Staff and Postgraduate Students
Prof Mark Allen, Bsc (Durham) 1987; PhD (Leicester (1991)
2016 - present — Deputy Head of Science Faculty (Postgraduate)
2015 - 2016 — Academic Director, NERC IAPETUS Doctoral Training Partnership
2014 - present — Professor, Dept. of Earth Sciences, University of Durham
2013 – 2015 — Deputy Director, Natural Sciences, University of Durham
2005 – 2014 — Reader, Dept. of Earth Sciences, University of Durham
2003 – 2004 — Deputy Chief Geologist, CASP. Dept. of Earth Sciences, University of Cambridge
1993 – 2004 — Geologist, CASP, Dept. of Earth Sciences, University of Cambridge
1990 – 1993 — Computer Officer, Leicester University
1991 — PhD, Leicester
1987 — BSc Hons 1st class: Durham
Career Research Highlights
My research has focused on interdisciplinary studies of Eurasian orogenic belts and sedimentary basins, notably the interactions of deformation, climate and sedimentation in tectonically active regions such as the Caspian, and the Zagros mountains of Iran. I also study aspects of petroleum systems at all scales from the regional, to the effects of fault systems and sedimentary architecture on fluid migration. My PhD involved a lot of igneous geochemistry, and I have recently returned to this subject by looking at the young volcanic rocks of the Iranian plateau. This includes being the PI of a NERC funded project on Orogenic Plateau Magmatism. I use many techniques and disciplines within Earth Sciences, including field-based structural geology and clastic sedimentology, remote sensing, geomorphology, basin modelling, regional synthesis, igneous geochemistry and seismic interpretation. I work closely with specialists in many other fields, including seismology, microstructures, fluid inclusions, heavy mineral provenance studies, isotopic geochemistry/geochronology and gravity/magnetics.
Committee and Society Service
2005 – 2010— Secretary, Northern Regional Group of the Geological Society
2001 – 2006 — Geological Society Petroleum Group committee member
Conferences and Workshops
2012, 2013 —Organiser of Convergent Margin session theme - EGU General Assembly
2011 — Geological Society of London Coupling of Tectonics and Surface Processes, Convenor.
2010 — Orogenic Plateaux session, Convenor - EGU General Assembly
2009 — Arctic and Russia session, Co-convenor. Petroleum Geology Conference #VII
2003 – 2017 — Editor-in-chief of Geological Magazine
2005 – present — Editorial board member, Tectonophysics
2006 – 2012 — Editorial Board Member, Petroleum Geoscience
2006 — UK national correspondent for ICGP Project 480 “Tectonics of Central Asia”
2011 – "Interactions of Tectonics and Climate in Eurasia" - University of Michigan Smith Lecture Series
2008 – International Union of Geological Sciences 33rd International Geological Congress
2004 – AAPG Hedberg meeting on lacustrine sedimentation, Baku
Prizes & Awards
2004 — AAPG Jules Braunstein Award
Recent and Current Grants
2011 – 2014 — ‘Orogenic Plateau Magmatism’ NERC Standard Grant NE/H021620/1 PI, Co-Is: Davidson, J.P., and Van Hunen, J.
Indicators of Esteem
- 2014: Editor-in-Chief, Geological Magazine:
- 2014: Member of NERC peer review college:
- 2013: Co-ordinator, Convergent Tectonic settings sessions, EGU:
- 2013: External Examiner, University of Cambridge:
- 2011: Smith Lecturer, University of Michigan:
- 2006: UK national correspondent for ICGP Project 480 “Tectonics of Central Asia”:
- 2005: Editorial board member, Tectonophysics, from Dec 2005:
- 2004: AAPG Jules Braunstein Award:
- 2004: Keynote speaker: AAPG Hedberg meeting on lacustrine sedimentation, Baku, 2004:
- 2003: Editor of Geological Magazine since February 2003:
- 2001: Geological Society Petroleum Group committee member:
Department of Earth Sciences
- Climate and Environmental Change
- Geoenergy, Resources and Waste
- Structural Geology
- The Solid Earth
- Eurasian orogenic belts and sedimentary basins, notably the interactions of deformation, climate and sedimentation in tectonically active regions such as the Caspian and the Zagros mountains.
