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Durham University

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Staff Profile

Professor Charles Augarde, BSc MSc DPhil CEng FICE

Personal web page

Professor in the Department of Engineering
Telephone: +44 (0) 191 33 42504
Room number: E375 (Higginson)
Member of the Durham X-ray Centre

Contact Professor Charles Augarde (email at charles.augarde@durham.ac.uk)

Biography

Personal webpage

Charles Augarde is a Professor of Civil Engineering in the Department of Engineering. 

After graduating in Engineering from Lancaster University in 1986 he spent six years in industry, working for Manchester City Engineer's Dept on road, bridge and sewer design and construction, achieving Chartered Engineer (CEng) status in 1992. He then studied for an MSc in Structural Engineering at Heriot-Watt University (1993) and a DPhil (=PhD) at Oxford University (1997), where he was also a College Lecturer at Keble College. After his DPhil, and a brief period as a lecturer in structural engineering at the University of Westminster, he returned to Oxford as a Departmental Lecturer in Engineering Science (1997-2001) and a College Lecturer at St Anne's College. Charles joined Durham in 2001 as a Lecturer, was promoted to Senior Lecturer in 2007, Reader in 2011 and Professor in 2013.

Research and Teaching

Charles's main research interest is numerical modelling of geotechnical and structural engineering problems using finite element, meshless and scaled boundary methods, examining ways to improve efficiency and accuracy including novel solution methods. Charles is also interested in unsaturated soil mechanics particularly applied to sustainable earthen construction materials, such as "rammed earth", and has collaborative links with archaeologists concerned with the conservation of heritage earth structures. Funding received from EPSRC in 2013 has allowed us to move into x-ray CT for engineering materials and full details of the service (which Charles manages) are here.

Charles is on the Editorial Boards for the international journals Computers and Geotechnics, Theoretical & Applied Fracture Mechanics, Underground Space and Computers and Structures, and is a past member of the Geotechnique Advisory Panel and the editorial board of Geotechnique Letters. Charles was President of the UK Association for Computational Mechanics (UKACM) 2016-2019, and is a member of committees TC103 and TC301 of the International Society for Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering (ISSMGE). He is also a Chartered Civil Engineer and a Fellow of the Institution of Civil Engineers. For more information, go to his personal webpage.

In the School Charles currently teaches mechanics of materials at L1, and structural design at L4. Charles is also the Dept Impact Officer for the next REF exercise.

Research Groups

Department of Engineering

  • Sustainable Infrastructure

Research Interests

  • Computational Mechanics
  • Geotechnical Engineering
  • Meshless Methods
  • Finite Elements
  • Computational Fracture
  • Earthen Construction

Selected Publications

Authored book

  • Jaquin P.A. & Augarde, C.E. (2012). Earth building: History, science and conservation. BREPress.

Edited book

  • Toll, D.G, Augarde, C.E., Gallipoli, D. & Wheeler, S.J. (2008). Unsaturated Soils. Advances in Geo-Engineering, Proceedings of the 1st European Conference, E-UNSAT 2008. Taylor and Francis.

