. Morhpology, flow and sediment transport over a natural 3D dune field: Rio Paraná, Argentina. In: Ferreria, R.M.L., Alves, E.C.T.L., Leal, J.G.A.B. & Cardos, A.H. River Flow 2006. London.: Taylor & Francis Group; 2006:977-1004.
  • Orfeo, O., Parsons, D.R., Best, J.L., Lane, S.N., Hardy, R.J., Kostaschuk, R.N., Szupiany, R.N. & Amsler, M.L. Morphology and flow structures in a large confluence-diffluence: Rio Paraná, Argentina. In: Ferreria, R.M.L., Alves, E.C.T.L., Leal, J.G.A.B. & Cardos, A.H. River Flow 2006. London.: Taylor & Francis Group; 2006:1277-1291.
  • Lane, S.N., Hardy, R.J., Ferguson, R.I. & Parsons, D.R. A framework for model verification and validation of CFD schemes in natural open channel flows. In: Bates, M. & Lane, S.N. Computational Fluid Dynamics Applications in Environmental Hydraulics. John Wiley & Sons; 2005:329-355.
  • Parsons, D.R., Ferguson, R.I., Lane, S.N. & Hardy, R.J. Flow structures in meander bends with recirculation zones: implications for bend movements. In: Greco, M., Carravetta, A. & Della Morte, R. River Flow 2004. 2004:49-59.
  • Best, J.L., Kostaschuk, R. & Hardy, R.J. The fluid dynamics of low-angle river dunes: results from integrated field monitoring, laboratory experimentation and numerical modelling. In: Hulscher, S., Garlan, T. & Idier, D. Proceedings Marine Sand-wave and River Dune Dynamics II. The Netherlands.: University of Twente; 2004:17-23.
  • Parsons, D.R., Best, J.L., Lane, S.N., Orfeo, O., Kostachuk, R., Hardy, R.J. & Franklin, M.C. The morphology and sediment dynamics of a large river confluence: the Rio Paraná and Rio Paraguay, NE Argentina. In: Greco, M., Carravetta, A. & Della Morte, R. River Flow 2004. Balkema; 2004:43-48.
  • Parsons, D.R., Best, J.L., Lane, S.N., Hardy, R.J., Orfeo, O. & Kostachuk, R. The morphology, 3D flow structure and sediment dynamics of a large river confluence. In: Greco, M., Carravetta, A. & Della Morte, R. River Flow 2004. 2004:43-48.
  • Hardy, R.J. & Lane, S.N. The numerical simulation of time dependent flow structures over water worked gravel. In: Greco, M., Carravetta, A. & Della Morte, R. River Flow 2004. 2004:235-244.
  • Lane, S.N., Hardy, R.J., Keylock, C.J., Ferguson, R.I. & Parsons, D.R. Coherent flow structures in shallow gravel-bed rivers: an experiemental and numerical study. In: Uijttewaal, W.S.L. Shallow flows. 2003:259-266.
  • Ferguson, R.I., Pardons, D.R., Lane, S.N. & Hardy, R.J. Flow structures in meander bends with recirculation. In: Jirka, G. H. & Uijttewaal, W. S. J. International Association for Hydraulic Engineering and Research. Balkema; 2003.
  • Lane, S.N. & Hardy, R.J. Porous rivers: a new way of conceptualising river a floodplain flows? In: Ingham, D.B. & Pop, I. Transport Phenomena in Porous Media (II). Pergamon; 2002:425-449.

Conference Paper

Show all publications

Selected Grants

  • 2014: How does the development of particle scale structure control river scale morphology? (£205286.84 from NERC - Natural Environment Research Council)
  • 2014: The hydrodynamics of microbial landscapes (£175658.00 from NERC - Natural Environment Research Council)
  • 2013: Reducing uncertainty in flood prediction: the representation of vegetation in hydraulic models (£259259.04 from NERC - Natural Environment Research Council)
  • 2011: Quantification and modelling of bedform dynamics in unsteady flows (£46806.00 from NERC - Natural Environment Research Council)
  • 2010: Bedform related macroturbulence: Topology and kinematics (£11337.67 from NERC - Natural Environment Research Council)
  • 2009: How does aquatic vegetation modify the kinematic & geometric characteristics (£20924.15 from NERC - Natural Environment Research Council)
  • 2008: DEVELOPMENT OF A COMBINED LAGRANGIAN (£17685.77 from NERC - Natural Environment Research Council)
  • 2008: DYNAMICS & DEPOSITS OF BRAID-BARS (£114776.80 from NERC - Natural Environment Research Council)
  • 2007: AMERICAN GEOPHYSICAL UNION FALL MEETING (£1170.00 from The Royal Society)
  • 2007: FLUID DYNAMICS ACROSS THE INTERFACE (£30160.75 from NERC - Natural Environment Research Council)
  • 2004: Development of a sediment transport model (£107268.43 from NERC - Natural Environment Research Council)

Supervises