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Durham University

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Staff Profile

Professor Bob Kentridge

Professor (Reader) in the Department of Psychology
Telephone: +44 (0) 191 33 43261
Room number: L48A
Telephone: +44 (0) 191 33 40437

(email at

Research Interests

My research falls into two related strands, one examining the relationship between visual attention and visual consciousness and the other the perception of the material properties of objects. In both areas I have tested the deficits suffered by neuropsychological patients in order to arrive at hypotheses about the manner in which psychological functions are broken down into sub-processes in the brain. I then go on to test these hypotheses using neuroimaging and psychophysical methods in normal people.

In 1999 I discovered that that prompting neurological patients to attend to areas in which they reported that they were blind as a consequence of their brain damage could, nevertheless, improve their ability to respond accurately to stimuli of which they were unaware. This dissociation between visual attention and awareness had major implications for theories about the basis of consciousness in the brain, for philosophers of mind and for the development of methods for rehabilitating patients with this, very common, form of brain damage. I have demonstrated the same dissociation in normal people for a variety of forms of attention. I have also applied these findings to development of methods of training stroke patients rendered partially blind to recover the ability to read. 

I also use psychophysical methods to understand the neural basis of colour perception by testing the abilities of patients with brain damage affecting colour vision. The processing of properties of materials such as texture, glossiness and translucence in the brain can be studied in a similar fashion. In a pair of papers combining psychophysics, work with neurological patients and neuroimaging, my colleagues and I were the first group to demonstrate specific areas in the brain for the processing of shape colour and texture. I have just published work extending this approach to the perception of glossiness and am currently developing computer programs allowing similar studies to be undertaken on the perception of translucence. These properties have a tremendous influence on our perception of the world. Inappropriate glossiness or translucence make people look like waxworks, milk look like paint and fruit look rotten. Understanding how we perceive these properties has implications well beyond basic psychological science in computer-graphics and consumer-products industries.

Research Groups

Department of Psychology

Research Interests

  • Neuropsychology of awareness, blindsight, colour vision and attention

Selected Publications

Edited book

  • Findlay, J.M., Walker, R. & Kentridge, R.W. (1995). Eye movement research: Mechanisms, processes and applications. (Studies in visual information processing. Volume 6.). Amsterdam North-Holland.

