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Email and Telephone Directory

Staff Profile

Dr Darren R. Gröcke, BSc (Hons), DPhil (Oxon)

Associate Professor (Reader) in the Department of Earth Sciences
Telephone: +44 (0) 191 33 42282
Room number: Rm 1.04, Christopherson Building

(email at d.r.grocke@durham.ac.uk)

Biography

2017 — Associate Professor (Reader), Department of Earth Sciences, Durham University, UK.

2008 – 2016 — Reader, Department of Earth Sciences, Durham University, UK.

2007 – 2008  — Lecturer, Department of Earth Sciences, Durham University, UK.

2006 – 2007  — Associate Professor, School of Geography & Earth Sciences, McMaster University, Canada.

2003 – 2006  — Assistant Professor, School of Geography & Earth Sciences, McMaster University, Canada.

2000 – 2003  — Lecturer, Department of Geology, Royal Holloway University of London, UK.

Research Interests

Darren Gröcke is the Director of the Stable Isotope Biogeochemistry Laboratory (SIBL — more details can be found at https://sites.google.com/site/stablesibl/home) in Durham University. He is an international expert in the field of stable isotope geochemistry and in particular stable carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen isotopes. His research interests are not confined to a specific topic or specific time interval, but span all the sciences and the geological record. Research areas that he has made significant advances is in stable isotope stratigraphy, understanding the causes and consequences of oceanic anoxic events, carbon isotopes in fossil plants as a stratigraphic tool, palaeodietary reconstruction with nitrogen isotopes, and the application of hydrogen isotopes in beetles as a recorder of climate and environment.

Current research projects include:

  • Stable isotopes in macroalgae
  • Cultivation in archaeology as recorded by nitrogen isotopes
  • Understanding modern organic carbon burial in estuarine environments
  • Hydrogen isotopes in archaeological collagen
  • Climatic and environmental change recorded at the Triassic/Jurassic boundary
  • Silurian stratigraphy of evaporite environments
  • Stable isotope records in tree rings
  • Archaeology and environment of submersed forests around the UK coast

Research Groups

Department of Earth Sciences

  • Climate and Environmental Change
  • Geoenergy, Resources and Waste

Research Interests

  • Black Shales
  • Botany
  • Environment
  • Geochemistry
  • Oceanic anoxic events
  • Palaeobotany
  • Palaeoceanography
  • Palaeoclimates
  • Palaeodiets
  • Palaeoenvironments
  • Sea level
  • Sedimentology
  • Stable Isotopes
  • Stratigraphy

Selected Publications

Chapter in book

  • Rogers, B., Gron, K.J., Montgomery, J., Gröcke, D.R. & Rowley-Conwy, P. (Accepted). Aurochs Hunters: The Animal Bones. In Blick Mead: Spring Excavations. Jacques, D. Oxford University Press. in press.
  • Plint, A.G., Hooper, E.A., Grifi, M.D., Walaszczyk, I., Landman, N., Gröcke, D.R. & Jarvis, I. (2017). Integrated, high-resolution allostratigraphic, biostratigraphic and carbon-isotope correlation of Coniacian strata (Upper Cretaceous), western Alberta and northern Montana. In Allostratigraphy and biostratigraphy of the Upper Cretaceous (Coniacian-Santonian) Western Canada Foreland Basin. Landman, Neil H., Plint, A. Guy. & Walaszczyk, Ireneus New York: American Museum of Natural History. 414: 9-52.
  • Caruthers, A. H., Smith, P. L. & Gröcke, D. R. (2014). The Pliensbachian-Toarcian (Early Jurassic) extinction: A North American perspective. In Volcanism, Impacts, and Mass Extinctions: Causes and Effects. Geological Society of America. 505: 225-243.
  • Laya, J. C., Tucker, M. E., Gröcke, D. R. & Perez-Huerta, A. (2013). Carbon, oxygen and strontium isotopic composition of low-latitude Permian carbonates (Venezuelan Andes): climate proxies of tropical Pangea. In Palaeozoic Climate Cycles: Their Evolutionary and Sedimentological Impact. Geological Society of London. 376: 367-385.
  • Gröcke, D. R., van Hardenbroek, M., Sauer, P. E. & Elias, S. A. (2010). Hydrogen Isotopes in Beetle Chitin. In Chitin: formation and diagenesis. Gupta, Neal S. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands. 105-116.
  • Gröcke, D. R. (2009). “Greenhouse” (Warm) Climates. In Encyclopedia of Paleoclimatology and Ancient Environments. Dordrecht: Springer-Verlag. 397-405.

Journal Article

  • Li, Y., Li, J., Li, X., Selby, D., Huang, G., Chen, L. & Zheng, K. (2017). An Early Cretaceous carbonate replacement origin for the Xinqiao stratabound massive sulfide deposit, Middle-Lower Yangtze Metallogenic Belt, China. Ore Geology Reviews 80: 985-1003.
  • Them II, T.R., Gill, B.C., Caruthers, A.H., Gröcke, D.R., Tulsky, E.T., Martindale, R.C., Poulton, T.P. & Smith, P.L. (2017). High-resolution carbon isotope records of the Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event (Early Jurassic) from North America and implications for the global drivers of the Toarcian carbon cycle. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 459: 118-126.
  • Gröcke, D.R., Sauer, P.E., Bridault, A., Drucker, D.G., Germonpré, M. & Bocherens, H. (2017). Hydrogen isotopes in Quaternary mammal collagen from Europe. Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports 11: 12-16.
  • Chang, J.C., Shulmeister, J., Gröcke, D.R. & Woodward, C. (2017). Towards more accurate temperature reconstructions based on oxygen isotopes of subfossil chironomid head-capsules in Australia. Limnology & Oceanography in press.
  • Gröcke, D.R., Racionero-Gómez, B., Marschalek, J.W. & Greenwell, H.C. (2017). Translocation of isotopically distinct macroalgae: a route to low-cost biomonitoring? Chemosphere 184: 1175-1185.
  • Redfern, R., Gröcke, D.R., Millard, A.R., Ridgeway, V., Johnson, L. & Hefner, J.T. (2016). Going south of the river: a multidisciplinary analysis of ancestry, mobility and diet in a population from Roman Southwark, London. Journal of Archaeological Science 74: 11-22.
  • Jørkov, M.L.S. & Gröcke, D.R. (2016). Investigating adult diet during Industrialization in Copenhagen based on stable isotope analysis of bone collagen and hair keratin. Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences 9(7): 1327-1341.
  • Sciscio, L., Tsikos, H., Roberts, D.L., Scott, L., van Breugel, Y., Sinninghe Damste, J.S., Schouten, S. & Gröcke, D.R. (2016). Miocene climate and vegetation changes in the Cape Peninsula, South Africa: evidence from biogeochemistry and palynology. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 445: 124-137.
  • Olde, K., Jarvis, I., Pearce, M., Ulicný, D., Tocher, B., Trabucho-Alexandre, J. & Gröcke, D. R. (2015). A revised northern European Turonian (Upper Cretaceous) dinoflagellate cyst biostratigraphy: Integrating palynology and carbon isotope events. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 213: 1-16.
  • Rocha, C., Veiga-Pires, C., Scholten, J., Knoeller, K., Gröcke, D.R., Carvalho, L., Anibal, J. & Wilson, J. (2015). Assessing land-ocean connectivity via Submarine Groundwater Discharge (SGD) in the Ria Formosa Lagoon (Portugal): combining radon measurements and stable isotope hydrology. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions 12(11): 12433-12482.
  • Carroll, E.L., Baker, C.S., Watson, M., Alderman, R., Bannister, J., Gaggiotti, O.E., Gröcke, D.R., Patenaude, N. & Harcourt, R. (2015). Cultural traditions across a migratory network shape the genetic structure of southern right whales around Australia and New Zealand. Scientific Reports 5: 16182.
  • Olde, K., Jarvis, I., Uličný, D., Pearce, M.A., Trabucho-Alexandre, J., Čech, S., Gröcke, D.R., Laurin, J., Švábenická, L. & Tocher, B.A. (2015). Geochemical and palynological sea-level proxies in hemipelagic sediments: A critical assessment from the Upper Cretaceous of the Czech Republic. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 435: 222-243.