- Petroleum systems at all scales from the regional, to the effects of fault systems and sedimentary architecture on fluid migration.
- Mr Ahmed Obaid
- Miss Erin M. Scott
- Mr George Lodwick
- Mr Nico Schliffke
- Mr Maximilian Franzel
- Miss Katharine Groves
Chapter in book
- Allen, M.B. (2010). Roles of strike-slip faults during continental deformation: examples from the active Arabia–Eurasia collision. In The Evolving Continents: Understanding Processes of Continental Growth. Kusky, T. M., Zhai, M.-G. & Xiao, W. London: Geological Society, London. 338: 329-344.
- Hinds, D., Simmons, M.D., Allen, M.B. & Aliyeva, E. (2007). Architecture variability within the Pereriva and Balakhany suites of the Neogene Productive Series, Azerbaijan: implications for reservoir quality. In AAPG Studies in Geology 55: Oil and Gas of the Greater Caspian area. Yilmaz, P.O. & Isaksen, G. Tulsa, Oklahoma: AAPG.
- Allen, M.B., Walker, R., Jackson, J., Blanc, E.J-P., Talebian, M. & Ghassemi, M.R. (2006). Contrasting styles of convergence in the Arabia-Eurasia collision: Why escape tectonics does not occur in Iran. In Postcollisional tectonics and magmatism in the Mediterranean region and Asia: GSA Special Paper 409. Dilek, Y. & Pavlides, S. Boulder, Colorado: Geological Society of America. 579-589.
- Kroonenberg, S.B, Simmons, M. D, Alekseevski, N.I, Aliyeva, E, Allen, M.B, Aybulatov, D.N, Baba-Zadeh, A, Badyukova, E.N, Hinds, D.J, Huseynov, D, Ibrahimov B, Mamedov, P, Overeem, I, Povalishnikova, E.N, Rusakov, G.V, Suleymanova, S & Svitoch, A.A (2005). Two deltas, two basins, one river, one sea: the modern Volga delta as an analogue of the Neogene Productive Series, South Caspian Basin. In SEPM memoir on deltaic sedimentation.
- Allen, M.B, Macdonald, D. I. M, Zhao Xun, Vincent, S.J & Brouet-Menzies, C (1998). Transtensional deformation in the evolution of the Bohai Basin, northern China. In Continental Transpressional and Transtensional Tectonics. London: Spec. Rep. of the Geol. Soc. 135: 215-229.
- Scott, EM, Allen, MB, Macpherson, CG, McCaffrey, KJW, Davidson, JP, Saville, C & Ducea, MN (2018). Andean surface uplift constrained by radiogenic isotopes of arc lavas. Nature Communications
- Dong, Jinlong, Song, Shuguang, Wang, Mingming, Allen, Mark B., Su, Li, Wang, Chao, Yang, Liming & Xu, Bei (2017). Alaskan-type Kedanshan intrusion (central Inner Mongolia, China): Superimposed subduction between the Mongol-Okhotsk and Paleo-Pacific oceans in the Jurassic. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences
- Zhang, Y.Q., Song, S.G., Yang, L.M., Su, L., Niu, Y.L., Allen, M.B. & Xu, X. (2017). Basalts and picrites from a plume-type ophiolite in the South Qilian Accretionary Belt, Qilian Orogen: Accretion of a Cambrian Oceanic Plateau?. Lithos 278-281: 97-110.
- Liu, Runchao, Allen, M.B., Zhang, Qiquan, Du, Wei, Cheng, Xiang, Holdsworth, R.E. & Guo, Zhaojie (2017). Basement controls on deformation during oblique convergence: Transpressive structures in the western Qaidam Basin, northern Tibetan Plateau. Lithosphere 9(4): 583-594.
- Magni, V., Allen, M.B., van Hunen, J. & Bouilhol, P. (2017). Continental underplating after slab break-off. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 474: 59-67.
- Obaid, Ahmed K. & Allen, Mark B. (2017). Landscape maturity, fold growth sequence and structural style in the Kirkuk Embayment of the Zagros, northern Iraq. Tectonophysics 717: 27-40.
