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Durham University

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Staff Profile

Professor Charles Fernyhough, MA, PhD

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Professor (0.5) in the Department of Psychology
Telephone: +44 (0) 191 33 48143
Fax: +44 (0)191 3343241
Room number: 80

Contact Professor Charles Fernyhough (email at


My background is in developmental psychology, with a particular focus on social, emotional and cognitive development. Through theoretical and empirical work, I have contributed to the understanding of how language and thought are related in child development and beyond. The focus of my recent scientific work has been in applying ideas from mainstream developmental psychology to the study of psychosis, particularly the phenomenon of voice-hearing (in which individuals hear voices in the absence of any speaker). I have developed a new model of voice-hearing and inner speech, and conducted empirical studies testing aspects of the model in clinical and healthy samples. This work culminated in 2012 with the award of a £1m Wellcome Trust Strategic Award to the interdisciplinary Hearing the Voice project, on which I am PI.

I am active in outreach and public engagement work on themes relating to my research, and in recent years have taken up several exciting engagement challenges, such as lecturing twice at the Royal Institution (March 2010 and July 2012), and writing features for New Scientist and Focus Magazine. I contribute regularly to newspapers in the UK and beyond, with credits including the Guardian, TIME Ideas, Daily Beast, Observer, Literary Review, Sunday Telegraph, Scotland on Sunday, Financial Times, Sydney Morning Herald and Nature. My broadcast media appearances include writing and presenting an essay for New Generation Thinkers (Radio 3, 2008), three appearances on NPR’s Radiolab, interviews on NPR’s Weekend Edition and Brian Lehrer show, local radio (BBC London, Newcastle, Manchester, Kent, Tees), three appearances on BBC Radio 4’s Woman’s Hour, interviews on Radio 4’s All in the Mind and The Digital Human and BBC World Service’s The Forum, and several other radio appearances in the US, Ireland and elsewhere. I have been involved in a consultancy role in two West End theatre productions (‘The River’, Royal Court, 2012; ‘Old Times’, Harold Pinter Theatre, 2013), numerous TV (BBC1 and Channel 4) and radio documentaries and several other artistic projects. I have produced two popular science books on psychology: The Baby in the Mirror: A child’s world from birth to three (Granta, 2008) and Pieces of Light: Memory and its stories (Profile, 2012; shortlisted for the 2013 Royal Society Winton Prize for Science Books). I am also the author of two novels: The Auctioneer (Fourth Estate, 1999) and A Box of Birds (Unbound, 2013).

Research Interests

  • Cognitive-developmental approaches to psychosis and other disorders
  • Imaginary companions in childhood and adulthood
  • Individual differences in theory of mind
  • Private speech and the development of verbal self-regulation
  • Vygotsky's theory
  • Cognitive processes in literary reading and writing

Selected Publications

Edited book

  • Winsler, A., Fernyhough, C. & Montero, I. (2009). Private speech, executive functioning, and the development of verbal self-regulation. New York: Cambridge University Press.
  • Lloyd, P. & Fernyhough, C. (1999). Lev Vygotsky: Critical assessments. London: Routledge.