Journal Article

  • Cuccurullo, Alessia, Gallipoli, Domenico, Bruno, Agostino Walter, Augarde, Charles, Hughes, Paul & La Borderie, Christian (2020). Influence of particle grading on the hygromechanical properties of hypercompacted earth. Journal of Building Pathology and Rehabilitation 5(1): 2.
  • Ai, Weilong & Augarde, Charles E. (2019). Thermoelastic fracture modelling in 2D by an adaptive cracking particle method without enrichment functions. International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 160: 343-357.
  • Ai, Weilong & Augarde, Charles E. (2018). A multi-cracked particle method for complex fracture problems in 2D. Mathematics and Computers in Simulation 150: 1-24.
  • Ai, Weilong & Augarde, Charles (2018). An adaptive cracking particle method providing explicit and accurate description of 3D crack surfaces. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 114(12): 1291-1309.
  • Cortis, M., Coombs, W. M., Augarde, C. E., Brown, M. J. Z., Brennan, A. & Robinson, S. (2018). Imposition of essential boundary conditions in the material point method. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 113(1): 130-152.
  • Coombs, W.M., Charlton, T.J., Cortis, M. & Augarde, C.E. (2018). Overcoming volumetric locking in material point methods. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering 333: 1-21.
  • Beckett, C.T.S., Augarde, C.E., Easton, D. & Easton, T. (2018). Strength characterisation of soil-based construction materials. Geotechnique 68(5): 400-409.
  • Fan, L., Coombs, W.M. & Augarde, C.E. (2018). The point collocation method with a local maximum entropy approach. Computers and Structures 201: 1-14.
  • Charlton, T.J., Coombs, W.M. & Augarde, C.E. (2017). iGIMP: An implicit generalised interpolation material point method for large deformations. Computers and Structures 190: 108-125.
  • Muguda, Sravan, Booth, Samuel John, Hughes, Paul Neil, Augarde, Charles Edward, Perlot, Celine, Bruno, Agostino Walter & Gallipoli, Domenico (2017). Mechanical properties of biopolymer-stabilised soil-based construction materials. Géotechnique Letters 7(4): 309-314.
  • Hattori, G., Trevelyan, J., Augarde, C.E., Coombs, W.M. & Aplin, A.C. (2017). Numerical simulation of fracking in shale rocks: current state and future approaches. Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering 24(2): 281-317.
  • Ai, W. & Augarde, C.E. (2016). An Adaptive Cracking Particle Method for 2D Crack Propagation. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 108(13): 1626-1648.
  • Readle, D., Coghlan, S., Smith, J.C., Corbin, A.J. & Augarde, C.E. (2016). Fibre reinforcement in earthen construction materials. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Construction Materials 169(5): 252-260.
  • Ciancio, D., Beckett, C.T.S., Augarde, C.E. & Jaquin, P.A. (2016). First International Conference on Rammed Earth Construction: report. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Construction Materials 169(5): 271-275.
  • Ullah, Z., Coombs, W. M. & Augarde, C. E. (2016). Parallel computations in nonlinear solid mechanics using adaptive finite element and meshless methods. Engineering Computations 33(4): 1161-1191.
  • Chambers, P., Augarde, C.E., Reed, S. & Dobbins, A. (2016). Temporary propping at Crossrail Paddington Station. Geotechnical Research 3(1): 3-16.
  • Dai, S., Augarde, C.E., Du, C. & Chen, D. (2015). A fully automatic polygon scaled boundary finite element method for modelling crack propagation. Engineering Fracture Mechanics 133: 163-178.
  • Zhuang, X., Cai, Y. & Augarde, C.E. (2014). A meshless sub-region radial point interpolation method for accurate calculation of crack tip fields. Theoretical and Applied Fracture Mechanics 69: 118-125.
  • Zhuang, X., Zhu, H. & Augarde, C.E. (2014). An improved meshless Shepard and least square method possessing the delta property and requiring no singular weight function. Computational Mechanics 53(2): 343-357.
  • Corbin, A. & Augarde, C.E. (2014). Fracture Energy of Stabilised Rammed Earth. Procedia Materials Science 3: 1675-1680.
  • Smith, J.C. & Augarde, C.E. (2014). Optimum water content tests for earthen construction materials. Proceedings of the ICE: Construction Materials 167(2): 114-123.
  • Coombs, W.M., Crouch, R.S. & Augarde, C.E. (2013). A unique Critical State two-surface hyperplasticity model for fine-grained particulate media. Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids 61(1): 175-189.
  • Ullah, Z., Coombs, W.M. & Augarde, C.E. (2013). An adaptive finite element/meshless coupled method based on local maximum entropy shape functions for linear and nonlinear problems. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering 267: 111-132.
  • Ciancio, D. & Augarde, C. (2013). Capacity of unreinforced rammed earth walls subject to lateral wind force: elastic analysis versus ultimate strength analysis. Materials and Structures 46 (9): 1569-1585.
  • Beckett, C.T.S., Hall, M.R. & Augarde, C.E. (2013). Macrostructural changes in compacted earthen construction materials under loading. Acta Geotechnica 8(4): 423-438.
  • Zhang, Y., Gallipoli, D. & Augarde, C.E. (2013). Parameter identification for elasto-plastic modelling of unsaturated soils from pressuremeter tests by parallel modified particle swarm optimization. Computers and Geotechnics 48: 293–303.
  • Beckett, C.T.S. & Augarde, C.E. (2013). Prediction of soil water retention properties using pore size distribution and porosity. Canadian Geotechnical Journal 50(4): 435-450.
  • Ullah, Z. & Augarde, C.E. (2012). Finite deformation elasto-plastic modelling using an adaptive meshless method. Computers & Structures 118: 39-52.
  • Lourenco, S.D.N., Gallipoli, D., Augarde, C.E., Toll, D.G., Fisher, P.C. & Congreve, A. (2012). Formation and evolution of water menisci in unsaturated granular media. Geotechnique 62 (3): 193-199.
  • Zhuang, X., Augarde, C.E. & Mathiesen, K. (2012). Fracture modelling using meshless methods and level sets in 3D: framework and modelling. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 92(11): 969-998.
  • Zhuang, X., Heaney, C.E. & Augarde, C.E. (2012). On error control in the element-free Galerkin method. Engineering Analysis with Boundary Elements 36(3): 351-360.
  • Sheng, D. Augarde C.E. & Abbo, A. (2011). A fast algorithm for finding the first intersection with a non-convex yield surface. Computers and Geotechnics 38(4): 465-471
  • Lourenço, S.D.N., Gallipoli, D., Toll, D.G., Augarde, C.E. & Evans, F. (2011). A new procedure for the determination of the Soil Water Retention Curves by continuous drying using high suction tensiometers. Canadian Geotechnical Journal 48(2): 327-335.
  • Beckett, C.T.S. & Augarde, C.E. (2011). A novel image-capturing technique for the experimental study of soil deformations during compaction. Geotechnical Testing Journal 34(6): 571-578.
  • Zhuang, X., Augarde, C.E. & Bordas, S.P.A. (2011). Accurate fracture modelling using meshless methods, the visibility criterion and level sets: Formulation and 2D modelling. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 86(2): 249-268.
  • Tarantino, A., Gallipoli, D., Augarde, C.E., De Gennaro, V., Gomez, R., Laloui, L., Mancuso, C., McCloskey, G., Munoz, J., Pereira, J-M., Peron, H., Pisoni, G., Romero, E., Raveendiraraj, A., Rojas, J.C., Toll, D.G., Tombolato, S. & Wheeler, S. (2011). Benchmark of experimental techniques for measuring and controlling suction. Géotechnique 61(4): 303–312.
  • Bordas, S.P.A., Natarajan, S., Kerfriden, P., Augarde, C.E. , Mahapatra, D.R., Rabczuk, T. & Dal Pont, S. (2011). On the performance of strain smoothing for quadratic and enriched finite element approximations (XFEM/GFEM/PUFEM). International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 86(4-5): 637-666.
  • Toll, D.G., Lourenço, S.D.N. Mendes, J. Gallipoli, D. Evans, F.D., Augarde, C.E. , Cui, Y.J. Tang, A.M. Rojas Vidovic, J.C. Pagano, L. Mancuso, C. Zingariello, C. & Tarantino, A. (2011). Soil suction monitoring for landslides and slopes. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology 44: 23-33.
  • Beckett, Christopher & Augarde, Charles (2011). Structure creation in earthen construction materials: information from dry soil mixtures. Frontiers of Architecture and Civil Engineering in China 5(2): 151-159.
  • Lourenço, S.D.N., Gallipoli, D., Augarde, C.E., , Toll, D.G., & Evans, F.D. (2011). Towards a Tensiometer Based Suction Control System for Laboratory Testing of Unsaturated Soils. Geotechnical Testing Journal 34(6): 755-764.
  • Bird, G.E., Trevelyan, J. & Augarde, C.E. (2010). A coupled BEM/Scaled Boundary FEM formulation for accurate computations in linear elastic fracture mechanics. Engineering Analysis with Boundary Elements 34(6): 599-610.
  • Cai, Yongchang., Zhuang, Xiaoying. & Augarde, Charles. (2010). A new partition of unity finite element free from the linear dependence problem and possessing the delta property. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering 199(17-20): 1036-1043.
