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Durham University

Email and Telephone Directory

Staff Profile

Dr Mark Manuel

Research Fellow in the Department of Archaeology
Telephone: +44 (0) 191 33 41111
Room number: 215

(email at m.j.manuel@durham.ac.uk)

Biography

Mark is a Research Fellow attached to the UNESCO Chair on Archaeological Ethics and Practice in Cultural Heritage. His research focuses on South Asian landscape archaeology, exploring interactions between urban and non-urban communities in the past. In addition, he utilises unmanned aerial vehicles and site assessment strategies to map archaeological risk to heritage sites across South Asia to guide policy and management strategies. He has worked throughout South Asia as well as in Iran and Egypt.

Mark completed his BSc and MA in Archaeology at the Department of Archaeological Sciences, University of Bradford in 2001 and 2003 respectively, and his AHRC-funded PhD at Durham University in 2008. His PhD research focused upon testing models of the social and political organisation of the Indus Valley Tradition, through an analysis of both published and new survey data from western India. It argued that existing models are routed in ethnocentric interpretations of the archaeological record, and that the adoption of systematic approaches to survey and excavation will generate a broader spectrum of data from which to construct future models. As part of this he was attached the Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, in India.

Since then he has worked primarily at the World Heritage Sites of Lumbini and Tilaurakot in Nepal, Anuradhapura and Polonnaruva in Sri Lanka and Champaner-Pavagadh in India.

Research Supervision

I would be interested in supervising students in the following areas:

Settlement survey and landscape archaeology in South Asia (or related areas)

UAVs as a tool for mapping and monitoring heritage sites

Identifying, mapping and monitoring risk to heritage

Research Groups

Department of Archaeology

  • Heritage, Archaeology, People & Places Research & Impact Group
  • Landscapes of Complex Society Research Group

Research Projects

Department of Archaeology

  • Anuradhapura (Sri Lanka) Project: The Hinterland (Phase II)
  • Archaeological Investigations of the UNESCO World Heritage Site of Pashupati (Nepal)
  • Benchmarking the Social and Economic Impacts of Cultural Heritage in Gujarat and Uttar Pradesh, India
  • Benchmarking the social and economic impacts of the tangible and intangible heritage of Middle Egypt
  • Exploring the Medieval Hinterland of Polonnaruva
  • Post-Conflict Archaeology of the Jaffna Peninsula
  • Post-Earthquake Rescue Archaeology in Kathmandu
  • Promoting the Protection of Heritage Sites in Nepal
  • Reducing Disaster Risk to Life and Livelihoods by Evaluating the Seismic Safety of Kathmandu's Historic Urban Infrastructure
  • Socio-Economic Transformations in the Tehran Plain
  • The Natal Landscape of the Buddha, Phase I: Lumbini
  • The Natal Landscape of the Buddha, Phase II: Tilaurakot

Research Interests

  • Archaeological Risk Mapping
  • Landscape Archaeology, in particular settlement survey
  • Relationships between urban and non-urban communities in South Asia
  • UNESCO and World Heritage
  • Unmanned Aerial Vehicle mapping of sites

