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Durham University

Email and Telephone Directory

Staff Profile

Prof Mike Byram

Emeritus Professor in the School of Education
Telephone: +44 (0) 191 33 48324

Contact Prof Mike Byram (email at


Michael Byram has been Professor Emeritus since October 2008.

His work in the School comprised initial teacher education and being Director of Research Degrees with supervision of research students. He began his career teaching French and German at secondary school level and in adult education in an English comprehensive community school. After being appointed to a post in teacher education at the University of Durham in 1980, he carried out research into the education of linguistic minorities, foreign language education and student residence abroad, and supervised doctoral students in intercultural studies, language teaching and comparative education. He has published many books and articles including, Teaching and Assessing Intercultural Communicative Competence; From Foireoign Language eEductaion to Education for Intercultural Citizenship, The Common European Framework of Reference. The globalisation of language education policy (edited with Lynne Parmenter). He is the editor with Adelheid HU of the Routledge Encyclopedia of Language Teaching and Learning, which has been translated into Chinese and Arabic.

NEW BOOKS (Sept 2016)

"New approaches to English language and education in Taiwan: cultural and intercultural perspectives" Edited with Wen-Chuan Lin and published in Taiwan Sept 2016.

"New perspectives on intercultural language research and teaching; exploring learners' understandings of texts from other cultures." Melina Porto and Michael Byram. March 2016 Routledge.

"From Principles to Practice in Education for Intercultural Citizenship" Edited with Irina Golubeva, Han Hui and Manuela Wagner (Nov 2016)

Completed Supervisions (since 2008)

Managing The Evaluation of Difference in Foreign Language Education : A Complex Case Study in a Tertiary Level Context in Japan

Fostering criticality in a beginners’ Japanese language course: a case study in a UK higher education modern languages degree programme.

Minority education and curriculum in the multilingual and multicultural society of the UAE.


‘Approaching the real’: an historical and autobiographical account of foreign language teaching in a middle school.

Designing a reading literacy curriculum for secondary school students in Egypt.

Deaf Education in Early Childhood: Bilingual Approaches in Mainland China from 1996-2004

Chinese Postgraduate Students in a British University: Their Learning Experiences and Learning Beliefs

Reflective Outcomes in Asynchronous Computer Mediated Communication: A Case Study using a Comparative Method.

EFL learners developing critical intercultural awareness through process drama: Dialogue and discovery.


Identity, Language, and Education – A Case Study in Taiwan

Teaching Translation in Higher Education in Taiwan- A Needs Analysis and Action Research Approach.

Research Groups

School of Education

Research Interests

  • Bilingual education
  • Comparative education
  • Foreign language teaching


Authored book

  • Jia, Y., Byram, M., Xuerni, S. & Xualai, J. (2019). Experiencing Global Intercultural Communication. Preparing for a Community of Shared Future for Mankind and Global Citizenship. Beijing: Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press.
  • Wagner, M., Cardetti, F. & Byram, M. (2019). Teaching Intercultural Citizenship Across the Curriculum. ACTFL American Council on the Teaching of Fereign Languages.
  • Byram, M. (2017). Intercultural Communicative Language Teaching and TCSOL. Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press.
  • Porto, M. & Byram, M. (2017). New Perspectives on Intercultural Language Research and Teaching: Exploring Learners’ Understandings of Texts from Other Cultures. Routledge.
  • Lai, P.S. & Byram, M.S. (2012). Re-Shaping Education for Citizenship: Democratic National Citizenship in Hong Kong. Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
  • Byram, M.S. (2008). From Foreign Language Education to Education for Intercultural Citizenship. Essays and Reflection. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.

Edited book

  • Byram, M. & Stoicheva, M. (2019). The Doctorate as Experience in Europe and Beyond: Supervision, Languages, Identities. Routledge Research in Higher Education. CRC PRess, Taylir & Francis Online.
  • Wagner, M.M., Perugini, D.C. & Byram, M. (2017). Teaching Intercultural Competence Across the Age Range: From Theory to Practice. Languages for intercultural communication and education, 32. Bristol, UK Blue Ridge Summit, PA: Multilingual Matters.
  • Byram, M., Golubeva, I., Hui, H. & Wagner, M. (2016). From Principles to Practice in Education for Intercultural Citizenship. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.
  • Wen-Chuan, L. & Byram, M. (2016). New Approaches to English Language and Education in Taiwan: Cultural and Intercultural Perspectives. Taiwan: Donghua.
  • Byram, M.S. & Hu, A. (2012). Routledge Encyclopedia of Language Teaching and Learning. Routledge: London.
  • Byram, M.S. & Parmenter, L. (2012). The Common European Framework of Reference: The Globalisation of Language Education Policy. Multilingual Matters.
  • Feng, A., Byram, M. & Fleming, M. (2009). Becoming Interculturally Competent through Education and Training. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.
  • Byram, M.S. & Dervin, F. (2008). Echanges et Mobilités Académiques. Quel bilan?.

Edited Journal

  • Byram, M., Holmes, P. & Savvides, N. (2013). Teaching and Learning Intercultural communication in the Second/Foreign Language Classroom. The Language Learning Journal Special Issue I, 41 (3).

Chapter in book

  • Byram,M. (2020). Assessment of Intercultural Competence and Intercultural Communicative Competence. In Teaching and Learning English Interculturally. Dypedahl, M. & Lund, R. Oslo: Oslo: Cappelen Damm Akademisk. 164-185.
  • Byram, M. (2018). Internationalism and Education in the 1920s and the Case of Foreign-Language Teaching Policy in Britain. In The History of Language Learning and Teaching III. Across Cultures. McLelland, N. & Smith, R. Cambridge: Legenda. 22-36.
  • Wagner, M., Cardetti, F. & Byram, M. (2018). The humble linguist: interdisciplinary perspectives on teaching and assessing intercultural citizenship. In The talking species: Perspectives on the evolutionary, neuronal and cultural foundations of language. Luef, E.M. & Marin, M.M. Graz: Unipress Graz Verlag. 419-443.
  • Wagner, Manuela & Byram, Michael (2017). Intercultural Citizenship. In The International Encyclopedia of Intercultural Communication. Wagner,M. & Byram,M. Wiley Online Library. 1.
  • Boye,S. & Byram,M. (2017). Language awareness and the acquisition of intercultural communicative competence. In Handbook of Language Awareness. Cots,J. & Garrett,P. London: Routledge. 435-449.
  • Hua, Z., Holmes, P., Young, T. & Angouri, J. (2016). How to identify research questions. In Research methods in intercultural communication: a practical guide. Hua, Z. Hoboken: Wiley-Blackwell. 73-87.
  • Byram, M. (2013). Citizenship Education. In Wiley Online encyclopedia of Applied Linguistics. Chapelle, C. Wiley Online Library.
  • Byram, M. (2013). Cultural awareness in multilingual education. In Wiley Online Encyclopedia of Applied Linguistics. Chapelle, C.
  • Byram, M. (2013). De la formation en langues étrangères à l'éducation à la citoyenneté interculturelle. In Éthique et politique en didactigue des langues. Beacco, J-C. Paris: Didier. 1-26.
  • Byram, M. (2013). Identifications through languages. In Intersecting Identities and Interculturality: Discourse and Practice. Machart, R., Lim, C.B., Lim, S.N. & Yamato, E. Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Publishing. 45-56.
  • Byram, M. (2013). Intercultural Competence. In Wiley Online Encyclopedia of Applied Linguistics. Chapelle, C. Chichester, West Sussex, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
  • Byram, M. & Masuhara, H. (2013). Intercultural competence. In Applied linguistics and materials development. Tomlinson, B. London: Bloomsbury. 143-160.
  • Byram, M. (2013). Sprachenpolitik zwischen Theorie und Praxis. In Mehrsprachigkeit grenzuberschreitend. Modelle, Konzepte, Erfahrungen. Gombos, G. Klagenfurt: Drava Verlag. 35-45.
  • Byram, M.S. (2012). Characteristics and competences of the plurilingual and intercultural citizen. In Mehrsprachigkeit. Bildung - Kommunikation - Standards. Facke, C., Martinez, H. & Meissner, F-J. Stuttgart: Ernst Klett Verlag. 15-25.
  • Byram, M. (2012). Reflecting on teaching 'culture' in foreign language education. In Insights into the European Portfolio for Student Teachers of Languages (EPOSTL). Newby, D. Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
  • Byram, M.S. (2011). A research agenda for 'intercultural competence'. In Intercultural competence. Concepts, challenges and evaluations. Witte, A. & Harden, T. Oxford: Peter Lang. 19-36.
  • Byram, M. (2011). Conceptualizing intercultural (communicative) competence and intercultural citizenship. In The Routledge Handbook of Language and Intercultural Communication. Jackson, J. Routledge: London. 85-97.
  • Byram, M.S. (2011). Intercultural citizenship - an education perspective. In Nationalism, Ethnicity, Citizenship. Barrett, M., Flood, C. & Eade, J. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. 163-180.
  • Byram, M.S. (2011). La competence interculturelle. In guide pur la recherche en didactique des langues et des cultures. Blanchet, P. & Chardent, P. Paris: Editions des archives contemporaines. 253-260.
  • Byram, M. (2011). Language teaching (and learning) in a European perspective. In Foreign language teaching - history, theory, methods. Appel, J., Doff, S., Rymarczyk, J. & Thaler, E. Langenscheidt. 11-18.
  • Byram, M.S. (2011). Recherche et prise de position. In Guide pur la recherche en didactique des langues et des cultures. Blanchet, P. & chardent, P. Paris: Editions des archives contemporaines. 41-44.
  • Byram, M. & Parmenter, L. (2010). An overview of the international influences oon the CEFR. In Statements in language education in Japan and beyond - Applications of the CEFR. Schmidt, M.G., Naganuma, N., O'Dwyer, F., Imig, A. & Sakai, K. Tokyo: Asahi Press.
  • Byram, M., Lapkin, S., LoBianco, J., Met, M. & Scott, A. (2010). Fremds[prachen] didaktik in englischsprachigen Landern. In Handbuch Fremdsprachendidaktik. Hallet, W. & Konigs, F.G. Seelze-Velber, Germany: Klett/Kallmeyer.
  • Byram, M. (2010). Intercomprehension; intercultural competence and foreign language teaching. In Lernerautonouire durch Interkomprehension. Doye, P. & Meissner, F-J. Tubingen: Narr Verlag.
  • Byram, M. & Guilherme, M. (2010). Intercultural education and intercultural communication: tracing the relationship. In Becoming intercultural: inside and outside the classroom. Tsai, Y. & Houghton, S. Newcastle upon Tyne, England: Cambridge Scholars Publishing. 2-22.
  • Byram, M.S. (2008). Education for intercultural citizenship: language teaching and education for citizenship - in Europe and beyond. In Visions of Language in Education. Visionen der Bildung durch Sprachen. Doff, S., Hullen, W. & Klippel, F. (eds) Berlin: Langenscheidt. 65-75.
  • Byram, M.S. (2008). Researching residence and study abroad. In Auslandsaufenthalte in Schule und Studium. Bestanbdsaufnahme aus Forschung und Praxis. Ehrenreich, S., Woodman, G. & Perrefort, M. Munster: Waxman. 19-28.