Chapter in book

  • Wilkinson, Sam & Fernyhough, Charles (2017). Auditory verbal hallucinations and inner speech a predictive processing perspective. In Before consciousness: in search of the fundamentals of mind. Radman, Zdravko Exeter: Imprint Academic. 285-304.
  • McCarthy-Jones, S., Thomas, N., Dodgson, G., Fernyhough, C., Brotherhood, E., Wilson, G. & Dudley, R. (2015). What have we learnt about the ability of cognitive behavioural therapy to help with voice-hearing? In Psychological approaches to understanding and treating auditory hallucinations: From theory to therapy. Hayward, M., Strauss, C. & McCarthy-Jones, S. Routledge. 78-99.
  • Woods, A. & Fernyhough, C. (2014). Hearing voices. In Where does it hurt? The new world of the medical humanities. Holden, John, Kieffer, John, Newbigin, John & Wright, Shelagh London: Wellcome Trust. 84-85.
  • Fernyhough, C. (2013). Inner speech. In Encyclopaedia of the Mind. Pashler, H. Sage.
  • Fernyhough, C. & McCarthy-Jones, S. R. (2013). Thinking aloud about mental voices. In Hallucination. Macpherson, F. & Platchias, D. MIT Press. 87-104.
  • Fernyhough, C. (2009). Dialogic thinking. In Private speech, executive functioning, and the development of verbal self-regulation. Winsler, A., Fernyhough, C. & Montero, I. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Pawlby, S. & Fernyhough, C. (2009). Enhancing the relationship between mothers with severe mental illness and their infants. In Keeping the baby in mind: Prevention in practice. Barlow, J. & Svanberg, P. O. London: Routledge.
  • Fernyhough, C. & Meins, E. (2009). Private speech and theory of mind: Evidence for developing interfunctional relations. In Private speech, executive functioning, and the development of verbal self-regulation. Winsler, A., Fernyhough, C. & Montero, I. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Fernyhough, C. (2009). Voices of the mind. In Thinking about almost everything: New ideas to light up minds. Amin, A. & O'Neill, M. London: Profile Books.
  • Fernyhough, C. (2009). Vygotsky, Luria, and the social brain. In Self- and social-regulation: Exploring the relations between social interaction, social cognition, and the development of executive functions. Carpendale, J., Iarocci, G., Mueller, U., Sokol, B. & Young, A. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Fernyhough, C. (2006). Private speech, executive functioning and theory of mind: A Vygotskian-Lurian synthesis. In Current research trends in private speech: Proceedings of the First International Symposium on self-regulatory functions of language. Montero, I. Madrid: University Press of Universidad Autónoma of Madrid.
  • Fernyhough, C. (1997). Vygotsky’s sociocultural approach: Theoretical issues and implications for current research. In The development of social cognition. Hala, S. London: Psychology Press.