Publications

Chapter in book

  • Coningham, R.A.E., Acharya, K.P., Manuel, M.J. & Tremblay, J. (2019). Sites of the Greater Lumbini Area. In The Sacred Garden of Lumbini. UNESCO UNESCO. 223-259.
  • Coningham, R.A.E., Acharya, K.P., Kunwar, R.B., Davis, C.E., Manuel, M.J., Simpson, I.A., Strickland, K.M., Hale, D., Tremblay, J. & Lafortune-Bernard, A. (2018). Excavating ancient Kapilavastu: the childhood home of Lord Buddha. In Buddha Rashmi Vesak Volume 2018: Essays in Buddhism and Buddhist Monastic Archaeology. Gunawardhana, P. & Coningham, R.A.E. Colombo, Sri Lanka Central Cultural Fund, Ministry of Education, Sri Lanka. 8-25.
  • Davis, C.E., Gunawardhana, P., Coningham, R.A.E., Pushparatnam, P., Schmidt, A., Manuel, M.J., Namalgamuwa, H., Senanayaka, J. & Bandara, K.G.Y. (2018). Recent excavations and survey at Jaffna Fort in 2017 and reflections on the antiquity of Indian Ocean trade. In Buddha Rashmi Vesak Volume 2018: Essays in Buddhism and Buddhist Monastic Archaeology. Gunawardhana, P. & Coningham, R.A.E. Colombo, Sri Lanka Central Cultural Fund, Ministry of Education, Sri Lanka. 67-78.
  • Manuel, M.J., Gunawardhana, P., Coningham, R.A.E., Davis, C.E., Namalgamuwa, H., Senanayaka, J, Rammungoda, U.R. & Bandara, K.G.Y. (2018). Ritual and economy reconsidered at Siva Devale No. 2, Polonnaruva. In Buddha Rashmi: Vesak Volume: essays in Buddhism and Buddhist monastic archaeology. Gunawardhana, P. & Coningham, R.A.E. Colombo, Sri Lanka: Central Cultural Fund. 33-44.
  • Coningham, R.A.E., Manuel, M.J., Davis, C.E. & Gunawardhana, P. (2017). Archaeology and Cosmopolitanism in Early Historic and Medieval Sri Lanka. In Sri Lanka at the Crossroads of History. Biedermann, Z. & Strathern, A. London: UCL Press. 19-43.
  • Coningham, R.A.E., Acharya, K.P., Kunwar, R.B., Manuel. M.J., Davis, C.E. & Lafortune-Bernard, A. (2017). Promoting the Protection, Preservation and Presentation of the Natal Landscape of the Buddha in Nepal. In Buddha Rashmi Vesak Volume: Essays in Buddhism and Buddhist Monastic Archaeology. Gunawardhana, P., Coningham, R.A.E. & Nampoothiri, K. Central Cultural Fund of Sri Lanka. 13-26.
  • Coningham, R.A.E., Manuel, M.J. & Shoebridge, J.E. (2016). Reconstructing Networks of Trade and Exchange in the Indian Ocean during the Early Historic Period: Case Studies from Anuradhapura (Sri Lanka). In Imperial Rome, Indian Ocean Regions and Muziris: New Perspectives on Maritime Trade. Mathew, K.S. Routledge. 31-51.
  • Manuel, M.J., Coningham, R.A.E., Gillmore, G. & Fazeli, H. (2014). Societal change and sustainability within the Central Plateau of Iran: an archaeological viewpoint. In Sustainable Development: an appraisal from the Gulf Region. Sillitoe, P. Berghahn. 38-61.
  • Manuel, M.J., Coningham, R.A.E., Gunawardhana, P., Adikari, G., Strickland, K.M., Young, R.L., Davis, C.E., Jones, J., McDonnell, G., Rammungoda, U.R., Namalgamuwa, H. & Senanayake, J. (2013). Construction and Building Materials, Stone, Glass, Metal, Archaezoological, Archaeobotanical and Plastic Objects. In Anuradhapura Volume III: The Hinterland. Coningham, R.A.E. & Gunawardhana, P. Archaeopress (BAR International Series 2568). 393-444.
  • Coningham, R.A.E., Gunawardhana, P., Adikari, G., Manuel, M.J. , Davis, C.E. & Simpson, I.A. (2013). Discussion. In Anuradhapura Volume III: The Hinterland. Coningham, R.A.E. & Gunawardhana, P. Archaeopress (BAR International Series 2568). 459-479.
  • Gilliland, K.M, Simpson, I.A., Adderley, P., Burbidge, C.I., Cresswell, A.J., Sanderson, D., Coningham, R.A.E., Gunawardhana, P., Adikari, G., Manuel, M.J., Strickland, K.M., Young, R.L., Namalgamuwa, H., Rammungoda, U.R. & Senanayake, J. (2013). Environment and Water Management. In Anuradhapura Volume III: The Hinterland. Coningham, R.A.E. & Gunawardhana, P. Archaeopress (BAR International Series 2568). 191-228.
  • Davis, C.E. , Coningham, R.A.E. , Gunawardhana, P. & Manuel, M.J. (2013). Epigraphy in the hinterland. In Anuradhapura Volume III: The Hinterland. Coningham, R.A.E. & Gunawardhana, P. Archaeopress (BAR International Series 2568). 445-458.