  • Zhuang, X. & Augarde, C.E. (2010). Aspects of the use of orthogonal basis functions in the element-free Galerkin method. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 81(3): 366-380.
  • Heaney, C.E., Augarde, C.E. & Deeks, A.J. (2010). Modelling elasto-plasticity using the hybrid MLPG method. Computer Modeling in Engineering and Sciences 56(2): 153-178.
  • Coombs, W.M., Crouch, R.S. & Augarde, C.E (2010). Reuleaux plasticity: analytical backward Euler stress integration and consistent tangent. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering 199(25-28): 1733-1743.
  • Zhang, Y., Gallipoli, D. & Augarde, C.E. (2009). Simulation-based calibration of geotechnical parameters using parallel hybrid moving boundary particle swarm optimization. Computers and Geotechnics 36(4): 604-615.
  • Jaquin, P.A., Augarde, C.E., Gallipoli, D. & Toll, D.G. (2009). The strength of unstabilised rammed earth materials. Géotechnique 59(5): 487-490
  • Lourenço, S.D.N., Gallipoli, D., Toll, D.G., Augarde, C., Evans, F. & Medero, G. (2008). Calibrations of a high-suction tensiometer. Géotechnique 58(8): 659-668.
  • Jaquin, P.A., Augarde, C. & Gerrard, C.M. (2008). Chronological description of the spatial development of rammed earth techniques. International Journal of Architectural Heritage 2(4): 377-400.
  • Shiau, J., Augarde, C.E., Lyamin, A.V. & Sloan, S.W. (2008). Finite element limit analysis of passive earth resistance in cohesionless soils. Soils and Foundations 48(6): 843-850.
  • Augarde, C.E. & Deeks, A.J. (2008). The use of Timoshenko's exact solution for a cantilever beam in adaptive analysis. Finite Elements in Analysis and Design 44(9-10): 595-601.
  • Deeks, A.J. & Augarde, C.E. (2007). A hybrid meshless local Petrov Galerkin method for unbounded domains. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering 196(4-6): 843-852.
  • Augarde, C.E., Ramage, A. & Staudacher, J. (2007). Element-based preconditioners for elasto-plastic problems in geotechnical engineering. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 71(7): 757-779.
  • Augarde, C.E., Ramage, A. & Staudacher, J. (2006). An element-based displacement preconditioner for linear elasticity problems. Computers and Structures 84(31-32): 2306–2315.
  • Deeks, A. J. & Augarde, C. E. (2005). A meshless local Petrov-Galerkin scaled boundary method. Computational mechanics 36(3): 159-170.
  • Wisser, C, Augarde, CE & Burd, HJ (2005). Numerical modelling of compensation grouting above shallow tunnels. International Journal For Numerical And Analytical Methods InGeomechanics 29(5): 29.
  • Augarde, C. E. & Deeks, A. J. (2005). On the effects of nodal distributions for imposition of essential boundary conditions in the MLPG meshfree method. Communications in numerical methods in engineering 21(7): 389-395.
  • Augarde, CE, Burd, HJ & Houlsby, GT (2005). The influence of building weight on tunnelling-induced ground andbuilding deformation. Soils And Foundations 45(4): 2.
  • Augarde, C. E. (2004). Generation of shape functions for rectangular plate elements. Communications in numerical methods in engineering 20(8): 655-663.
  • Augarde, C. E., Lyamin, A. V & Sloan, S. W. (2003). Prediction of undrained sinkhole collapse. Journal of geotechnical and geoenvironmental engineering 129(3): 197-205.
  • Augarde, CE, Lyamin, AV & Sloan, SW (2003). Stability of an undrained plane strain heading revisited. Computers And Geotechnics 30(5): 12.
  • Davey, J.D. & Augarde, C.E. (2001). Models of skewed masonry arches. The Structural Engineer 79(7): 14 - 15.
  • Augarde, CE & Burd, HJ (2001). Three-dimensional finite element analysis of lined tunnels. International Journal For Numerical And Analytical Methods InGeomechanics 25(3): 20.
  • Liu, G., Houlsby, G.T. & Augarde, C.E. (2001). Two-dimensional analysis of settlement damage to masonry buildings due to tunnelling. The Structural Engineer 79(1): 19 - 25.
  • Houlsby, G. T., Liu, G. & Augarde, C.E. (2000). A tying scheme for imposing displacement constraints in finite element analysis. Communications in numerical methods in engineering 16(10): 721-732.
  • Burd, HJ, Houlsby, GT, Augarde, CE & Liu, G (2000). Modelling tunnelling-induced settlement of masonry buildings. Proceedings Of The Institution Of Civil Engineers-geotechnicalEngineering 143(1): 13.