Chapter in book

  • Kentridge, RW & Brogaard, B (2016). The Functional Roles of Attention. In Current Controversies in Philosophy of Perception. Nanay, B New York; Abingdon: Routledge. 139-147.
  • Kentridge, R.W. (2015). Change Blindness. In The International Encyclopedia of Social and Behavioral Sciences. Wright, J.D. Oxford: Elsevier. 344-349.
  • Kentridge, R.W. (2011). Attention without awareness: A brief review. In Attention: Philosophical and Psychological Essays. Mole, C., Smithies, D. & Wu, W. Oxford Oxford University Press. 228-246
  • Heywood, C.A. & Kentridge, R.W. (2009). Akinetopsia. In The Oxford Companion to Consciousness. Bayne, T., Cleemans, A. & Wilken, P. Oxford Oxford University Press. 24-25
  • Kentridge, R.W. & Heywood, C.A. (2009). Colour: Scientific perspectives. In The Oxford Companion to Consciousness. Bayne, T., Cleermans, A. & Wilken, P. Oxford Oxford University Press. 149-155
  • Kentridge, R.W. (2008). Blindsight. In Encyclopedia of Neuroscience. Binder, M.D., Hirokawa, N. & Windhorst, U. Heidelberg Springer-Verlag. 426-429
  • Kentridge, R.W. (2003). Blindsight. In The Encyclopaedia of Cognitive Science (Volume 1). Nadel, L. London Nature Publishing Group. 390-397
  • Kentridge, R.W., Heywood, C.A. & Davidoff, J. (2003). Color perception. In Handbook of brain theory & neural-networks (2nd Edition). Arbib, M.A. Cambridge MA MIT Press. 230-233
  • Kentridge, R.W. & Heywood, C.A. (2001). Attention & alerting: Cognitive processes spared in blindsight. In Out of Mind. Varieties of Unconscious Processing: New Findings & Models. De Gelder, B., De Haan, E. & Heywood, C.A. Oxford Oxford University Press. 163-181
  • Heywood, C.A., Kentridge, R.W. & Cowey, A. (2001). Colour & the cortex: Wavelength processing in cortical achromatopsia. In Out of Mind. Varieties of Unconscious Processing: New Findings & Models. De Gelder, B., De Haan, E. & Heywood, C.A. Oxford Oxford University Press. 52-68
  • Kentridge, R.W., Heywood, C.A. & Weiskrantz, L. (1999). Attending, seeing and knowing in blindsight. In Toward a Science of Consciousness III. Hameroff, S., Chalmers, D. & Kazniak, A. Cambridge MA MIT Press. 149-160
  • Murray, K., Grossman, D. & Kentridge, R.W. (1999). Behavioral Psychology. In The Encyclopaedia of Violence, Peace & Conflict, Volume 1. Kurtz, L. New York Academic Press. 187-195
  • Kentridge, R.W. (1997). Dynamics and computational power in biologically plausible neural newtork models. In Perspectives in Neural Computing. Browne, A. Bristol Institute of Physics Press. 51-71
  • Kentridge, R.W. (1995). Cortical neurocomputation, language and cognition. In Connectionist Models of Memory and Language. Levy, J., Bairaktaris, D., Bullinaria, J. & Cairns, P. London UCL Press. 181-205
  • Kentridge, R.W. (1994). Critical dynamics of neural networks with spatially localised connections. In Neurodynamics and Psychology. Oaksford, M. & Brown, G. London Academic Press. 183-216
  • Kentridge, R.W. (1993). Dissipative structures and self-organizing criticality in neural networks with spatially localized connectivity. In Eeckman, F.H. & Bower, J.M. Boston Kluwer. 531-535
  • Findlay, J.M., Davies, S.P., Kentridge, R.W., Lambert, A.J. & Kelly, J. (1988). Optimum display arrangements for presenting visual reminders. In People and Computers IV. Jones, D.M. & Winder, R. Cambridge Cambridge University Press. 453-464