- Allen, M.B., Walters, R.J., Song, S.G., Saville, C., De Paola, N., Ford, J., Hu, Z.X. & Sun, W.L. (2017). Partitioning of oblique convergence coupled to the fault locking behavior of fold-and-thrust belts: evidence from the Qilian Shan, northeastern Tibetan Plateau. Tectonics 36(9): 1679-1698.
- Xu, X., Song, S.G., Allen, M.B., Ernst, R.E., Niu, Y.L. & Su, L. (2016). An 850–820 Ma LIP dismembered during breakup of the Rodinia supercontinent and destroyed by Early Paleozoic continental subduction in the northern Tibetan Plateau, NW China. Precambrian Research 282: 52-73.
- Jotheri, J., Allen, M.B. & Wilkinson, T.J. (2016). Holocene avulsions of the Euphrates River in the Najaf area of western Mesopotamia: Impacts on human settlement patterns. Geoarchaeology 31(3): 175-193.
- Garzanti, E., Al-Juboury, A.I., Zoleikhaei, Y., Vermeesch, P., Jotheri, J., Akkoca, BM, Obaid, A.K., Allen, M.B., Andó, S., Limonta, S., Padoan, M., Resentini, A., Rittner, M. & Vezzoli, G. (2016). The Euphrates-Tigris-Karun river system: Provenance, recycling and dispersal of quartz-poor foreland-basin sediments in arid climate. Earth-Science Reviews 162: 107-128.
- Holt, P.J., Allen, M.B. & van Hunen, J. (2015). Basin formation by thermal subsidence of accretionary orogens. Tectonophysics 639: 132-143.
- Song, S.G., Wang, M.J., Xu, X., Wang, C., Niu, Y.L., Allen, M.B. & Su, L. (2015). Ophiolites in the Xing’an-Inner Mongolia accretionary belt of the CAOB: Implications for two cycles of seafloor spreading and accretionary orogenic events. Tectonics 34(10): 2221-2248.
- Neill, I., Meliksetian, K., Allen, M.B., Navasardyan, G. & Kuiper, K. (2015). Petrogenesis of mafic collision zone magmatism: the Armenian sector of the Turkish-Iranian Plateau. Chemical Geology 403: 24-41.
- Kheirkhah, M., Neill, I. & Allen, M.B. (2015). Petrogenesis of OIB-like basaltic volcanic rocks in a continental collision zone: Late Cenozoic magmatism of Eastern Iran. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 106: 19-33.
- Xu, X., Song, S.G., Su, L., Li, Z.X., Niu, Y.L. & Allen, M.B. (2015). The 600–580 Ma continental rift basalts in North Qilian Shan, northwest China: Links between the Qilian-Qaidam block and SE Australia, and the reconstruction of East Gondwana. Precambrian Research 257: 47-46.
- Wang, H.L., van Hunen, J., Pearson, D.G. & Allen, M.B. (2014). Craton stability and longevity: The roles of composition-dependent rheology and buoyancy. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 391: 224-233.
- Bottrill, A.D., van Hunen, J, Cuthbert, S.J., Brueckner, H.K. & Allen, M.B. (2014). Plate rotation during continental collision and its relationship with the exhumation of UHP metamorphic terranes: Application to the Norwegian Caledonides. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems 15(5): 1766-1782.
- Kaislaniemi, L., van Hunen, J., Allen, M. B. & Neill, I. (2014). Sub-lithospheric small-scale convection—a mechanism for collision zone magmatism. Geology 42(4): 291-294.
- Jones, S.J., Arzani, N. & Allen, M.B. (2014). Tectonic and climatic controls on fan systems: The Kohrud mountain belt, Central Iran. Sedimentary Geology 302: 29-42.
- Allen, M.B., Kheirkhah, M., Neill, I., Emami, M.H. & Mcleod, C.L. (2013). Generation of arc and within-plate chemical signatures in collision zone magmatism: Quaternary lavas from Kurdistan province, Iran. Journal of Petrology 54(5): 887-911.
- Allen, M.B., Saville, C., Blanc, E.J-P., Talebian, M. & Nissen, E. (2013). Orogenic plateau growth: expansion of the Turkish-Iranian Plateau across the Zagros fold-and-thrust belt. Tectonics 32(2): 171–190.