  • Jarvis, I., Trabucho-Alexandre, J., Gröcke, D. R., Uličný, D. & Laurin, J. (2015). Intercontinental correlation of organic carbon and carbonate stable-isotope records: evidence of climate and sea-level change during the Turonian (Cretaceous). The Depositional Record 1(2): 53-90.
  • Ulicný, D., Jarvis, I., Gröcke, D. R., Cech, S., Laurin, J., Olde, K., Trabucho-Alexandre, J., Svábenická, L. & Pedentchouk, N. (2014). A high-resolution carbon-isotope record of the Turonian stage correlated to a siliciclastic basin fill: Implications for mid-Cretaceous sea-level change. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 405: 42-58.
  • French, K. L., Sepúlveda, J., Trabucho-Alexandre, J., Gröcke, D. R. & Summons, R. E. (2014). Organic geochemistry of the early Toarcian oceanic anoxic event in Hawsker Bottoms, Yorkshire, England. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 390: 116-127.
  • Metodiev, L. S., Savov, I. P., Gröcke, D. R., Wignall, P. B., Newton, R. J., Andreeva, P. V. & Koleva-Rekalova, E. K. (2014). Paleoenvironmental conditions recorded by 87Sr/86Sr, δ13C and δ18O in late Pliensbachian–Toarcian (Jurassic) belemnites from Bulgaria. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 409: 98-113.
  • Szpak, P., Orchard, T. J., Salomon, A. K. & Gröcke, D. R. (2013). Regional ecological variability and impact of the maritime fur trade on nearshore ecosystems in southern Haida Gwaii (British Columbia, Canada): evidence from stable isotope analysis of rockfish (Sebastes spp.) bone collagen. Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences 5(2): 159-182.
  • Caruthers, A. H., Smith, P. L. & Gröcke, D. R. (2013). The Pliensbachian–Toarcian (Early Jurassic) extinction, a global multi-phased event. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 386: 104-118.
  • Balsamo, F., Storti, F. & Gröcke, D. R. (2012). Fault-related fluid flow history in shallow marine sediments from carbonate concretions, Crotone basin, south Italy. Journal of the Geological Society 169(5): 613-626.
  • Szpak, P., Orchard, T. J., McKechnie, I. & Gröcke, D. R. (2012). Historical ecology of late Holocene sea otters (Enhydra lutris) from northern British Columbia: isotopic and zooarchaeological perspectives. Journal of Archaeological Science 39(5): 1553-1571.
  • van Hardenbroek, M., Gröcke, D. R., Sauer, P. E. & Elias, S. A. (2012). North American transect of stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopes in water beetles from a museum collection. Journal of Paleolimnology 48(2): 461-470.
  • Gröcke, D.R., Hori, R.S., Trabucho-Alexandre, J., Kemp, D.B. & Schwark, L. (2011). An open ocean record of the Toarcian oceanic anoxic event. Solid Earth: An Interactive Open Access Journal of the European Geosciences Union 2(2): 245-257.
  • Jarvis, I., Lignum, J.S., Gröcke, D.R., Jenkyns, H.C. & Pearce, M.A. (2011). Black shale deposition, atmospheric CO2 drawdown, and cooling during the Cenomanian-Turonian Oceanic Anoxic Event. Paleoceanography 26(3): PA3201.
  • Huber, B. T., MacLeod, K. G., Gröcke, D. R. & Kucera, M. (2011). Paleotemperature and paleosalinity inferences and chemostratigraphy across the Aptian/Albian boundary in the subtropical North Atlantic. Paleoceanography 26(4): PA4221.
  • van Hengstum, P. J., Scott, D. B., Gröcke, D. R. & Charette, M. A. (2011). Sea level controls sedimentation and environments in coastal caves and sinkholes. Marine Geology 286(1-4): 35-50.
  • Caruthers, A.H., Gröcke, D.R. & Smith, P.L. (2011). The significance of an Early Jurassic (Toarcian) carbon-isotope excursion in Haida Gwaii (Queen Charlotte Islands), British Columbia, Canada. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 307(1-2): 19-26.
