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Durham University

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Staff Profile

Dr Robert Baxter, BSc Botany (HONS) (Manchester), PhD (Manchester)

Associate Professor (Reader) in the Department of Biosciences
Telephone: +44 (0) 191 33 41261
Room number: 208

Contact Dr Robert Baxter (email at


Dr Baxter studied Botany at the University of Manchester (1982-85). Thereafter he undertook a PhD (1985-88)in Manchester ("Responses of the moss Sphagnum cuspidatum to acid deposition")under the supervision of JA Lee and MJ Emes.

Following his PhD training, Dr Baxter spent 18 months working as a regional coordinator within the ACME (Applications of Computing to Manufacturing Engineering) Directorate of the then Science and Engineering Research Council.
In 1990 Dr Baxter joined the research groups of Prof. John Farrar (University of Wales, Bangor)and Prof. Trevor Ashenden (Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Bangor Research Unit)as one of two postdoctoral fellowships awarded to the newly established joint University/CEH partnership in Bangor. Here Dr Baxter studied the impacts of altered concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide and soil nutrient conditions upon photosynthetic metabolism and post-photosynthetic carbon partitioning in native upland and montane grassland species. During this period Dr Baxter also worked in collaboration with CEH upon an EU-funded Framework 3 project ("An investigation of the effects of increasing concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide and changing climate on natural and managed grassland communities in Europe using open-top and closed chambers"; Contract: EPOC-CT90-0022), coordinated by Prof. MB Jones, School of Botany, Trinity College, Dublin, Eire.
In 1993 Dr Baxter contininued his work in this field as a postdoctoral fellow at Trinity College, Dublin.

In 1994 Dr Baxter was appointed as lecturer in Ecology in the then Department of Biological Sciences (now School of Biological and Biomedical Sciences)at the University of Durham. In 2002 he was promoted to a Senior Lectureship in Ecology and to Reader in 2015; a post he holds at the present time.

Research Groups

Department of Biosciences

Research Interests

  • Arctic Plant Ecology
  • Carbon partitioning in plants
  • Climate change and plant ecophysiology
  • Land-Atmosphere interactions
  • Montane plant ecology
  • Pollution ecology
  • Snow-vegetation-atmosphere interactions
  • Stress physiology in plants

Teaching Areas

  • Global Chnge Biology (Level 3/Module Coordinator to 2012)

    (23 hours/year.)
  • Organisms and their Environment -Level 1

    (39 hours/year.)
  • Plant and Algal Physiology

    (21 hours/year.)
  • Academic Adviser Levels 1,2 and 3 (15 hours/year.)
  • Principles and research Practices in the Biosciences (Postgraduate) (2 hours/year.)
  • Supervision of 4th year MBIOL Project
  • Supervision of Level 3 Literature Reviews (21 hours/year.)
  • Supervision of Level 3 Projects (15 hours/year.)