Conference Paper

  • Davidson, C., Al-Baghdadi, T., Brown, M.J., Knappett, J., Brennan, A., Augarde, C.E., Coombs, W.M., Wang, L., Richards, D., Blake, A. & Ball, J. (2018), A modified CPT based installation torque prediction for large screw piles in sand, in Hicks, Michael A., Pisanò, Federico & Peuchen, Joek eds, Cone Penetration Testing 2018. Delft, Netherlands, CRC Press, London, 255-261.
  • Muguda, Sravan, Lucas, George, Hughes, Paul, Augarde, Charles, Cuccurullo, Alessia, Bruno, Agostino Walter, Perlot, Celine & Gallipoli, Domenico (2018), Advances in the Use of Biological Stabilisers and Hyper-compaction for Sustainable Earthen Construction Materials, in Reddy, B. V. Venkatarama Mani, Monto & Walker, Pete eds, Springer Transactions in Civil and Environmental Engineering book series (STICEE) International Symposium on Earthen Structures 2018 (ISES2018). Bangalore, India, Springer, Singapore, 191-201.
  • Davidson, C., Al-Baghdadi, T., Brown, M.J., Knappett, J., Brennan, A., Augarde, C.E., Wang, L., Coombs, W.M., Richards, D., Blake, A. & Ball, J. (2018), Centrifuge modelling of screw piles for offshore wind energy foundations, in McNamara, Andrew, Divall, Sam, Goodey, Richard, Taylor, Neil, Stallebrass, Sarah & Panchal, Jignasha eds, 9th International Conference on Physical Modelling in Geotechnics (ICPMG 2018). London, UK, CRC Press, Boca Raton, 695-700.
  • Cuccurullo, A., Gallipoli, D., Bruno, A.W., Augarde, C.E., Hughes,P. & La Borderie, C. (2018), Influence of soil grading on the hygro-mechancal properties of hyper-compacted earth for masonry construction, in Milani, G., Taliercio, A. & Garrity, S eds, Proceedings of the 10th International Masonry Conference 10th International Masonry Conference. Milan, Italy, International Masonry Society.
  • Cuccurullo, A, Gallipoli, D, Bruno, AW, La Borderie, C, Augarde, CE & Hughes, PN (2018), The effect of ambient humidity on the stiffness and strength of a hyper-compacted silty clay for earth building, 7th International Conference on Unsaturated Soils. Hong Kong, China.
  • Hashim, N.A., Coombs, W.M., Hattori, G. & Augarde, C.E. (2017), An implicit implementation of non-ordinary state-based peridynamics, in Faramarzi, A. & Dirar, S. eds, 25th UKACM Conference on Computational Mechanics. Birmingham, UK, University of Birmingham, 134-137.
  • Bing, Y., Cortis, M., Charlton, T.J., Coombs, W.M. & Augarde, C.E. (2017), Boundary representation and boundary condition imposition in the material point method, in Faramarzi, A. & Dirar, S. eds, 25th UKACM Conference on Computational Mechanics. Birmingham, UK, University of Birmingham, 256-259.
  • Al-Baghdadi, T., Brown, M.J., Davidson, C., Knappett, J., Brennan, A., Wang, L., Coombs, W.M., Augarde, C.W., Richards, D. & Blake, A. (2017), CPT-based design procedure for installation torque prediction for screw piles installed in sand, 1: 8th International Conference on Offshore Site Investigation & Geotechnics (SUT OSIG). London, Society for Underwater Technology, London, 346-353.
  • Mukwiri, R.A., Ghaffari Motlagh, Y., Coombs, W.M. & Augarde, C.E. (2017), Energy dissipation in granular materials in triaxial tests, in Faramarzi, A. & Dirar, S. eds, 25th UKACM Conference on Computational Mechanics. Birmingham, UK, University of Birmingham, 191-194.
  • Charlton, T.J., Coombs, W.M. & Augarde, C.E. (2017), Gradient elasto-plasticity with the generalised interpolation material point method, in Rohe, A., Soga, K., Teunissen, H. & Coelho, B.Z. eds, 175: 1st International Conference on the Material Point Method (MPM 2017). Delft, Netherlands, Elsevier, 110-115.
  • Wang, L., Coombs, W.M., Augarde, C.E. & Brown, M. (2017), Implicit MPM with second-order convected particle domain interpolation, in Faramarzi, A. & Dirar, S. eds, 25th UKACM Conference on Computational Mechanics. Birmingham, UK, University of Birmingham, 264-267.
  • Robinson, S., Brown, M.J., Brennan, A.J., Cortis, M., Augarde, C.E. & Coombs, W.M. (2017), Improvement of seabed cable plough tow force prediction models, 8th International Conference on Offshore Site Investigation & Geotechnics (SUT OSIG). London, Society for Underwater Technology, London, 914-921.
  • Wang, L., Coombs, W.M., Augarde, C.E., Brown, M., Knappett, J., Brennan, A., Richards, D. & Blake, A. (2017), Modelling screwpile installation using the MPM, in Rohe, A., Soga, K., Teunissen, H. & Coelho, B.Z. eds, 175: 1st International Conference on the Material Point Method (MPM 2017). Delft, Netherlands, Elsevier, 124-132.
  • Cortis, M., Coombs, W.M., Augarde, C.E., Robinson, S., Brown, M. & Brennan, A. (2017), Modelling seabed ploughing using the material point method, in Rohe, A. , Soga, K. , Teunissen, H. & Coelho, B.Z. eds, 175: 1st International Conference on the Material Point Method. Delft, The Netherlands, Elsevier, 1-7.
  • Charlton, T.J., Coombs, W.M. & Augarde, C.E. (2017), On the implementation of gradient plasticity with the material point method, in Faramarzi, A. & Dirar, S. eds, 25th UKACM Conference on Computational Mechanics. Birmingham, UK, University of Birmingham, 240-243.
  • Cortis, M., Coombs, W.M., Augarde, C.E., Robinson, S., Brennan, A. & Brown, M. (2017), The modelling of soil-tool interaction using the material point method, in Faramarzi, A. & Dirar, S. eds, 25th UKACM Conference on Computational Mechanics. Birmingham, UK, University of Birmingham, 211-214.
  • Fan, L. , Augarde, C.E. & Coombs, W.M. (2017), The point collocation method with a local maximum entropy approach, in Faramarzi, A & Dirar, S eds, 25th UKACM Conference on Computational Mechanics. Birmingham, UK, University of Birmingham, 232-235.