  • Kuroda, J., Hori, R. S., Suzuki, K., Gröcke, D. R. & Ohkouchi, N. (2010). Marine osmium isotope record across the Triassic-Jurassic boundary from a Pacific pelagic site. Geology 38(12): 1095-1098.
  • Szpak, P, Gröcke, D R, Debruyne, R, MacPhee, R D E, Guthrie, R D, Froese, D, Zazula, G D, Patterson, W P & Poinar, H N (2010). Regional differences in bone collagen δ13C and δ15N of Pleistocene mammoths: Implications for paleoecology of the mammoth steppe. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 286(1-2): 88-96.
  • Nunn, E. V., Price, G. D., Gröcke, D. R., Baraboshkin, E. Y., Leng, M. J. & Hart, M. B. (2010). The Valanginian positive carbon isotope event in Arctic Russia: Evidence from terrestrial and marine isotope records and implications for global carbon cycling. Cretaceous Research 31(6): 577-592.
  • Szpak, P., Orchard, T.J. & Gröcke, D.R. (2009). A Late Holocene vertebrate food web from southern Haida Gwaii (Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia). Journal of Archaeological Science 36(12): 2734-2741.
  • Diester-Haass, L., Billups, K., Gröcke, D. R., François, L., Lefebvre, V. & Emeis, K. C. (2009). Mid-Miocene paleoproductivity in the Atlantic Ocean and implications for the global carbon cycle. Paleoceanography 24(1): PA1209.
  • Kingston, A.W., Gröcke, D.R. & Burchell, M. (2008). A multiaxial growth analysis of stable isotopes in the modern shell of Saxidomus gigantea: Implications for sclerochronology studies. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems 9(1): Q01007.
  • Gröcke, D.R. & Joeckel, R.M. (2008). A stratigraphic test of the terrestrial carbon-isotope record of the latest Albian OAE from the Dakota Formation, Nebraska. Kansas Geological Survey, Open-File Report 2008(2): 24-30.
  • Gröcke, D.R. & Gillikin, D.P. (2008). Advances in mollusc sclerochronology and sclerochemistry: tools for understanding climate and environment. Geo-Marine Letters 28(5-6): 265-268.
  • Ufnar, D. F., Gröcke, D. R. & Beddows, P. A. (2008). Assessing pedogenic calcite stable-isotope values: Can positive linear covariant trends be used to quantify palaeo-evaporation rates? Chemical Geology 256(1-2): 46-51.
  • Gröcke, D.R. & Wortmann, U. (2008). Investigating climates, environments and biology using stable isotopes. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 266(1-2): 1-2.
  • Debruyne, R., Chu, G., King, C., Bos, K., Kuch, M., Schwarz, C., Szpak, P., Gröcke, D.R., Matheus, P., Zazula, G., Guthrie, D., Froese, D., Buigues, B., de Marliave, C., Flemming, C., Poinar, D., Fisher, D., Southon, J., Tikhonov, A.N., MacPhee, R.D.E. & Poinar, H. (2008). Out of America: Ancient DNA evidence for a New World origin of Late Quaternary Woolly Mammoths. Current Biology 18(17): 1320-1326.
  • Ufnar, D. F., Ludvigson, G. A., González, L. & Gröcke, D. R. (2008). Precipitation rates and atmospheric heat transport during the Cenomanian greenhouse warming in North America: Estimates from a stable isotope mass-balance model. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 266(1-2): 28-38.
  • van Hengstum, P. & Gröcke, D.R. (2008). Stable-isotope record of the Eifelian–Givetian boundary Kačák–otomari Event (Middle Devonian) from Hungry Hollow, Ontario, Canada. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 45(3): 353-366.
  • Palmqvist, P., Pérez-Claros, J. A., Janis, C. M. & Gröcke, D. R. (2008). Tracing the ecophysiology of ungulates and predator–prey relationships in an early Pleistocene large mammal community. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 266(1-2): 95-111.