Journal Article

  • Smits, A.R., Seijdel, N., Scholte, H.S., Heywood, C.A., Kentridge, R.W. & de Haan, E.H.F. (2019). Action blindsight and antipointing in a hemianopic patient. Neuropsychologia 128: 270-275.
  • de Haan, Edward H. F., Seijdel, Noor, Kentridge, Robert W. & Heywood, Charles A. (2019). Plasticity versus chronicity: Stable performance on category fluency 40 years post-onset. Journal of Neuropsychology
  • Chadwick, A.C., Heywood, C.A., Smithson, H.E. & Kentridge, R.W. (2019). Translucence perception is not dependent on cortical areas critical for processing colour or texture. Neuropsychologia 128: 209-214.
  • Chadwick, A.C., Cox, G., Smithson, H.E. & Kentridge, R.W. (2018). Beyond scattering and absorption: Perceptual un-mixing of translucent liquids. Journal of Vision 18(11): 1-15.
  • Kentridge, R.W. (2018). Vision: Non-illusory Evidence for Distinct Visual Pathways for Perception and Action. Current Biology 28(6): R264-R266.
  • Peters, Megan A. K., Kentridge, Robert W., Phillips, Ian & Block, Ned (2017). Does unconscious perception really exist? Continuing the ASSC20 debate. Neuroscience of Consciousness 3(1).
  • Norman, L.J., Heywood, C.A. & Kentridge, R.W. (2015). Direct encoding of orientation variance in the visual system. Journal of Vision 15(4): 3, 1-14.
  • Norman, L.J., Heywood, C.A. & Kentridge, R.W. (2015). Exogenous attention to unseen objects? Consciousness & Cognition 35: 319-329.
  • Chadwick, A.C. & Kentridge, R.W. (2015). The perception of gloss: A review. Vision Research 109(Part B): 221-235.
  • Foley, R. & Kentridge, R.W. (2015). Type-2 Blindsight: Empirical and Philosophical Perspectives. Consciousness and Cognition 32: 1-5.
  • Kentridge, R.W. (2015). What is it like to have type-2 blindsight? Drawing inferences from residual function in type-1 blindsight. Consciousness and Cognition 32: 41-44.
  • Norman, L.J., Akins, K., Heywood, C.A. & Kentridge, R.W. (2014). Colour constancy for an unseen surface. Current Biology 24(23): 2822-2826.
  • Block, N., Carmel, D., Fleming, S.M., Kentridge, R.W., Koch, C., Lamme, V.A.F., Lau, H. & Rosenthal, D. (2014). Consciousness science: real progress and lingering misconceptions. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 18(11): 556-557.
  • Kentridge, R.W. (2014). Object Perception: Where Do We See the Weight? Current Biology 24(16): R740-R741.
  • Norman, Liam J., Heywood, Charles A. & Kentridge, Robert W. (2013). Object-based attention without awareness. Psychological Science 24(6): 836-843.
  • Kentridge, R.W. (2013). Visual attention: Bringing the unseen past into view. Current Biology 23(2): R69-R71.
  • Kentridge, R.W. (2012). Blindsight: Spontaneous Scanning of Complex Scenes. Current Biology 22(15): R605-R606.
  • Kentridge, R.W., Thomson, R. & Heywood, C.A. (2012). Glossiness perception can be mediated independently of cortical processing of colour or texture. Cortex 48(9): 1244-1246.
  • Schuett, S., Heywood, C.A., Kentridge, R.W., Dauner, R. & Zihl, J. (2012). Rehabilitation of reading and visual exploration in visual field disorders: transfer or specificity? Brain 135(3): 912-921.
  • de-Wit, L.H., Milner, A.D. & Kentridge, R.W. (2012). Shadows remain segmented as selectable regions in object based attention paradigms. Perception (in press):
  • Norman, Liam, J., Heywood, Charles, A. & Kentridge, Robert, W. (2011). Contrasting the processes of texture segmentation and discrimination with static and phase-reversing stimuli. Vision Research 51(18): 2039-2047.
  • de-Wit, L.H. Lefevre, C. Kentridge, R.W. , Rees, G. & Saygin, A.P. (2011). Investigating the status of biological stimuli as objects of attention in multiple object tracking. PLoS ONE 6(3): e16232
  • Marrett, N.E., de-Wit, L.H., Roser, M., Kentridge, R.W., Milner, A.D. & Lambert, A.J. (2011). Testing the dorsal stream attention hypothesis: Electrophysiological correlates and the effects of ventral stream damage. Visual Cognition 19(9): 1089-1121.
  • de-Wit, L.H., Cole, G.G. Kentridge, R.W. & Milner, A.D. (2011). The parallel representation of the objects selected by attention. Journal of Vision 11: (13) 1-10.
  • Cavina-Pratesi, C., Kentridge, R.W., Heywood, C.A. & Milner, A.D. (2010). Separate channels for processing form, texture, and color: Evidence from fMRI adaptation and visual object agnosia. Cerebral Cortex 20(10): 2319-2332.
  • Schuett, S. , Kentridge, R.W. , Zihl, J. & Heywood, C.A. (2009). Adaptation of eye movements to simulated hemianopia in reading and visual exploration: Transfer or specificity? Neuropsychologia 47(7): 1712-1720
  • Schuett, S., Kentridge, R.W., Zihl, J. & Heywood, C.A. (2009). Are hemianopic reading and visual exploration impairments visually elicited? New insights from eye movements in simulated hemianopia. Neuropsychologia, 47(3): 733-746.
  • Schuett, S, Kentridge RW, Zihl J & Heywood CA (2009). Is the origin of the hemianopic line bisection error purely visual? Evidence from eye movements in simulated hemianopia. Vision Research 49(13): 1668-1680.
  • de-Wit, L.H. , Kentridge, R.W. & Milner, A.D. (2009). Object based attention and visual area LO. Neuropsychologia 47: 1483-1490.
  • Mullin, CR, Démonet, JF, Kentridge, RW, Heywood, CA & Goodale, MA (2009). Preserved striate cortex is not sufficient to support the McCollough effect: Evidence from two patients with cerebral achromatopsia. Perception 38(12): 1741-1748.
  • Schuett, S., Heywood, C. A., Kentridge, R.W. & Zihl, J. (2009). Rehabilitation of hemianopic dyslexia: Are words necessary for re-learning oculomotor control? Brain 131(12): 3156-3168.
  • Cavina-Pratesi C, Kentridge RW, Heywood CA & Milner AD (2009). Separate processing of texture and form in the ventral stream: evidence from fMRI and visual agnosia. Cerebral Cortex 20(2): 433-446.
  • de-Wit, L.H., Kentridge, R.W. & Milner, A.D. (2009). Shape processing area LO and illusory contours. Perception 38: 1260-1263.
  • Cole, G.G. , Kuhn, G. , Heywood, C.A. & Kentridge, R.W. (2009). The prioritization of feature singletons in the change detection paradigm. Experimental Psychology 56(2): 134-146.
  • Kentridge, R.W., Nijboer, T.C.W. & Heywood, C.A. (2008). Attended but unseen: Visual attention is not sufficient for visual awareness. Neuropsychologia 46(3): 864-869.
  • Cowey, A., Alexander, I., Heywood, C. & Kentridge, R. (2008). Pupillary responses to coloured and contourless displays in total cerebral achromatopsia. Brain 131(8): 2153-2160.
  • Schuett, S., Heywood, C.A., Kentridge, R.W. & Zihl, J. (2008). The significance of visual information processing in reading: Insights from hemianopic dyslexia. Neuropsychologia 46(10): 2445-2462.
  • Arnott, S.R., Heywood C.A., Kentridge, R.W. & Goodale M. (2008). Voice recognition and the posterior cingulate: An fMRI study of prosopagnosia. Journal of Neuropsychology 2(1): 269-286.
  • Kentridge, R.W., de-Wit, L.H. & Heywood, C.A. (2008). What is attended in spatial attention? Journal of Consciousness Studies 15: 105-111.
  • Kentridge, R.W., Heywood, C.A. & Weiskrantz, L. (2007). Colour-contrast processing in human striate cortex. Proceedings of the National Acedemy of Sciences (USA) 104: 15129-15131.
  • Kentridge, R.W. (2007). Incomplete stimulus representations and the loss of cognitive access in cerebral achromatopsia. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 30: 508-509.
  • Burt, D.M., Kentridge, R.W., Good, J.M.M., Perrett, D.I., Tiddeman, B.P. & Boothroyd, L.G. (2007). Q-cgi: New techniques to assess variation perception applied to facial attractiveness. Proceedings of the Royal Society (London) Series B 274: 2779-2784.
  • Kentridge, R.W. (2005). Constancy, illumination and the whiteness of the moon. Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology 33: 572-573.
  • Cole, G.G., Kentridge, R.W. & Heywood, C.A (2005). Object onset and parvocellular guidance of attentional allocation. Psychological Science 16(4): 270-274.
  • Kentridge R.W., Heywood, C.A. & Cowey, A (2004). Chromatic edges, surfaces and constancies in cerebral achromatopsia. Neuropsychologia 42: 821-830.
  • Kentridge, R.W., Heywood, C.A. & Milner, A.D. (2004). Covert processing of visual form in the absence of area LO. Neuropsychologia 42(11): 1488-1495.
  • Liversedge, S.P., Rayner, K., White, S.J., Vergilino-Perez, D., Findlay, J.M. & Kentridge, R. (2004). Eye movements when reading disappearing text: Is there a gap effect in reading? Vision Research 44: 1013-1024.
  • Kentridge, R.W., Heywood, C.A. & Weiskrantz, L (2004). Spatial attention speeds discrimination without awareness in blindsight. Neuropsychologia 42: 831-835.
  • Kentridge, R.W., Cole, G.G. & Heywood, C.A. (2004). The primacy of chromatic edge processing in normal & cerebrally achromatopsic subjects. Progress in Brain Research 144: 161-169.
  • Cole, G.G., Kentridge, R.W. & Heywood, C.A. (2004). Visual salience in the change detection paradigm: The special role of object onset. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 30(3): 464-477.
  • Heywood, C.A. & Kentridge, R.W. (2003). Achromatopsia, color vision & cortex. Neurological Clinics of North America 21: 483-500.
  • Cole, G.G., Heywood, C.A., Kentridge, R.W., Fairholm, I. & Cowey, A (2003). Attentional capture by colour and motion in cerebral achromatopsia. Neuropsychologia 41(13): 1837-1846.
  • Feeney, A., Handley, S. & Kentridge, R.W. (2003). Deciding Between Accounts of the Selection Task: Reply To Oaksford 2002. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology A 56: 1079-1088.
  • Cole, G.G., Kentridge, R.W., Gellatly, A.R.H. & Heywood, C. (2003). Detectability of onsets versus offsets in the change detection paradigm. Journal of Vision 3(1): 22-31.
  • Kentridge, R.W. (2001). Cognition, chaos and symbolic computation: Non-deterministic the Chinese room problem solved? Commentary on Harnad on symbolism-connectionism. Psycoloquy 12: 1-5.
