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Durham University

School of Education

Research Projects

Publication details

Wiles, Michael,A. & Kokotsaki, D. (2019). A phenomenographic approach to understanding some Taiwanese music teachers' experiences of creativity in the classroom. Musicae Scientiae

Author(s) from Durham


This study examines what creativity means to a group of Taiwanese music teachers and how it relates to their classroom experiences and teaching practices. The research followed a qualitative, interpretative approach. Interviews were used to gather data and were analysed according to phenomenographic principles. Analysis of the interviews indicated that two main approaches were taken by teachers regarding their experiences of creativity: a product-focused and a process-focused approach. In the product-focused approach, creativity was defined from the outside according to externally imposed factors, frames of reference and motivating forces. In the process-focused approach, creativity was defined from the inside, from the point of view of the individual involved, and in which personal agency, inclusion and collaboration were valued. The approach taken by teachers towards creativity also showed a relationship to how music education was perceived. Teachers who had a product-focused approach to creativity saw music education in terms of content, whereas those who were process focused had a meaning-oriented view of music education that valued the experience of students over the content that was taught. Similarly, a correspondence was found between how creativity was perceived and the nature of classroom interactions that varied between teacher centred and learner centred.

School of Education