- Xiao, W.J., Windley, B.F., Allen, M.B. & Han, C.M. (2013). Paleozoic multiple accretionary and collisional tectonics of the Chinese Tianshan orogenic collage. Gondwana Research 23(4): 1316-1341.
- Neill, I., Meliksetian, Kh., Allen, M.B., Navasardyan, G. & Karapetyan, S. (2013). Pliocene-Quaternary volcanic rocks of NW Armenia: Magmatism and lithospheric dynamics within an active orogenic plateau. Lithos 180-181: 200-215.
- Kheirkhah, M., Neill, I., Allen, M.B. & Ajdari, K. (2013). Small-volume melts of lithospheric mantle during continental collision: late Cenozoic lavas of Mahabad, NW Iran. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 74: 37-49.
- Rezaeian, M., Carter, A., Hovius, N. & Allen, M.B. (2012). Cenozoic exhumation history of the Alborz Mountains, Iran: New constraints from low-temperature chronometry. Tectonics 31(2): TC2004.
- Bottrill, Andrew D., van Hunen, Jeroen & Allen, Mark B. (2012). Insight into collision zone dynamics from topography: numerical modelling results and observations. Solid Earth 3(2): 387-399.
- Walker, F. & Allen, M.B. (2012). Offset rivers, drainage spacing and the record of strike-slip faulting: The Kuh Banan Fault, Iran. Tectonophysics 530-531: 251-263.
- Allen, M.B. & Armstrong, H.A. (2012). Reconciling the Intertropical Convergence Zone, Himalayan/Tibetan tectonics, and the onset of the Asian monsoon system. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 44: 36-47.
- Holt, P.J., van Hunen, J. & Allen, M.B. (2012). Subsidence of the West Siberian Basin: Effects of a mantle plume impact. Geology 40(8): 703-706.
- Allen, M.B., Mark, D.F., Kheirkhah, M., Barfod, D., Emami, M.H. & Saville, C. (2011). 40Ar/39Ar dating of Quaternary lavas in northwest Iran: constraints on the landscape evolution and incision rates of the Turkish-Iranian plateau. Geophysical Journal International 185(3): 1173-1185.
- van Hunen, J. & Allen, M.B. (2011). Continental collision and slab break-off: a comparison of 3-D numerical models with observations. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 302(1-2): 27-37.
- Nissen, E., Tatar, M., Jackson, J.A. & Allen, M.B. (2011). New views on earthquake faulting in the Zagros fold-and-thrust belt of Iran. Geophysical Journal International 186(3): 928-944.
- Allen, M.B., Kheirkhah, M., Emami, M.H. & Jones, S.J. (2011). Right-lateral shear across Iran and kinematic change in the Arabia–Eurasia collision zone. Geophysical Journal International 184(2): 555-574.
- Armstrong, H.A & Allen, M.B. (2011). Shifts in the Intertropical Convergence Zone, Himalayan exhumation, and late Cenozoic climate. Geology 39(1): 11–14.
- Allen, M.B. & Talebian, M. (2011). Structural variation along the Zagros and the nature of the Dezful Embayment. Geological Magazine 148(5-6): 911-924.
- Richardson, S. Davies R.J., Allen M.B. & Grant S.F. (2011). Structure and Evolution of Mass Transport Deposits in the South Caspian Basin, Azerbaijan, Basin Research. Basin Research 23(6): 702–719.
- Davies, C,, Allen, M.B., Buslov, M.M. & Safonova, I. (2010). Deposition in the Kuznetsk Basin, Siberia: Insights into the Permian–Triassic transition and the Mesozoic evolution of Central Asia. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 295(1-2): 307-322.
- Holt, P.J., Allen, M.B., van Hunen, J. & Bjørnseth, H.M. (2010). Lithospheric cooling and thickening as a basin forming mechanism. Tectonophysics 495(3-4): 184-194.
- Allen, M.B. (2009). Discussion on the Eocene bimodal Piranshahr massif of the Sanadaj-Sirjan Zone, West Iran: a marker of the end of collision in the Zagros orogen. Journal of the Geological Society 166: 981-982.
- Walker, R.T., Gans, P., Allen, M.B., Jackson, J., Khatib, M., Marsh, N. & Zarrinkoub, M. (2009). Late Cenozoic volcanism and rates of active faulting in eastern Iran. Geophysical Journal International 177(2): 783-805.