Selected Publications

Chapter in book

  • Baxter, R. (2014). Plant acclimation and adaptation to cold environments. In Temperature and Plant Development. Franklin, K. & Wigge, P. Wiley-Blackwell. 19-42.
  • Huntley, B & Baxter, R (2012). Vegetation ecology and global change. In Vegetation Ecology. van der Maarel, E & Franklin, J Wiley-Blackwell. 509-525.
  • B. Huntley & R. Baxter (2005). Vegetation ecology and global change. In Vegetation Ecology. Eddy van der Maarel Blackwell Science Ltd. 356-372.
  • Huntley, B & Baxter, R (2003). Insights on Synergies: Models and Methods. In Climate Change and Biodiversity: Synergistic Impacts. Hannah, L & Lovejoy, TE Washington: CABS. 4: 15-23.
  • Barnsley MJ, Los SO, Luckman AJ, North PRJ Harding RJ, Taylor C, Huntley B, Baxter R, Thomas CJ, Baltzer H & Wyatt B (2003). The role of Earth observation in land-surface-climate feedback studies. In Geoinformation for European-wide Integration. Benes T Rotterdam: Millpress. 3-10.
  • Huntley, B, Baxter, R, Bradshaw, RHW, Cramer, W, Dean, AM, Eronen, M, Evans, SP, Hofgaard, A, Hulme, PE, Hytteborn, H, Molau, U, Oksanen, L, Olofsson, J, Saelthun, N-R, Seppa, H, Sjorgersten, S, Thomas, CJ, Venevski, S & Wookey, PA (2000). DART: Dynamic response of the forest-tundra ecotone to environmental change. In Terrestrial Ecosystem Research in Europe: Successes, challenges and policy. Sutton, MA, Moreno, JM, van der Putten, WH & Struwe, S Office for official publications of the European Communities. 162-165.
  • Ekschmitt, K., Baxter, R., Campbell, C.D., Ceulemans, R., Gunther, K.P., Heal, O.W., Hector, A., Henning, F., Matouch, S., Molau, U., Nagy, P.I., Otte, A., Pausas, J.G., Pflug, A., Schröter, D., Sillence, G., Steiner, N.C., Wolters, V., Wookey, P.A., Struwe, S. & Kjoller, A. (2000). TERICA Working group 1: Ecosystem functioning and management under multiple stresses and extreme events. In Terrestrial ecosystem research in Europe: Successes, challenges and policy: Final conference of the terrestrial ecosystem research initiative, Egmond aan Zee, the Netherlands, 20 to 23 June 1999. Sutton, M.A., Moreno, J.M., van der Putten, W.H. & Struwe, S. Office for official publications of the European Communities. 28-34.
  • Baxter, R, Evans, SP, Emmett, B, Harmens, H, Huntley, B, Kjoller, A, Milne, R, Mulder, J, O'Donnell, A, Schulze, ED, Struwe, S, Sutton, MA, Tipping, EW & Wookey, PA (2000). TERICA working group 5: European carbon budgets / Linking carbon and nitrogen cycles. In Terrestrial ecosystem research in Europe: Successes, challenges and policy. Sutton, MA, Moreno, JM, van der Putten, WH & Struwe, S Office for official publications of the European Communities. 54-64.
  • Baxter, R, Daymond, A, Ashenden, TW & Farrar, JF (1993). Responses of montane pasture grasses to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide. In Agriculture: Crop Adaptations to cool, wet climates, particularly temperature, light, water, variations and limitations. COST Action 814. Wilson, D, Thomas, H & Pithan, K Commission of the European Communities.
  • Williams, ML, Jones, DG, Baxter, R & Farrar, JF (1992). The effect of enhanced concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide on leaf respiration. In Molecular, biochemical and physiological aspects of plant respiration. Lambers, H Springer Verlag.

Journal Article

  • Street, LE, Garnett, MH, Subke, J-A, Baxter, R, Dean, JF & Wookey, PA (2020). Plant carbon allocation drives turnover of old soil organic matter in permafrost tundra soils. Global Change Biology 26(8): 4559-4571.
  • Barrett, Kirsten, Baxter, Robert, Kukavskaya, Elena, Balzter, Heiko, Shvetsov, Evgeny & Buryak, Ludmila (2020). Postfire recruitment failure in Scots pine forests of southern Siberia. Remote Sensing of Environment 237: 111539.
  • Sabater, AM, Ward, HC, Hill, TC, Gornall, G, Wade, TJ, Evans, JG, Prieto-Blanco, A, Disney, M, Phoenix, GK, Williams, M, Huntley, B, Baxter, R, Mencuccini, M & Poyatos, R (2020). Transpiration from subarctic deciduous woodlands: environmental controls and contribution to ecosystem evapotranspiration. Ecohydrology 13(3): e2190.
  • Dean, J. F., van der Velde, Y., Garnett, M. H., Dinsmore, K. J., Baxter, R., Lessels, J. S., Smith, P., Street, L. E., Subke, J.-A., Tetzlaff, D., Washbourne, I., Wookey, P. A. & Billett, M. F. (2018). Abundant pre-industrial carbon detected in Canadian Arctic headwaters: implications for the permafrost carbon feedback. Environmental Research Letters 13(3): 034024.
  • Street, Lorna E, Subke, Jens-Arne, Baxter, Robert, Dinsmore, Kerry J., Knoblauch, Christian & Wookey, Philip A. (2018). Ecosystem carbon dynamics differ between tundra shrub types in the western Canadian Arctic. Environmental Research Letters 13(8): 084014.
  • Dean, J.F., Billett, M.F., Baxter, R., Dinsmore, K.J., Lessels, J.S., Street, L.E., Subke, J.-A., Tetzlaff, D., Washbourne, I. & Wookey, P.A. (2016). Biogeochemistry of “pristine” freshwater stream and lake systems in the western Canadian Arctic. