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Durham University

School of Education

Research Projects

Dr Per Kind

Associate Professor in the School of Education
Telephone: +44 (0) 191 33 48432


Per Kind works in science education and educational assessment. In science education his main interests are scientific reasoning, scientific inquiry and scientific creativity, but also research into students’ attitudes towards science and the use of ICT in teaching. The research has included theoretical studies, in which the aim has been to conceptualise scientific reasoning, inquiry and creativity in ways that are functional to educational practice. Based on a socio-cultural view, ideals are put forward that school science should reflect and train students to apply the same norms and criteria that underpin the science community at large. This means teaching scientific reasoning in all parts of the school science curriculum, for example, by training critical thinking when students learn science conceptual knowledge. A most recent outcome has been a new theoretical framework defining scientific reasoning. In educational assessment the research focuses on development and validation of assessment scales in a construct-driven and evidence-based perspective. This links with the interest in science education, because construct-driven assessment depends on functional ways of conceptualising assessment constructs. Recent research has reviewed and evaluated existing assessment frameworks, for example, in international large-scale assessment projects and suggested ways in which these may be improved. The research has also looked towards cognitive demand and learning progression as key elements when defining and operationalising constructs in assessment.

Per Kind gained his PhD from the University of Oslo on performance assessment in large-scale assessment projects. He worked as a physics teacher and teacher trainer at Telemark University College for nearly ten years, before becoming Senior Lecturer at Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) in Trondheim, Norway, in 1997. From 2005 he has been in a Lecturer at Durham University.

Teaching experiences has been gained at all levels from secondary school to PhD level, as well as CPD of teachers and assessment staff. He has developed several new university courses, such as MA in Science Education and MSc in Educational assessment. He supervises PhD students in both science education and educational assessment.

Information for prospective doctoral research student supervisions

Dr. Kind welcomes applications from prospective doctoral students in both science education and educational assessment.

Completed Supervisions (since 2008)

Teaching Primary Science with Computer Simulation – an Intervention Study in State of Kuwait.

An Argument-Based Validation Study of
the Teacher Performance Assessment in Washington State.

Teacher Evaluation in Kuwait - Evaluation of the Current System and Consideration of Risk-Based Analysis as a Principle for Further Development

Research Projects

  • Training female STEM teachers in rural and deprived areas
  • Transforming the pedagogy in STEM subjects

Selected Publications

Authored book

  • Kind, V. & Kind, P. (2008). Teaching Secondary How Science Works. London: Hodder Murray for ASE.

Chapter in book

Conference Paper

  • Almutairi, Talal, Tymms, P. & Kind, P. (2015), The Tools of Teacher Evaluation: What Should Be Used in Teacher Evaluation from the Teachers’ Perspective, 2015 International Business & Education Conference. London, The Clute Institute, 326.
  • Kind, P.M., Wilson, J., Kind, V. & Hofstein, A. (2010), Peer argumentation in the school laboratory - exploring the effects of task features, National Association for Research in Science Teaching. Philadellphia, USA, Philadelphia PA.
  • Kind, V. & Kind, P.M. (2009), Qualified to teach? How personal and academic characteristics of pre-service science teachers compare with their understandings of basic chemical ideas, European Science Education Research Association. Istanbul, Istanbul.

Journal Article

Show all publications

Selected Grants