  • Kuch, M., Gröcke, D.R., Knyf, M., Thomas, M., Gilbert, P., Younghusband, B., Young, T., Marshal, I., Willerslev, E., Stoneking, M. & Poinar, H. (2007). A preliminary analysis of the DNA and diet of the extinct Beothuk: A systematic approach to ancient human DNA. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 132(4): 594-604.
  • Gröcke, D.R., Hesselbo, S.P. & Findlay, D.J. (2007). Atypical diagenetic effects on strontium-isotope composition of Early Jurassic belemnites, Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia, Canada. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 44(2): 181-197.
  • van Hengstum, P.J., Reinhardt, E.G., Medioli, F.S. & Gröcke, D.R. (2007). Exceptionally preserved Late Albian (Cretaceous) Arcellaceans (Thecamoebians) from the Dakota Formation near Lincoln, Nebraska, USA. Journal of Foraminiferal Research 37(4): 300-308.
  • Waltham, D.A. & Gröcke, D.R. (2006). Non-uniqueness and interpretation of the seawater 87Sr/86Sr curve. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 70(2): 384-394.
  • Gröcke, D. R., Ludvigson, G. A., Witzke, B. L., Robinson, S. A., Joeckel, R. M., Ufnar, D. F. & Ravn, R. L. (2006). Recognizing the Albian-Cenomanian (OAE1d) sequence boundary using plant carbon isotopes: Dakota Formation, Western Interior Basin, USA. Geology 34(3): 193-196.
  • Gröcke, D.R., Schimmelmann, A., Elias, S. & Miller, R.F. (2006). Stable hydrogen-isotope ratios in beetle chitin: preliminary European data and re-interpretation of North American data. Quaternary Science Reviews 25(15-16): 1850-1864.
  • Bádenas, B., Aurell, M. & Gröcke, D.R. (2005). Facies analysis and correlation of high-order sequences in middle-outer ramp successions: variations in exported carbonate on basin-wide δ13Ccarb (Kimmeridgian, NE Spain). Sedimentology 52(6): 1253-1275.
  • Orberger, B., Gallien, J-P., Pinti, D.L., Fialin, M., Daudin, L., Gröcke, D.R. & Pasava, J. (2005). Nitrogen and carbon partitioning in diagenetic and hydrothermal minerals from Paleozoic Black Shales, (Selwyn Basin, Yukon Territories, Canada). Chemical Geology 218(3-4): 249-264.
  • Gröcke, D.R., Price, G.D., Robinson, S.A., Baraboshkin, E., Mutterlose, J. & Ruffell, A.H. (2005). The Upper Valanginian (Early Cretaceous) positive carbon-isotope event recorded in terrestrial plants. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 240(2): 495-509.
  • Hall, R., McNicoll, V., Gröcke, D. R., Craig, J. & Jonhston, K. (2004). Integrated Stratigraphy of the Lower and Middle Fernie Formation in Alberta and British Columbia, western Canada. Revista Italian di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia 110(1): 61-68.
  • Gröcke, D. R., Price, G. D., Ruffell, A. H., Mutterlose, J. & Baraboshkin, E. (2003). Isotopic evidence for Late Jurassic-Early cretaceous climate change. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 202(1-2): 97-118.
  • Palmqvist, P., Gröcke, D. R., Arribas, A. & Fariña, R. A. (2003). Paleoecological reconstruction of a lower Pleistocene large mammal community using biogeochemical (δ13C, δ15N, δ18O, Sr: Zn) and ecomorphological approaches. Paleobiology 29(2): 205-229.
  • Jenkyns, H. C., Jones, C. E. & Gröcke, D. R. (2002). Chemostratigraphy of the Jurassic System: applications, limitations and implications for palaeoceanography. Journal of the Geological Society of London 159(4): 351-378.
  • Palmqvist, P., Mendoza, M., Arribas, A. & Gröcke, D. R. (2002). Estimating the body mass of Pleistocene canids: discussion of some methodological problems and a new 'taxon free' approach. Lethaia 35(4): 358-360.