  • Kentridge, R.W. (2001). Why do stationary visual transients apparently fail to elicit phenomenal vision after unilateral destruction of primary visual cortex? Consciousness and Cognition 10: 588-590.
  • Heywood, C.A. & Kentridge, R.W. (2000). Affective blindsight? Trends in Cognitive Sciences 4: 125-126.
  • Kentridge, R.W., Heywood, C.A. & Cowey, A. (2000). Covert effects of colour without colour consciousness. Consciousness and Cognition 9.
  • Kentridge, R.W. & Heywood, C.A. (2000). Metacognition and awareness. Consciousness and Cognition 9: 308-312.
  • Kentridge, R.W., Heywood, C.A. & Weiskrantz, L. (1999). Attention without awareness in blindsight. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London (Series B) 266: 1805-1811.
  • Kentridge, R.W., Heywood, C.A. & Weiskrantz, L. (1999). Effects of temporal cueing on residual visual discrimination in blindsight. Neuropsychologia 37: 479-483.
  • Kentridge, R.W. & Heywood, C.A. (1999). The status of blindsight: Near-threshold vision, islands of cortex & the Riddoch phenomenon. Journal of Consciousness Studies 6(5): 3-11.
  • Kentridge, R.W. (1999). When is information represented explicitly in blindsight and cerebral achromatopsia? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22: 156.
  • Heywood, C.A., Kentridge, R.W. & Cowey, A. (1998). Cortical color blindness is not 'blindsight for color'. Consciousness and Cognition 7: 410-423.
  • Heywood CA, Kentridge, R.W. & Cowey, A. (1998). Form and motion from colour in cerebral achromatopsia. Experimental Brain Research 123: 145-153.
  • Good, J.M.M., Aggleton, J.P., Kentridge, R.W., Barker, J.G.M. & Neave, N.J. (1997). Measuring musical aptitude in children: On the role of age, handedness, scholastic achievement, & socioeconomic status. Psychology of Music 25: 57-69.
  • Kentridge, R.W., Heywood, C.A. & Weiskrantz, L. (1997). Residual vision in multiple retinal locations: Implications for blindsight. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 9: 191-202.
  • Smallman, H.S., MacLeod, D.I.A., He, S. & Kentridge, R.W. (1996). The fine grain of the neural representation of human spatial vision. Journal of Neuroscience 16: 1848-1865.
  • Walker, R., Kentridge, R.W. & Findlay, J.M. (1995). Independent contributions of the orienting of attention, fixation offset & bilateral stimulation on human saccadic latencies. Experimental Brain Research 103: 294-310.
  • Aggleton, J.P., Bland, J.M., Kentridge, R.W. & Neave, N.J. (1994). A follow-up study on handedness & mortality among male cricketers. British Medical Journal 309: 1681-1684.
  • Aggleton, J.P., Kentridge, R.W. & Good, J.M.M. (1994). Handedness & musical ability: A study of professional orchestral players, composers & choir members. Psychology of Music 22: 148-156.
  • Kentridge, R.W. (1994). Modularity of mind, cerebral localisation, and connectionist neuropsychology. Psycoloquy 5(87): language-network.9.kentridge.
  • Kentridge, R.W. (1994). Symbols, neurons and soap-bubbles and the neural computation underlying cognition. Minds and Machines 4: 439-44.
  • Kentridge, R.W. & Aggleton, J.P. (1993). Changes in Cis Z -Flupentixol-induced dopamine blockade produce contrast effects in rats. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology B 46: 113-127.
  • Kentridge, R.W. (1993). Cognition, chaos and non-deterministic symbolic computation: The Chinese Room problem solved? Think 2 (June): 44-47.
  • Aggleton, J.P., Kentridge, R.W. & Neave, N.J. (1993). Evidence for longevity differences between left handed right handed men: An archival study of cricketers. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Medicine 47: 206-209.
  • Kentridge, R.W., Shaw, C. & Aggleton, J.P. (1991). Amygdaloid lesions and stimulus reinforcement associations in the rat. Behavioural Brain Research 42: 57-66.
  • Aggleton, J.P., Kentridge, R.W. & Sembi, F. (1991). Lesions of the fornix but not the amygdala impair the acquisition of concurrent discrimination in rats. Behavioural Brain Research 48: 103-112.
  • Shaw, C., Kentridge, R.W. & Aggleton, J.P. (1990). Cross-modal matching by amnesic subjects. Neuropsychologia 28: 665-671.
  • Kentridge, R.W. & Aggleton, J.P. (1990). Emotion: Sensory representation, reinforcement and the temporal lobe. Cognition and Emotion 4: 191-208.
  • Kentridge, R.W. (1990). Neural networks for learning in the real world - representation, reinforcement and dynamics. Parallel Computing 14: 405-414.
  • Kentridge, R.W. (1990). Parallelism and patterns of thought. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13: 670-671.
  • Kentridge, R.W. (1989). Complexity at the organismic and neuronal levels. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 12: 147-148.
  • Findlay, J.M. & Kentridge, R.W. (1989). More packaging needed before tags are added. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 12: 404-405.
  • Parrott, A.C. & Kentridge, R.W. (1982). Personal constructs of anxiety under the 1,5-benzodiazepine derivative clobazam related to trait-anxiety levels of the personality. Psychopharmacology 78: 353-357.

