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Margins of the East Fen: Historic Landscape Evolution

Section 2 - Investigations

The Saxon Shore, The Vikings and Domesday Book

2.1 The Saxon Shore, the Vikings and Domesday book
2.1.1 Physical Geography
2.1.1.1 Embayment Ecology
2.1.1.2 Weather and Climate
2.1.2 The Saxon Occupation of the Land: Material Evidence
2.1.2.1 Documentary Evidence
2.1.2.2 Domesday Book: General
2.1.2.3 The Local DB Entries and their Interpretation
2.1.3 Place-names
2.1.4 The Vikings: Documents and Archaeology
2.1.5 Village Morphology
2.1.6 Models of Landscape Development 500 - 1100


1100 - 1500 The Coast

2.2 From 1100 - 1500: The Coast
2.2.1 The Natural Environment: Ecosystems and Resources
2.2.1.1 The Conditions of the Sea
2.2.1.2 The Land - Sea Interface
2.2.1.3 Human Impact Upon the Tidal Marshes
2.2.1.4 Sand Dunes
2.2.1.5 Groundwater Quality
2.2.2 Havens: Size, Management and Relation to the East Fen
2.2.2.1 Wainfleet Haven
2.2.2.2 Wrangle Haven
2.2.2.3 Other Havens?
2.2.2.4 General Observations on Havens
2.2.3 Salt: Manufacture, Settlement and Economy, Landscape Effects
2.2.3.1 Methods of Salt - Making
2.2.3.2 The Wainfleet Coasts
2.2.3.3 Friskney
2.2.3.4 Wrangle
2.2.3.5 A Waynflete Usque ad Wrangle: The Tofts in Context
2.2.3.6 Other Locations
2.2.3.6.1 Leake
2.2.3.6.2 Croft
2.2.3.6.3 Thorpe St Peter
2.2.3.6.4 Little Steeping
2.2.3.6.5 Firsby
2.2.3.7 Salt Making Revisited
2.2.4 Per Impetus Maris: The Medieval Sea-Bank
2.2.4.1 Changes in Relative Sea-Level
2.2.4.2 The Making of the Banks
2.2.4.3 Local Evidence for Sea-Banks: Cartography and History
2.2.4.4 Local Evidence for Sea-Banks: Documents
2.2.4.5 Local Evidence for Sea-Banks: Field Indications
2.2.4.6 Sea-Banks: The Regional Picture
2.2.5 Sea Fisheries
2.2.6 The Involvement of Monasteries
2.2.7 Ports and Towns
2.2.8 Coastal Contexts: The Interaction of the Natural and the Cultural


The Medieval and Early Modern Fen

2.3 The Medieval and Early Modern Fen
2.3.1 Pre-Conquest Development
2.3.2 The Fen in ca1100
2.3.3 The Ecology of the Fen
2.3.3.1 Fenland Ecology: General
2.3.3.2 Palaeoecological Research in the East Fen
2.3.3.3 Inferences from Pre-Drainage Management Regulations
2.3.3.4 Documentary References to Fen Usage
2.3.3.4.1 The Fen Margins
2.3.3.4.2 Grazing and Pasturage
2.3.3.4.3 Peat Extraction
2.3.3.4.4 Fishing and Fowling
2.3.3.4.5 Plant Products
2.3.3.5 The Deeps
2.3.4 The Fen and the Haven
2.3.4.1 Outlets Through Time
2.3.4.2 The Continuing Problems of Wainfleet Haven
2.3.4.3 The Ea’s End and the Dam
2.3.4.4 Induced Flooding
2.3.4.5 General Findings
2.3.5 Early Modern Reclamation
2.3.6 The Role of the East Fen Through Time


The Rural Economy Between the Fen and the Sea

2.4 The Rural Economy Between the Fen and the Sea
2.4.1 The Regional Setting
2.4.2 A Sub-Regional Context
2.4.3 Local Land Tenure
2.4.4 System Perturbations
2.4.5 Land Use, Land Cover and Landscape
2.4.5.1 Arable Land
2.4.5.2 Pasture
2.4.5.3 Meadow and Daila
2.4.5.4 Tofts and Salterns
2.4.5.5 Moss, Turbary, Swans and Parks
2.4.5.6 Thackeground, Flax and Hemp
2.4.5.7 Communications
2.4.5.8 Overview
2.4.6 Two Synoptic Views
2.4.6.1 Stickney in the Middle Ages
2.4.6.2 The Barkham Estates in the Early Seventeenth Century
2.4.7 The Problem of Flooding
2.4.8 Settlement Patterns
2.4.9 Landscape at 1650
2.4.10 Overall Context


Drainage and Dewatering in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries

2.5 Drainage and De-Watering in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries
2.5.1 Freshwaters
2.5.1.1 Wainfleet Haven
2.5.1.2 The Little Lymn
2.5.1.3 Low Grounds and Surrounded Lands
2.5.2 Salt-Marshes
2.5.2.1 The General Situation
2.5.2.2 The Haven and the Lymn
2.5.2.3 Reclamation Between Skegness and Friskney
2.5.3 Landscape Development into the Nineteenth Century
2.5.4 The Landscape Around 1800