  • Beerling, D. J., Lomas, M. R. & Gröcke, D. R. (2002). On the nature of methane gas-hydrate dissociation during the Toarcian and Aptian oceanic anoxic events. American Journal of Science 302(1): 28-49.
  • Ruffell, A. H., Price, G. D., Mutterlose, J., Kessels, K. & Gröcke, D. R. (2002). Palaeoclimate indicators (clay minerals, calcareous nannofossils, stable isotopes) compared from two successions in the late Jurassic of the Volga Basin (SE Russia). Geological Journal 37(1): 17-33.
  • Price, G. D. & Gröcke, D. R. (2002). Strontium-isotope stratigraphy and oxygen-and carbon-isotope variation during the Middle Jurassic–Early Cretaceous of the Falkland Plateau, South Atlantic. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 183(3-4): 209-222.
  • Gröcke, D. R. (2002). The carbon isotope composition of ancient CO2 based on higher-plant organic matter. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences 360(1793): 633-658.
  • Jenkyns, H. C., Gröcke, D. R. & Hesselbo, S. P. (2001). Nitrogen isotope evidence for water mass denitrification during the early Toarcian (Jurassic) oceanic anoxic event. Paleoceanography 16(6): 593-603.
  • Hesselbo, S. P., Meister, C. & Gröcke, D. R. (2000). A potential global stratotype for the Sinemurian_Pliensbachian boundary (Lower Jurassic), Robin Hood's Bay, UK: ammonite faunas and isotope stratigraphy. Geological Magazine 137(6): 601-607.
  • Kennedy, W. J., Gale, A. S., Bown, P. R., Caron, M., Davey, R. J., Gröcke, D. R. & Wray, D. S. (2000). Integrated stratigraphy across the Aptian-Albian boundary in the Marnes Bleues, at the Col de Pré-Guittard, Arnayon (Drôme), and at Tartonne (Alpes-de-Haute-Provence), France: a candidate Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Boundary Point for the base of the Albian Stage. Cretaceous Research 21(5): 591-720.
  • Hesselbo, S. P., Gröcke, D. R., Jenkyns, H. C., Bjerrum, C. J., Farrimond, P., Morgans Bell, H. S. & Green, O. R. (2000). Massive dissociation of gas hydrate during a Jurassic oceanic anoxic event. Nature 406(6794): 392-395.
  • Gröcke, D. R., Hesselbo, S. P. & Jenkyns, H. C. (1999). Carbon-isotope composition of Lower Cretaceous fossil wood: Ocean-atmosphere chemistry and relation to sea-level change. Geology 27(2): 155-158.
  • Gröcke, D. R. (1998). Carbon-isotope analyses of fossil plants as a chemostratigraphic and palaeoenvironmental tool. Lethaia 31(1): 1-13.
  • Gröcke, D. R. (1998). Collagenic and carbonate hydroxylapatite spacing in prehistoric humans: Possible relationship with dietary protein. Lethaia 31(1): 13-14.
  • Gröcke, D. R., Bocherens, H. & Mariotti, A. (1997). Annual rainfall and nitrogen-isotope correlation in macropod collagen: application as a palaeoprecipitation indicator. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 153(3-4): 279-285.
  • Bird, M. I. & Gröcke, D. R. (1997). Determination of the abundance and carbon isotope composition of elemental carbon in sediments. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 61(16): 3413-3423.
  • Gröcke, D.R. (1997). Distribution of C3 and C4 plants in the Late Pleistocene of South Australia recorded by isotope biogeochemistry of collagen in megafauna. Australian Journal of Botany 45(3): 607-617.
  • Gröcke, D. R. (1997). Stable-isotope studies on the collagenic and hydroxylapatite components of fossils: Palaeoecological implications. Lethaia 30(1): 65-78.

Report

  • Gröcke, D. R. & Cannon, A. (2007). Stable Isotopes in Archaeological Midden Shells: High-Resolution Paleoclimatic & Paleoenvironmental Archives.

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