Journal Article

  • Foxwell, John, Alderson-Day, Ben, Fernyhough, Charles & Woods, Angela (2020). ‘I’ve learned I need to treat my characters like people’ Varieties of agency and interaction in Writers’ experiences of their Characters’ Voices. Consciousness and Cognition 79: 102901.
  • Hadden, Lowri M., Alderson‐Day, Ben, Jackson, Mike, Fernyhough, Charles & Bentall, Richard P. (2020). The auditory‐verbal hallucinations of Welsh–English bilingual people. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice 93(1): 122-133.
  • Simons, Jon S., Mitrenga, Kaja & Fernyhough, Charles (2020). Towards an interdisciplinary science of the subjective experience of remembering. Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences 32: 29-34.
  • Geva, S. & Fernyhough, C. (2019). A Penny for Your Thoughts: Children’s Inner Speech and Its Neuro-Development. Frontiers in Psychology Cognitive Science 10: 1708.
  • Davis, Paige E., Webster, Lisa A.D., Fernyhough, Charles, Ralston, Kevin, Kola-Palmer, Susanna & Stain, Helen J. (2019). Adult report of childhood imaginary companions and adversity relates to concurrent prodromal psychosis symptoms. Psychiatry Research 271: 150-152.
  • Waters, Flavie & Fernyhough, Charles (2019). Auditory Hallucinations: Does a Continuum of Severity Entail Continuity in Mechanism? Schizophrenia Bulletin 45(4): 717-719.
  • Maijer, Kim, Hayward, Mark, Fernyhough, Charles, Calkins, Monica E, Debbané, Martin, Jardri, Renaud, Kelleher, Ian, Raballo, Andrea, Rammou, Aikaterini, Scott, James G, Shinn, Ann K, Steenhuis, Laura A, Wolf, Daniel H & Bartels-Velthuis, Agna A (2019). Hallucinations in Children and Adolescents: An Updated Review and Practical Recommendations for Clinicians. Schizophrenia Bulletin 45(Supplement_1): S5-S23.
  • Fernyhough, C., Watson, A., Bernini, M., Moseley, P & Alderson-Day, B. (2019). Imaginary companions, inner speech and auditory verbal hallucinations: What are the relations? Frontiers in Psychology: Cognitive Science 10: 1665.
  • Fernyhough, C. (2019). Modality-general and modality-specific processes in hallucinations. Psychological Medicine 49(16): 2639-2645.
  • Meins, E., Fernyhough, C. & Centifanti, L. C. M. (2019). Mothers’ early mind-mindedness predicts educational attainment in socially and economically disadvantaged British children. Child Development 90(4): e454-e467.
  • Reese, Elaine, Meins, Elizabeth, Fernyhough, Charles & Centifanti, Luna (2019). Origins of mother–child reminiscing style. Development and Psychopathology 31(2): 631-642.
  • Garrison, J. R., Fernyhough, C., McCarthy-Jones, S., Simons, J. S. & Sommer, I. E. C. (2019). Paracingulate sulcus morphology and hallucinations in clinical and nonclinical groups. Schizophrenia Bulletin 45(4): 733-741.
  • Mitrenga, Kaja Julia, Alderson-Day, Ben, May, Lucy, Moffatt, Jamie, Moseley, Peter & Fernyhough, Charles (2019). Reading characters in voices: Ratings of personality characteristics from voices predict proneness to auditory verbal hallucinations. PLOS ONE 14(8): e0221127.
  • Fernyhough, Charles, Alderson-Day, Ben, Hurlburt, Russell T. & Kühn, Simone (2018). Investigating Multiple Streams of Consciousness: Using Descriptive Experience Sampling to Explore Internally and Externally Directed Streams of Thought. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 12: 494.
  • Moseley, P., Mitrenga, K., Ellison, A. & Fernyhough, C. (2018). Investigating the roles of medial prefrontal and superior temporal cortex in source monitoring. Neuropsychologia 120: 113-123.
  • Meins, E., Bureau, J.-F. & Fernyhough, C. (2018). Mother–child attachment from infancy to the preschool years: Predicting security and stability. Child Development 89(3): 1022-1038.
  • Moseley, Peter, Alderson-Day, Ben, Kumar, Sukhbinder & Fernyhough, Charles (2018). Musical hallucinations, musical imagery, and earworms: A new phenomenological survey. Consciousness and Cognition 65: 83-94.
  • Hurlburt, R. T., Alderson-Day, B., Fernyhough, C. & Kühn, S. (2017). Can inner experience be apprehended in high fidelity? Examining brain activation and experience from multiple perspectives. Frontiers in Psychology 8: 43.
  • Uljarević, M., Arnott, B., Carrington, S. J., Meins, E., Fernyhough, C., McConachie, H., Le Couteur, A. & Leekam, S. R. (2017). Development of restricted and repetitive behaviors from 15 to 77 months: Stability of two distinct subtypes? Developmental Psychology 53(10): 1859-1868.
  • Alderson-Day, B., Lima, C., Evans, S., Krishnan, S., Shanmugalingam, P., Fernyhough, C. & Scott, S. (2017). Distinct Processing of Ambiguous Speech in People with Non-Clinical Auditory Verbal Hallucinations. Brain 140(9): 2475-2489.
