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Electron Microscopy

Solar Cells

Thin-film solar cells, such as CdTe, Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) and Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS), are viable alternatives to replace current Si-based solar cells, due to their strong light absorption and low material cost. Electron microscopy can provide a range of information on the material microstructure, including presence of grain boundaries and secondary phases. More advanced techniques such as electron beam induced current (EBIC) can image the p-n junction of the device, while cathodoluminescence is used to determine nano-scale electrical properties, such as the recombination velocity of individual grain boundaries and the minority carrier diffusion length.