Journal Article

  • Byram, M. (2020). Applied Linguist, Ethnographer, International(ist) Citizen - Perspectives on the Language Learner. Status Quaestionis. Language, Text, Culture 19: 95-108.
  • Barrett, M. & Byram, M. (2020). Errors by Simpson and Dervin (2019) in their description of the Council of Europe’s Reference Framework of Competences for Democratic Culture. Intercultural Communication Education 3(2): 75-95.
  • Porto,M. Byram,M. & Wagner,M. (2020). Ethical issues in teaching for intercultural citizenship in world/foreign language education. TESOL Quarterly
  • Byram, Michael (2020). Politics, origins and futures of the CEFR. The Language Learning Journal
  • Lourenço, Mónica Andrade, Ana Isabel & Byram, Michael (2020). Representations of internationalisation at a Portuguese Higher Education Institution: From institutional discourse to stakeholders’ voices. Revista Lusófona de Educação 47(47): 53-68.
  • Byram, M. (2020). The Responsibilities of Language Teachers when Teaching Intercultural Competence and Citizenship - An Essay. China Media Research 16(2): 77-84.
  • Byram, M., Hu, A. & Rahman, M. (2019). Are researchers in Europe European researchers? A study of doctoral researchers at the University of Luxembourg. Studies in Higher Education 44(3): 486-498.
  • Wang, L. & Byram, M. (2019). International Doctoral Students’ Experience of Supervision: A case study in a Chinese University. Cambridge Journal of Education 49(3): 255-274.
  • Díez-Bedmar, María Belén & Byram, Michael (2019). The current influence of the CEFR in secondary education: teachers’ perceptions. Language, Culture and Curriculum 32(1): 1-15.
  • Byram, M. (2018). An Essay on Internationalism in Foreign Language Education. Intercultural Communication Education 1(2): 64-82.
  • Porto, M., Houghton, S.A. & Byram, M. (2018). Intercultural citizenship in the (foreign) language classroom. Special Edition of Language Teaching Research 22(5): 484-498.
  • Byram, M. (2018). Internationalisation in higher education – an internationalist perspective. On the Horizon 26(2): 148-156.
  • Byram, M. & Wagner, M. (2018). Making a Difference: Language Teaching for Intercultural and International Dialogue. Foreign Language Annals 51(1): 140-151.
  • Rauschert, P. & Byram, M. (2018). Service learning and intercultural citizenship in foreign-language education. Cambridge Journal of Education 48(3): 353-369.
  • Byram, M. (2017). Realising the Educational Purposes of Foreign Language Teaching: “Broadening pupils’ horizons”. LEND: lingua e nuova didattica 46(3): 9-21.
  • Castro, Paloma, Woodin, Jane, Lundgren, Ulla & Byram, Michael (2016). Student mobility and internationalisation in higher education: perspectives from practitioners. Language and Intercultural Communication 16(3): 418-436.
  • Porto, M. & Byram, M. (2015). A curriculum for action in the community and intercultural citizenship in higher education. Language, Culture and Curriculum 28(3): 226-242.
  • Wagner, M. & Byram, M. (2015). Gaining Intercultural Communicative Competence. The Language Educator 10(3): 28-30.
  • Byram, M.S., Holmes, P.M. & Savvides, N. (2015). Guest editorial. The Language Learning Journal 43(2): 129-130.
  • Byram, M. (2014). Twenty-five years on – from cultural studies to intercultural citizenship. Language, Culture and Curriculum 27(3): 209-225.
  • Byram, M. (2013). Foreign language teaching and intercultural citizenship. Iranian Journal of Language Teaching Research 1(3): 53-62.
  • Byram, M., Holmes, P. & Savvides, N. (2013). Intercultural communicative competence in foreign language education: Questions of theory, practice and research. Guest editorial I. The Language Learning Journal 41(3): 251-253.
  • Porto, M. (2013). Language and intercultural education: an interview with Michael Byram. Pedagogies. An international journal 8(2).
  • Byram, M. (2013). Language teaching and its contexts. Iranian Journal of Language Teaching Research 1(1): 1-26.
  • Byram, M. (2013). Teaching communicative and intercultural competence. Lend. Lingua e nuova didattica XLII 2: 34-43.
  • Byram, M., Perugini, D.C. & Wagner, M. (2013). The Development of Intercultural Citizenship in the Elementary School Spanish Classroom. Learning Languages Contents 18(1): 16-31.
  • Byram, M.S. (2012). Language awareness and (critical) cultural awareness - relationships, comparisons and contrasts. Language Awareness 21(1-2): 5-13.
  • Byram, M. & Wang, L. (2011). But when you are doing your exams it is the same as in China - Chinese students adjusting to western approaches to teaching and learning. Cambridge Journal of Education 41(4): 407-424.
  • Yamada, E. & Byram, M. (2011). Criticality and the purposes of teaching foreign languages in Higher Education. Journal of Intercultural Communication Research 2: 171-188.
  • Byram, M. (2011). From foreign language education to education for intercultural citizenship. Intercultural Communication Review 9: 17-36.
  • Byram, M. (2011). Intercultural citizenship from an internationalist perspective. Journal of the NUS Teaching Academy 1(1): 10-20.
  • Byram, M. (2011). Intercultural citizenship: foreign language teaching as an extension of national education. In Chinese, translated by Han Hui Hellen. Academic Research 11: 128-135.
  • Byram, M.S. (2011). Teaching French and intercultural (communicative) competence. Francophonie 44(Autumn): 14-19.
  • Byram, M. (2011). The Common (European) CEFR of Reference - teaching foreign languages, mediation and intercultural competence. Annual Review of English Learning and Teaching 16.
  • Byram, M. (2010). Identitast formalunk, vagy kompetenciakat fejlesztunk a tobbkulturaju allampolgarok kineveleseben? Iskolakultura 4: 43-58.
  • Byram, M. (2010). Linguistic and Cultural Education for Bildung and Citizenship. The Modern Language Journal 94(2): 317-321.
  • Hussein, A., Beverton, S. & Byram, M. (2010). Targets for the Reading Literacy Curriculum in the Egyptian Secondary School. The Journal of Reading, Writing and Literacy 4(3).
  • Byram, M. (2008). Plurilingvalnost u Evropi i njene implikacije. Revija za obrazovanja i kultura 8-9.
  • Byram, M. & Feng, A. (2004). Culture and language learning: teaching research and scholarship. Language Teaching 37(3): 149-168.