  • Waters, F. & Fernyhough, C. (2017). Hallucinations: A systematic review of points of similarity and difference across diagnostic classes. Schizophrenia Bulletin 43(1): 32-43.
  • Larkin, F., Meins, E., Centifanti, Luna C. Muñoz, Fernyhough, C. & Leekam, S. (2017). How does restricted and repetitive behavior relate to language and cognition in typical development? Development & Psychopathology 29(3): 863-874.
  • Schacht, R., Meins, E., Fernyhough, C., Centifanti, L. C. M., Pawlby, S. & Bureau, J.-F. (2017). Proof of concept of a mind-mindedness intervention for mothers hospitalized for severe mental illness. Development and Psychopathology 29(2): 555-564.
  • Saunders, Corinne & Fernyhough, Charles (2017). Reading Margery Kempe’s inner voices. postmedieval: a journal of medieval cultural studies 8(2): 209-217.
  • Garrison, J. R., Moseley, P. Alderson-Day, B., Smailes, D., Fernyhough, C. & Simons, J. S. (2017). Testing continuum models of psychosis: No reduction in source monitoring ability in healthy individuals prone to auditory hallucinations. Cortex 91: 197-207.
  • Alderson-Day, B., Bernini, M. & Fernyhough, C. (2017). Uncharted features and dynamics of reading: Voices, characters, and crossing of experiences. Consciousness and Cognition 49: 98-109.
  • Alderson-Day, Ben, Diederen, Kelly, Fernyhough, Charles, Ford, Judith M., Horga, Guillermo, Margulies, Daniel S., McCarthy-Jones, Simon, Northoff, Georg, Shine, James M., Turner, Jessica, van de Ven, Vincent, van Lutterveld, Remko, Waters, Flavie & Jardri, Renaud (2016). Auditory Hallucinations and the Brain’s Resting-State Networks: Findings and Methodological Observations. Schizophrenia Bulletin 42(5): 1110-1123.
  • Alderson-Day, B. & Fernyhough, C. (2016). Auditory verbal hallucinations: Social, but how? Journal of Consciousness Studies 23(7-8): 163-194.
  • Centifanti, L.C.M., Meins, E. & Fernyhough, C. (2016). Callous-Unemotional Traits and Impulsivity: Distinct Longitudinal Relations With Mind-Mindedness and Understanding of Others. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry 57(1): 84-92.
  • de Sousa, P., Sellwood, W., Spray, A., Fernyhough, C. & Bentall, R. P. (2016). Inner speech and clarity of self-concept in thought disorder and auditory-verbal hallucinations. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 204(12): 885-893.
  • Moseley, Peter, Alderson-Day, Ben, Ellison, Amanda, Jardri, Renaud & Fernyhough, Charles (2016). Non-invasive Brain Stimulation and Auditory Verbal Hallucinations: New Techniques and Future Directions. Frontiers in Neuroscience 9: 515.
  • Alderson-Day, B., Weis, S., McCarthy-Jones, S., Moseley, P., Smailes, D. & Fernyhough, C. (2016). The brain’s conversation with itself: neural substrates of dialogic inner speech. Social Cognitive & Affective Neuroscience 11(1): 110-120.
  • Moseley, P., Smailes, D., Ellison, A. & Fernyhough, C. (2016). The effect of auditory verbal imagery on signal detection in hallucination-prone individuals. Cognition 146: 206-216.
  • Smailes, D., Meins, E. & Fernyhough, C. (2015). Associations between intrusive thoughts, reality discrimination and hallucination-proneness in healthy young adults. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry 20(1): 72-80.
  • Pearson, R. M., Heron, J., Button, K., Bentall, R., Fernyhough, C., Mahedy, L., Bowes, L. & Lewis, G. (2015). Cognitive styles and future depressed mood in early adulthood: The importance of global attributions. Journal of Affective Disorders 171: 60-67.
  • Woods, A., Jones, N., Alderson-Day, B., Callard, F. & Fernyhough, C. (2015). Experiences of hearing voices: analysis of a novel phenomenological survey. The Lancet Psychiatry 2(4): 323-331.
  • Alderson-Day, B., McCarthy-Jones, S. & Fernyhough, C. (2015). Hearing voices in the resting brain: A review of intrinsic functional connectivity research on auditory verbal hallucinations. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews 55: 78-87.
  • Firth, L., Alderson-Day, B., Woods, N. & Fernyhough, C. (2015). Imaginary companions in childhood: Relations to imagination skills and autobiographical memory in adults. Creativity Research Journal 27(4): 308-313.
  • Alderson-Day, B. & Fernyhough, C. (2015). Inner speech: Development, cognitive functions, phenomenology, and neurobiology. Psychological Bulletin 141(5): 931-965.
  • Garrison, J., Fernyhough, C., McCarthy-Jones, S., Haggard, M., The Australian Schizophrenia Research Bank & Simons, J. S. (2015). Paracingulate sulcus morphology is associated with hallucinations in the human brain. Nature Communications 6: 8956.