Presentation

  • Wang, L., Coombs, W.M. & Augarde, C.E. (2018), On the use of advanced material point methods for problems involving large rotational deformation, 6th European Conference on Computational Mechanics and 7th European Conference on Computational Fluid Dynamics. Glasgow, UK.

Report

  • Ullah, Z., Augarde, C.E. & Coombs, W.M. (2013). Local maximum entropy shape functions based FE-EFGM coupling. School of Engineering and Computing Sciences, Durham University.

Show all publications

Media Contacts

Available for media contact about:

  • Science: Education, industry & the community: computer modelling
  • Engineering: Other contexts: civil engineering, tunnels, bridges
  • Geological hazards: geotechnical engineering, ground conditions, tunnelling
  • Engineering: Earth building (using earth materials to create walls, rammed earth, conservation of old earth buildings)
  • Mechanics: Earth building (using earth materials to create walls, rammed earth, conservation of old earth buildings)
  • Environment: Earth building (using earth materials to create walls, rammed earth, conservation of old earth buildings)
  • Landscape & buildings: Earth building (using earth materials to create walls, rammed earth, conservation of old earth buildings)
  • European & other international expertise: Earth building (using earth materials to create walls, rammed earth, conservation of old earth buildings)
  • Europe: History & Archaeology: Earth building (using earth materials to create walls, rammed earth, conservation of old earth buildings)
  • History & Archaeology: Earth building (using earth materials to create walls, rammed earth, conservation of old earth buildings)
  • Medieval history: Earth building (using earth materials to create walls, rammed earth, conservation of old earth buildings)

Supervises