Publication details for Dr Michael MackMack, Michael (2008). Toward a Redefinition of Europe's Political Identity: Spinoza's Non-hierarchical Vision. Telos 145 (Winter 2008): 67–86
- Publication type: Articles: magazine
- ISSN/ISBN: 0090-6514, 1940-459X
- Further publication details on publisher web site
Author(s) from Durham
Strangely enough, Kant still serves to represent not only “the good German” but also “the good European.” This state of affairs comes perhaps most clearly to the fore in Robert Kagan's Of Paradise and Power. Written in the wake of the Iraq War, this political essay aligns the U.S. administration's willingness to refer to military action with Hobbes, while contrasting it with a “postmodern” European policy, the alleged Kantianism of which is marked by a refusal to resort to force, preferring instead a formal proceduralism in international relations.