- Kheirkhah, M., Allen, M.B. & Emami, M. (2009). Quaternary syn-collision magmatism from the Iran/Turkey borderlands. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 182(1-2): 1-12.
- Reichow, M.K., Pringle, M.S., Al'Mukhamedov, A.I. Allen, M.B., Andreichev, V.L., Buslov, M.M., Davies, C.E., Fedoseev, G.S., Fitton, J.G., Inger, S., Medvedev, A.Ya., Mitchell, C., Puchkov, V.N., Safonova, I.Yu., Scott, R.A. & Saunders, A.D. (2009). The timing and extent of the eruption of the Siberian Traps large igneous province: Implications for the end-Permian environmental crisis. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 277: 9-20.
- Allen, M. B. & Armstrong, H. A. (2008). Arabia-Eurasia collision and the forcing of mid-Cenozoic global cooling. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 265(1-2): 52-58.
- Whitehouse, P.L., Allen, M.B. & Milne, G.A. (2007). Glacial isostatic adjustment as a control on coastal processes: An example from the Siberian Arctic. Geology 35(8): 747-750.
- Allen, Mark B. & Davies, Clare E. (2007). Unstable Asia: active deformation of Siberia revealed by drainage shifts. Basin Research 19(3): 379-392.
- Allen, M.B., Anderson, L., Searle, R.C. & Buslov, M. (2006). Oblique rift geometry of the West Siberian Basin: tectonic setting for the Siberian flood basalts. Journal of the Geological Society 163(6): 901-904.
- Allen, M. B., Morton, A. C., Fanning, C. M., Ismail-Zadeh, A. J. & Kroonenberg, S. B. (2006). Zircon age constraints on sediment provenance in the Caspian region. Journal of the Geological Society, London 163: 647-655.
- Vincent, S.J. Allen, M.B. , Ismail-Zadeh, A.D., Flecker, R., Foland, K.A. & Simmons, M.D. (2005). Insights from the Talysh of Azerbaijan into the Paleogene evolution of the South Caspian region. Bulletin of the Geological Society of America 117: 1513-1533.
- Allen, M.B, Jackson, J & Walker, R (2004). Late Cenozoic reorganization of the Arabia-Eurasia collision and the comparison of short-term and long-term deformation rates. Tectonics 23(2): TC2008.
- Hinds, D, Aliyeva, E, Allen, M.B, Davies, C.E, Kroonenberg, S, Simmons, M.D & Vincent, S.J (2004). Sedimentation in a discharge dominated fluvial-lacustrine system: the Neogene Productive Series of the South Caspian Basin, Azerbaijan. Marine and Petroleum Geology 21: 613-638.
- Allen, M.B, Ghassemi, M.R, Shahrabi, M & Qorashi, M (2003). Accommodation of late Cenozoic oblique shortening in the Alborz range, northern Iran. Journal of Structural Geology 25(5): 659-672.
- Allen, M.B, Vincent, S.J, Alsop, G.I, Ismail-zadeh, A & Flecker, R (2003). Late Cenozoic deformation in the South Caspian region: effects of a rigid basement block within a collision zone. Tectonophysics 366: 223-239.
- Morton, A, Allen, M.B, Simmons, M.D, Spathopoulos, F, Still, J, Hinds, D, Ismail-Zadeh, A & Kroonenberg, S (2003). Provenance patterns in a neotectonic basin: Pliocene and Quaternary sediment supply to the South Caspian. Basin Research 15: 321-337.
- Blanc, E.J-P, Allen, M.B, Inger, S & Hassani, H (2003). Structural styles in the Zagros Simple Folded Zone, Iran. Journal of the Geological Society 160(3): 401-412.
- Jackson, J, Priestley, K, Allen, M.B & Berberian, M (2002). Active tectonics of the South Caspian Basin. Geophysical Journal International 148: 214-245.
- Allen, M.B, Jones, S, Ismail-Zadeh, A, Simmons, M.D & Anderson, L (2002). Onset of subduction as the cause of rapid Pliocene-Quaternary subsidence in the South Caspian Basin. Geology 30(9): 775-778.
- Allen, M.B, Alsop, G.I & Zhemchuzhnikov, V.G (2001). Dome and basin refolding and transpressive inversion along the Karatau Fault System, southern Kazakstan. Journal of the Geological Society of London 158: 83-95.