Book review

  • Byram, M. (2015). Researching Cultures of Learning: International Perspectives on Language Learning and Education Researching Intercultural Learning: Investigations in Language and Education. ELT Journal 69(3): 331-334.

Conference Paper

  • Wagner, M., Cardetti, F. & Byram, M. (2016), Exploring Collaborative Work for the Creation of Interdisciplinary Units Centered on Intercultural Citizenship, in Garrett-Rucks, P. & Fantini, A. E. eds, New Levels, No Limits. Southern Conference on Language Teaching. Charlotte, NC, Southern Conference on Language Teaching (SCOLT), Decatur, 35-51.
  • Byram, M. (2010), Global communities, cosmopolitan and intercultural citizenship, International Association for Intercultural Studies Conference. Guangzhou, China, Guangzhou.

Edited Sources, Research Data Sets, and Databases

  • (2018). Reference framework of competences for democratic culture. Volume 1: Context, concepts and model. Volume 2: Descriptors. Volume 3: Guidance for implementation. Strasbourg: Council of Europe Publishing. Strasbourg: Council of Europe Publishing.

Media Contacts

Available for media contact about:

  • Subject specialists: modern languages
  • Subject specialists: bilingual education
  • Subject specialists: foreign language teaching
  • Subject specialists: ethnic minority education
  • Europe: Language, literature & culture: France/Germany
  • Europe: Language, literature & culture: language teaching
  • Foreign Literature & Language: French/German
  • Foreign Literature & Language: modern language teaching