Book review

  • Kentridge, R.W. (2003). Review of B.R. Conway 'Neural mechanisms of color vision'. Perception 32: 641-642.
  • Kentridge, R.W. (2000). In my view, it's a question of wiring. Review of J.E. Dowling 'Creating Mind: How the Brain Works'. Times Higher Educational Supplement May 12th 2000 (number 1,435): 24.
  • Kentridge, R.W. (2000). The feeling of what happens: body, emotion and the making of consciousness. Perception 29: 1397-1398.
  • Kentridge, R.W. (1998). Where d'you get those eyes? Review of N Wade, 'A Natural History of Vision' New Scientist 48: 48.
  • Kentridge, R.W. (1995). Review of J.L. McGaugh, N.M. Weinberger & G. Lynch 'Brain Organization & Memory'. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology B 48: 93-94.
  • Kentridge, R.W. (1995). Review of P. Churchland & T.J. Sejnowski 'The Computational Brain'. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology B 48: 376-377.
  • Kentridge, R.W. (1992). Review of J.L. Davies & H. Eichenbaum Eds. 'Olfaction: A Model System for Computational Neuroscience'. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology B 45: 261-264.

Newspaper/Magazine Article

  • Ferguson, M., Neave, N.J., Kentridge, R.W. & Aggleton, J.P. (1993). Do right-handed cricketers live longer? The Cricket Statistician 81: 12-13.

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