- Vincent, S.J & Allen, M.B (2001). Sedimentary record of Mesozoic intracontinental deformation in the eastern Junggar Basin, northwest China: Response to orogeny at the Asian margin. Memoirs of the Geological Society of America 194: 341-360.
- Metcalfe, I & Allen, M.B (2000). Preface to Suture zones of East and Southeast Asia. Special Issue of Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 18: 635-636.
- Allen, M.B & Vincent, S.J (1999). Discussion of: Structural features of North Tarim Basin: Implications for regional tectonics and petroleum traps. Bulletin of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists 83: 1279-1283.
- Allen, M.B, Vincent, S.J & Wheeler, P.J (1999). Late Cenozoic tectonics of the Kepingtage thrust zone: Interactions of the Tien Shan and Tarim Basin, northwest China. Tectonics 18: 639-654.
- Vincent, S.J & Allen, M.B (1999). Sedimentary and structural evolution of the Minle and Chaoshui basins, Hexi Corridor and Alashan, northern China: implications for Mesozoic strike-slip basin evolution in Central Asia. Bulletin of the Geological Society of America 111: 725-742.
- Allen, M.B, Macdonald, D I.M, Vincent, S.J, Brouet-Menzies, C & Zhao Xun (1997). Early Cenozoic two-phase extension and Late Cenozoic thermal subsidence and inversion of the Bohai Basin, northern China. Marine and Petroleum Geology 14: 951-972.
- Allen, M.B. & Vincent, S.J. (1997). Fault reactivation in the Junggar region, northwest China: the role of basement structures during Mesozoic-Cenozoic compression. Journal of the Geological Society, London 154: 151-155.
- Zhao Xun, Allen, M.B, Whitham, A.G & Price, S.P (1996). Rift-related Devonian sedimentation and basin development in South China. Journal of Southeast Asian Earth Sciences 14: 37-52.
- Allen, M.B, Sengör, A.M.C & Natal’in, B.A. (1995). Junggar, Turfan and Alakol basins as Late Permian to ?Early Triassic structures in a sinistral shear zone in the Altaid orogenic collage, Central Asia. Journal of Geological Society 152: 327-338.
- Allen, M.B, Windley, B.F & Zhang, C. (1994). Cenozoic tectonics in the Urumqi-Korla region of the Chinese Tien Shan. Geologische Rundschau 83: 406-416.
- Allen, M.B, Windley, B.F, Zhang, C & Guo, J (1993). Evolution of the Turfan Basin, Chinese Central Asia. Tectonics 12: 889-896.
- Zhang, C, Zhao, M, Allen, M.B, Saunders, A.D, Wang, G & Huang, X (1993). Implications of Palaeozoic ophiolites from Western Junggar, NW China, for the tectonics of Central Asia. Journal of Geological Society 150: 551-561.
- Windley, B.F & Allen, M.B (1993). Mongolian plateau: Evidence for a late Cenozoic mantle plume under central Asia. Geology 21: 295-298.
- Allen, M.B, Windley, B.F & Zhang, C (1993). Palaeozoic collisional tectonics and magmatism of the Chinese Tien Shan, central Asia. Tectonophysics 220: 89-155.
- Allen, M.B, Windley, B.F & Zhang, C (1991). Active alluvial systems in the Korla Basin, Tien Shan, northwest China: sedimentation in a complex foreland basin. Geological Magazine 128: 661-666.
- Allen, M.B, Windley, B.F, Zhang, C, Zhao, Z & Wang, G (1991). Basin evolution within and adjacent to the Tien Shan Range, NW China. Journal of Geological Society 148: 369-378.
- Windley, B.F, Allen, M.B, Zhang, C, Zhao, Z & Wang, G (1990). Paleozoic accretion and Cenozoic redeformation of the Chinese Tien Shan range, central Asia. Geology 18: 128-131.
- Allen, M.B, Zhang, C, Zhai, M, Saunders, A.D & Moon, C.J. (1989). Crustal accretion and mineralisation in western Junggar, Xinjiang Province, northwest China. Transations of the Institution of Mining and Metallurgy: Section A- Mining Technology 98: B147-148.