  • Alderson-Day, B. & Fernyhough, C. (2015). Relations among questionnaire and experience sampling measures of inner speech: a smartphone app study. Frontiers in Psychology 6: 517.
  • Bowes, L., Carnegie, R., Pearson, R., Mars, B., Biddle, L., Maughan, B., Lewis, G., Fernyhough, C. & Heron, J. (2015). Risk of depression and self-harm in teenagers identifying with goth subculture: a longitudinal cohort study. Lancet Psychiatry 2(9): 793-800.
  • Smailes, D., Alderson-Day, B., Fernyhough, C., McCarthy-Jones, S. & Dodgson, G. (2015). Tailoring cognitive behavioural therapy to subtypes of voice-hearing. Frontiers in Psychology: Psychopathology 6: 1933.
  • Hurlburt, R. T., Alderson-Day, B., Fernyhough, C. & Kühn, S. (2015). What goes on in the resting state? A qualitative glimpse into resting-state experience in the scanner. Frontiers in Psychology: Cognitive Science 6: 1535.
  • Johns, L. C., Kompus, K., Connell, M., Humpston, C., Lincoln, T. M., Longden, E., Preti, A., Alderson-Day, B., Badcock, J. C., Cella, M., Fernyhough, C., McCarthy-Jones, S., Peters, E., Raballo, A., Scott, J., Siddi, S., Sommer, I. & Larøi, F. (2014). Auditory verbal hallucinations in persons with and without a need for care. Schizophrenia Bulletin 40(Suppl 4): S255-S264.
  • Davis, P. , Meins, E. & Fernyhough, C. (2014). Children with imaginary companions focus on mental characteristics when describing their real-life friends. Infant and Child Development 23(6): 622-633.
  • Larøi, F., Luhrmann, T. M., Bell, V., Christian, W. A., Deshpande, S., Fernyhough, C., Jenkins, J. & Woods, A. (2014). Culture and Hallucinations: Overview and Future Directions. Schizophrenia Bulletin 40(Suppl 4): S213-S220.
  • Jardri, R., Bartels-Velthuis, A., Debbané, M., Jenner, J., Kelleher, I., Dauvillier, Y., Plazzi, G., Demeulemeester, M., David, C., Rapoport, J., Dobbelaere, D., Escher, S. & Fernyhough, C. (2014). From phenomenology to a neurophysiological understanding of hallucinations in children and adolescents. Schizophrenia Bulletin 40(Suppl 4): S221-S232.
  • Kühn, S., Fernyhough, C., Alderson-Day, B. & Hurlburt, R. T. (2014). Inner experience in the scanner: Can high fidelity apprehensions of inner experience be integrated with fMRI? Frontiers in Psychology 5: 1393.
  • Woods, A., Jones, N., Bernini, M., Callard, F., Alderson-Day, B., Badcock, J., Bell,V., Cook, C., Csordas, T., Humpston, C., Krueger, J., Larøi, F., McCarthy-Jones, S., Moseley, P., Powell, H., Raballo, A., Smailes, D. & Fernyhough, C. (2014). Interdisciplinary Approaches to the Phenomenology of Auditory Verbal Hallucinations. Schizophrenia Bulletin 40(Suppl 4): S246-S254.
  • Meins, E., Fernyhough, C. & Harris-Waller, J. (2014). Is mind-mindedness trait-like or a quality of close relationships? Evidence from descriptions of significant others, famous people, and works of art. Cognition 130(3): 417-427.
  • Alderson-Day, B. & Fernyhough, C. (2014). More than one voice: Investigating the phenomenological properties of inner speech requires a variety of methods. Commentary on Hurlburt, Heavey and Kelsey (2013), Toward a phenomenology of inner speaking. Consciousness and Cognition 24: 113-114.
  • Waters, Flavie, Woods, Angela & Fernyhough, Charles (2014). Report on the 2nd International Consortium on Hallucination Research: Evolving Directions and Top-10 “Hot Spots” in Hallucination Research. Schizophrenia Bulletin 40(1): 24-27.
  • Alderson-Day, B., McCarthy-Jones, S., Bedford, S., Collins, H., Dunne, H., Rooke, C. & Fernyhough, C. (2014). Shot through with voices: Dissociation mediates the relationship between varieties of inner speech and auditory hallucination proneness. Consciousness and Cognition 27: 288-296.
  • Smailes, D., Meins, E. & Fernyhough, C. (2014). The impact of negative affect on reality discrimination. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry 45(3): 389-395.
  • Moseley, P., Fernyhough, C. & Ellison, A. (2014). The role of the superior temporal lobe in auditory false perceptions: A transcranial direct current stimulation study. Neuropsychologia 62: 202-208.
  • Pearson, R., Fernyhough, C., Bentall, R. P., Evans, J., Heron, J., Joinson, C., Stein, A. & Lewis, G. (2013). Association Between Maternal Depressogenic Cognitive Style During Pregnancy and Offspring Cognitive Style 18 Years Later. American Journal of Psychiatry 170(4): 434-441.
  • Moseley, P., Fernyhough, C. & Ellison, A. (2013). Auditory verbal hallucinations as atypical inner speech monitoring, and the potential of neurostimulation as a treatment option. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews 37(10): 2794-2805.
  • Sullivan, S. Bentall, R. P., Fernyhough, C., Pearson, R. M. & Zammit, S. (2013). Cognitive styles and psychotic experiences in a community sample. PLoS ONE 8(11): e80055.
  • Davis, P., Meins, E. & Fernyhough, C. (2013). Individual differences in children’s private speech: The role of imaginary companions. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 116(3): 561-571.
  • Meins, L., Centifanti, L.C.M., Fernyhough, C. & Fishburn S. (2013). Maternal mind-mindedness and children’s behavioral difficulties: Mitigating the impact of low socioeconomic status. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 41(4): 543-553.
  • Meins, E., Fernyhough, C., Arnott, B., Leekam, S. & de Rosnay, M. (2013). Mind-Mindedness and Theory of Mind: Mediating Roles of Language and Perspectival Symbolic Play. Child Development 84(5): 1777-1790.
  • McCarthy-Jones, S., Krueger, J., Larøi, F., Broome, M. & Fernyhough, C. (2013). Stop, look, listen: The need for philosophical phenomenological perspectives on auditory verbal hallucinations. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7: 127.
  • Meins, E., McCarthy-Jones, S., Fernyhough, C., Lewis, G., Bentall, R. P. & Alloy, L. B. (2012). Assessing negative cognitive style: Development and validation of a short-form version of the Cognitive Style Questionnaire. Personality and Individual Differences 52(5): 581-585.
  • Waters, F., Allen, P., Aleman, A. Fernyhough, C., Woodward, T., Badcock, J. C., Barkus, E., Johns, L. Varese, F., Menon, M., Vercammen, A. & Larøi, F. (2012). Auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia and nonschizophrenia populations: A review and integrated model of cognitive mechanisms. Schizophrenia Bulletin 38(4): 683-693.
  • Alba-Ferrara, L., Fernyhough, C., Weis, S., Mitchell, R. L. C. & Hausmann, M. (2012). Contributions of emotional prosody comprehension deficits to the formation of auditory verbal hallucinations in schizophrenia. Clinical Psychology Review 32(4): 244-250.
  • Meins, E., Fernyhough, C., de Rosnay, M., Arnott, B., Leekam, S. R. & Turner, M. (2012). Mind-mindedness as a multidimensional construct: Appropriate and nonattuned mind-related comments independently predict infant–mother attachment in a socially diverse sample. Infancy 17(4): 393-415.
  • Al-Namlah, A. S., Meins, E. & Fernyhough, C. (2012). Self-regulatory private speech relates to children's recall and organization of autobiographical memories. Early Childhood Research Quarterly 27(3): 441-446.
  • Larøi, F., Sommer, I. E., Blom, J.-D., Fernyhough, C., ffytche, D. H., Hugdahl, K., Johns, L. C., McCarthy-Jones, S. R., Preti, A., Raballo, A., Slotema, C. W., Stephane, M. & Waters, F. (2012). The phenomenological features of auditory verbal hallucinations in schizophrenia and across clinical disorders: A state-of-the-art overview and critical evaluation. Schizophrenia Bulletin 38(4): 724-733.
  • Lidstone, J. S. M., Meins, E. & Fernyhough, C. (2012). Verbal mediation of cognition in children with Specific Language Impairment. Development and Psychopathology 24(2): 651-660
  • Fernyhough, C. (2011). Even ‘internalist’ minds are social. Style
  • Lidstone, J., Meins, E. & Fernyhough, C. (2011). Individual differences in children's private speech: Consistency across tasks, timepoints, and contexts. Cognitive Development 26(3): 203.
  • Meins, E., Fernyhough, C., Arnott, B., Vittorini, L., Turner, M., Leekam, S. R. & Parkinson, K. (2011). Individual differences in infants' joint attention behaviors with mother and a new social partner. Infancy 16(6): 587-610.
  • Meins, E., Fernyhough, C., Arnott, B., Turner, M. & Leekam, S.R. (2011). Mother- versus infant-centered correlates of maternal mind-mindedness in the first year of life. Infancy 16(2): 137-165.
  • Davis, P., Meins, E. & Fernyhough, C. (2011). Self-knowledge in childhood: Relations with children’s imaginary companions and understanding of mind. British Journal of Developmental Psychology 29(3): 680-686.
  • McCarthy-Jones, S. R. & Fernyhough, C. (2011). The varieties of inner speech: Links between quality of inner speech and psychopathological variables in a sample of young adults. Consciousness and Cognition 20(4): 1586–1593.
  • McCarthy-Jones, S., Barnes, L. J., Hill, G. E., Marwood, L., Moseley, P. & Fernyhough, C. (2011). When words and pictures come alive: Relating the modality of intrusive thoughts to modalities of hypnagogic/hypnopompic hallucinations. Personality and Individual Differences 51(6): 787-790.