  • Coningham, R.A.E., Gunawardhana, P., Adikari, G., Strickland, K.M., Manuel, M.J., Senanayake, J. Namalgamuwa, H. & Rammungoda, U.R. (2013). Excavation. In Anuradhapura Volume III: The Hinterland. Coningham, R.A.E. & Gunawardhana, P. Archaeopress (BAR International Series 2568). 135-190.
  • Coningham, R.A.E., Gunawardhana, P., Adikari, G., Krishnan, K., Davis, C.E., Manuel, M.J., Rammungoda, U.R., Namalgamuwa, H.,, Senanayake, J. & Stern, B. (2013). Glazed and Unglazed Ceramics. In Anuradhapura Volume III: The Hinterland. Coningham, R.A.E. & Gunawardhana, P. Archaeopress (BAR International Series 2568). 229-332.
  • Coningham, R.A.E., Gunawardhana, P., Adikari, G. Manuel, M.J. & Davis, C.E. (2013). History of Research. In Anuradhapura Volume III: The Hinterland. Coningham, R.A.E. & Gunawardhana, P. Archaeopress (BAR International Series 2568). 9-20.
  • Fazeli, H., Coningham, R.A.E., Marghussian, A., Manuel, M.J., Azizi, H. & Pollard, A.M. (2013). Mapping the Neolithic occupation of the Kashan, Tehran and Qazvin Plains. In The Neolithisation of Iran: the formation of new societies. Matthews, R. & Fazeli, H. Oxford: Oxbow Books. 114-135.
  • Coningham, R.A.E., Gunawardhana, P. Adikari, G. Manuel, M.J., Donahue, R., Schmidt, A.R., Simpson, I.A., Bailiff, I. & Young, R.L. (2013). Methodology. In Anuradhapura Volume III: The Hinterland. Coningham, R.A.E. & Gunawardhana, P. Archaeopress (BAR International Series 2568). 21-30.
  • Schmidt, A.R., Manuel, M.J., Coningham, R.A.E., Gunawardhana, P., Senanayake, J. Rammungoda, U.R. & Namalgamuwa, H. (2013). Non-intrusive Surface Survey: Geophysics and Augering. In Anuradhapura Volume III: The Hinterland. Coningham, R.A.E. & Gunawardhana, P. Archaeopress (BAR International Series 2568). 97-134.
  • Coningham, R.A.E., Gunawardhana, P. Adikari, G. Davis, C.E. , Manuel, M.J. , Bailiff, I. , Batt, C.M. Namalgamuwa, H. Senanayake, J. & Rammungoda, U.R. (2013). Phasing the Hinterland. In Anuradhapura Volume III: The Hinterland. Coningham, R.A.E. & Gunawardhana, P. Archaeopress (BAR International Series 2568). 31-48.
  • Kourampas, N., Simpson, I.A., Fazeli, H., Coningham, R.A.E. & Manuel, M.J. (2013). Sediments, soils and livelihood in a Late Neolithic village on the Iranian Plateau. In The Neolithisation of Iran: the formation of new societies. Matthews, R. & Fazeli, H. Oxford: Oxbow Books. 178-189.
  • Manuel, M.J. , Young, R.L. Coningham, R.A.E. , Gunawardhana, P. Adikari, G. Katugampola, M. Senanayake, J. & Rammungoda, U.R. (2013). Survey Data. In Anuradhapura Volume III: The Hinterland. Coningham, R.A.E. & Gunawardhana, P. Archaeopress (BAR International Series 2568). 49-96.
  • Coningham, R.A.E. , Gunawardhana, P. Davis, C.E. , Manuel, M.J., Strickland, K.M., Namalgamuwa, H. Senanayake, J. & Rammungoda, U.R. (2013). Terracotta Objects. In Anuradhapura Volume III: The Hinterland. Coningham, R.A.E. & Gunawardhana, P. Archaeopress (BAR International Series 2568). 333-392.
  • Manuel, M.J. (2010). Chronology and Culture-History in the Indus Valley. In Sirinimal Lakdusinghe Felicitation Volume. P. Gunawardhana, G. Adikari & R.A.E. Coningham Battaramulla: Neptune. 145-152.
  • Coningham, R.A.E. & Manuel, M.J. (2009). The Early Empires of South Asia. In The Great Empires of the Ancient World. Harrison, T. London: Thames & Hudson. 226-249.
  • Coningham, R.A.E. & Manuel, M.J. (2008). Geographic overviews, Asia (South): Asia, South: Northwest Frontier and Kashmir region (MS 218). In Encyclopedia of Archaeology. Pearsall, D. San Diego: Elsevier. 733-745.
  • Coningham, R.A.E. & Manuel, M.J. (2008). Warfare in Ancient South Asia. In The Ancient World at War. De Souza, P. London: Thames and Hudson.
  • Coningham, R.A.E. & Manuel, M.J. (2007). The Indus Civilisation. In Archaeologica The world's most significant sites and cultural treasures. Cremin, Aedeen Melbourne: Random House. 240-245.

Journal Article

  • Davis, C.E., Coningham, R.A.E., Gunawardhana, P., Pushparatnam, P., Schmidt, A. & Manuel, M.J. (2019). The antiquity of Jaffna Fort: new evidence from post-disaster archaeological investigations in northern Sri Lanka. Antiquity 93(368): e13.
  • Coningham, R.A.E., Acharya, K.P., Manuel, M.J., Davis, C.E. , Kunwar, R.B., Simpson, I.A., Strickland, K.M., Smaghur, E., Tremblay, J. & Lafortune-Bernard, A. (2018). Archaeological investigations at Tilaurakot-Kapilavastu, 2014-2016. Ancient Nepal 197-198: 5-59.
  • Manuel, Mark, Lightfoot, Dale & Fattahi, Morteza (2017). The sustainability of ancient water control techniques in Iran: an overview. Water History 10(1): 13-30.
  • Strickland, K.M., Coningham, R.A.E., Acharya, K.P., Schmidt, A., Simpson, I.A., Kunwar, R.B., Tremblay, J., Manuel, M.J., Davis, C.E., Krishna Bahadur, K.C. & Bidari, B. (2016). Ancient Lumminigame: A Preliminary Report on Recent Archaeological Investigations at Lumbini’s Village Mound (Nepal). Ancient Nepal 190: 1-17.
  • Coningham, R.A.E., Acharya, K.P., Davis, C.E., Strickland, K.M., McDonnell, G., Tremblay, J., Manuel, M.J. & Bidari, B. (2016). Defining the Chronological and Cultural Sequence of Mound V Tilaurakot (Nepal) a report on pilot excavations conducted in 1999. Ancient Nepal 190: 18-29.
  • Coningham, R.A.E., Acharya, K.P., Davis, C.E., Manuel, M.J., Kunwar, R.B., Hale, D., Tremblay, J., Gautam, D. & Mirnig, N. (2016). Exploring Ancient Pashupati: Preliminary Results of Archaeological Surveys and Excavations at Bhandarkhal, Kathmandu Valley UNESCO World Heritage Property (Nepal). Ancient Nepal 191-192: 93-112.
  • Davis, C.E., Coningham, R.A.E., Acharya, K.P., Simpson, I.A., Tremblay, J., Kunwar, R.B., Manuel, M.J., Krishna Bahadur, K.C. & Bidari, B. (2016). Re-investigating Tilaurakot’s Ancient Fortifications: a preliminary report of excavations through the northern rampart (Nepal). Ancient Nepal 190: 30-46.
  • Bailiff, I.K., Lacey, H.R., Coningham, R.A.E., Gunawardhana, P., Adikari, G., Davis, C.E., Manuel, M.J. & Strickland, K.M. (2013). Luminescence dating of brick stupas: an application to the hinterland of Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka. Antiquity 87(335): 189-201.
  • Gilliland, K., Simpson, I.A., Adderley, W.P., Burbidge, C.I., Cresswell, A.J., Sanderson, D.C.W., Coningham, R.A.E., Manuel, M.J., Strickland, K., Gunawardhana, P. & Adikari, G. (2013). The dry tank: development and disuse of water management infrastructure in the Anuradhapura hinterland, Sri Lanka. Journal of Archaeological Science 40(2): 1012-1028.
  • Coningham, R.A.E., Acharya, K.P, Strickland, K.M., Davis, C.E., Manuel, M.J, Simpson, I.A., Gilliland, K., Tremblay, J., Kinnaird, T.C. & Sanderson, D.C.W (2013). The Earliest Buddhist Shrine: Excavating the Birthplace of the Buddha, Lumbini (Nepal). Antiquity 87(338): 1104-1123.
  • Coningham, R.A.E., Gunawardhana,P., Davis, C.E., Adikari, G., Simpson,I.A., Strickland, K.M, Gilliland, K. & Manuel, M.J. (2012). Contextualising the Tabbova-Maradanmaduva 'culture': Excavations at Nikawewa, Tirappane, Anuradhapura District, Sri Lanka. South Asian Studies 28(1): 1-14.
  • Coningham, R.A.E, Gunawardhana, P., Manuel, M.J., Adikari, G.A., Young, R.L., Schmidt, A., Krishnan, K., Simpson, I.A., Davis, C.E & Batt, C.M. (2011). Response to Goonatilake. Antiquity 85(329): 1065-1067.
  • Manuel, M.J. (2010). Hidden Agendas: Hoarding within the Indus Valley Tradition. Pakistan Heritage 2: 57-67.
  • Coningham. R.A.E & Manuel, M.J. (2009). Priest-Kings or Puritans? Childe and willing subordination in the Indus. European Journal of Archaeology 12(1-3): 167-180
  • Coningham, R.A.E., Gunawardhana, P., Manuel, M.J., Adikari, G., Katugampola, M., Young, R.L., Schmidt, A., Krishnan, K., Simpson, I., McDonnell, G. & Batt, C. (2007). The state of theocracy: defining an Early Medieval hinterland in Sri Lanka. Antiquity 81(313): 699-719.

Book review

  • Manuel, M.J. (2011). Review of Rita Wright's The ancient Indus: urbanism, economy and society. Antiquity 85: 678-679.

Supervises