  • Jones, S. R., Fernyhough, C. & Larøi, F. (2010). A phenomenological survey of auditory verbal hallucinations in the hypnagogic and hypnopompic states. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 9(2): 213-224.
  • Pawlby, S., Fernyhough, C., Meins, E., Pariante, C. M., Seneviratne, G. & Bentall, R. P. (2010). Mind-mindedness and maternal responsiveness in infant–mother interactions in mothers with severe mental illness. Psychological Medicine 40(11): 1861-1869
  • Arnott, B., McConachie, H., Meins, E., Fernyhough, C., Le Couteur, A., Turner, M. Parkinson, K. Vittorini, L. & Leekam, S. (2010). The frequency of restricted and repetitive behaviours in a community sample of 15 month-old infants. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics 31(3): 223-229.
  • Lidstone, J. S. M., Meins, E. & Fernyhough, C. (2010). The roles of private speech and inner speech in planning during middle childhood: Evidence from a dual task paradigm. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 107(4): 438-451
  • Lidstone, J. S. M., Fernyhough, C., Meins, E. & Whitehouse, A. J. O. (2009). Brief report: Inner speech impairment in children with autism is associated with greater nonverbal than verbal skills. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 39: 1222-1225.
  • Laing, S. V., Fernyhough, C., Turner, M. & Freeston, M. H. (2009). Fear, worry, and ritualistic behavior in childhood: Developmental trends and interrelations. Infant and Child Development 18(4): 351-366.
  • Jones, S. R., Fernyhough, C. & Meads, D. (2009). In a dark time: Development, validation, and correlates of the Durham Hypnagogic and Hypnopompic Hallucinations Questionnaire. Personality and Individual Differences 46(1): 30-34.
  • Jones, S. R. & Fernyhough, C. (2009). Rumination, reflection, intrusive thoughts, and hallucination proneness: Towards a new model. Behaviour Research and Therapy 47(1): 54-59.
  • Langdon, R., Jones, S. R., Connaughton, E. & Fernyhough, C. (2009). The phenomenology of inner speech: Comparison of schizophrenia patients with auditory verbal hallucinations and healthy controls. Psychological Medicine 39(4): 655-663.
  • Fernyhough, C. (2009). What can we say about the inner experience of the young child? (Commentary on Carruthers). Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32: 143-144.
  • Corriveau, K., Harris, P.L., Meins, E., Fernyhough, C., Arnott, B., Elliott, L., Liddle, B., Hearn, A., Vittorini, L. & De Rosnay, M. (2009). Young children’s trust in their mothers’ claims: Longitudinal links with attachment security in infancy. Child Development 80(3): 750-761.
  • Jones, S. R., Fernyhough, C., de-Wit, L. & Meins, E. (2008). A message in the medium? Assessing the reliability of psychopathology e-questionnaires. Personality and Individual Differences 44(2): 349-359.
  • Jones, S. R. , de-Wit, L., Fernyhough, C. & Meins, E. (2008). A new spin on the Wheel of Fortune: Priming of action-authorship judgements and relation to psychosis-like experiences. Consciousness and Cognition 17(3): 576-586.
  • Meins, E., Jones, S. R., Fernyhough, C., Hurndall, S. & Koronis, P. (2008). Attachment dimensions and schizotypy in a non-clinical sample. Personality and Individual Differences 44(4): 1000-1011.
  • Bentall, R. P. & Fernyhough, C. (2008). Social predictors of psychotic experiences: Specificity and psychological mechanisms. Schizophrenia Bulletin 34(6): 1012-1020.
  • Fernyhough, C., Jones, S. R., Whittle, C., Waterhouse, J. & Bentall, R. P. (2008). Theory of mind, schizotypy, and persecutory ideation in young adults. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry 13(3): 233-249.
  • Jones, S. R. & Fernyhough, C. (2008). Thought suppression and persecutory delusion-like beliefs in a non-clinical sample. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry 13(4): 281-295.
  • Jones, S. R. & Fernyhough, C. (2007). A new look at the neural diathesis-stress model of schizophrenia: The primacy of social-evaluative and uncontrollable situations. Schizophrenia Bulletin 33(5): 1171-1177.
  • Fernyhough, C. (2007). Getting Vygotskian about theory of mind: Mediation, dialogue, and the development of social understanding. Developmental Review 28(2): 225-262
  • Fernyhough, C., Bland, K. Meins, E. & Coltheart, M. (2007). Imaginary companions and young children’s responses to ambiguous auditory stimuli: Implications for typical and atypical development. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 48(11): 1094-1101.
  • Jones, S. R. & Fernyhough, C. (2007). Neural correlates of inner speech and auditory verbal hallucinations: A critical review and theoretical integration. Clinical Psychology Review 27(2): 140-154.
  • Meins, E. & Fernyhough, C. (2007). Preschoolers’ understanding of multiple orientations to reality: The Adjectives task. Cognitive Development 22(2): 289-297.
  • Bentall, R. P., Fernyhough, C., Morrison, A. P., Lewis, S. W. & Corcoran, R. (2007). Prospects for a cognitive-developmental account of psychotic experiences. British Journal of Clinical Psychology 46(2): 155-173.
  • Jones, S.R. & Fernyhough, C. (2007). Reliability of factorial structure of the Peters et al. delusions inventory (PDI-21). Personality and individual differences 43(4): 647-656.
  • Jones, S. R. & Fernyhough, C. (2007). Talking back to the spirits: The voices and visions of Emanuel Swedenborg. History of the Human Sciences 21: 1-31.
  • Jones, S.R. & Fernyhough, C. (2007). The Roles of Locus of Control and Self-Esteem in Hallucination- and Delusion-Proneness in a Non-Clinical Sample. Personality and Individual Differences 43(5): 1087-1097.
  • Jones, S. R. & Fernyhough, C. (2007). Thought as action: Inner speech, self-monitoring, and auditory verbal hallucinations. Consciousness and Cognition 16(2): 391-399.
  • Fernyhough, C. (2006). Metaphors of mind. Psychologist -Leicester- 19: 356-358.
  • Meins, E., Fernyhough, C., Johnson, F. & Lidstone, J. (2006). Mind-mindedness in children: Individual differences in internal-state talk in middle childhood. British Journal of Developmental Psychology 24(1): 181-196.
  • Al-Namlah, A. S., Fernyhough, C. & Meins, E. (2006). Sociocultural influences on the development of verbal mediation: Private speech and phonological recoding in Saudi Arabian and British samples. Developmental Psychology 42(1): 117-131.
  • Jones, S. R. & Fernyhough, C. (2006). The roles of thought suppression and metacognitive beliefs in proneness to auditory verbal hallucinations in a non-clinical sample. Personality and Individual Differences 41: 1421-1432.
  • Fernyhough, C & Fradley, E (2005). Private speech on an executive task: Relations with task difficulty and task performance. Cognitive Development 20(1): 103-120.
  • Fernyhough, C (2005). What is internalised? Dialogic cognitive representations and the mediated mind (Commentary on Tomasello et al.). Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28: 698-699.
  • Fernyhough, C (2004). Alien voices and inner dialogue: Towards a developmental account of auditory verbal hallucinations. New Ideas in Psychology 22: 49-68.
  • Fernyhough, C. (2004). More than a context for learning? The epistemic triangle and the dialogic mind (Commentary on Carpendale & Lewis). Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27: 104-105.
  • Meins, E., Fernyhough, C., Wainwright, R., Clark-Carter, D., Das Gupta, M., Fradley, E. & Tuckey, M. (2003). Pathways to understanding mind: Construct validity and predictive validity of maternal mind-mindedness. Child Development 74(4): 1194-1211.
  • Meins, E., Fernyhough, C., Wainwright, R., Das Gupta, M., Fradley, E. & Tuckey, M. (2002). Maternal mind-mindedness and attachment security as predictors of theory of mind understanding. Child Development 73(6): 1715-1726.
  • Meins, E., Fernyhough, C., Fradley, E. & Tuckey, M. (2001). Rethinking maternal sensitivity: Mothers' comments on infants' mental processes predict security of attachment at 12 months. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 42(5): 637-648.
  • Meins, E. & Fernyhough, C. (1999). Linguistic acquisitional style and mentalising development: The role of maternal mind-mindedness. Cognitive Development 14: 363-380.
  • Meins, E., Fernyhough, C., Russell, J. & Clark-Carter, D. (1998). Security of attachment as a predictor of symbolic and mentalising abilities: A longitudinal study. Social Development 7: 1-24.
  • Fernyhough, C. & Russell, J. (1997). Distinguishing one's own voice from those of others: A function of private speech? International Journal of Behavioral Development 20: 651-665.
  • Fernyhough, C. (1996). The dialogic mind: A dialogic approach to the higher mental functions. New Ideas in Psychology 14: 47-62.
  • Robbins T W, Anderson E J, Barker D R, Bradley A C, Fernyhough C, Henson R, Hudson SR & Baddeley A (1996). Working memory in chess. Memory and Cognition 24: 83-93.

Edited Journal

  • Fernyhough, C. & Waters, F. (2014). Special Supplement Introduction: Hallucinations. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 40 (Supp 4): Oxford University Press.

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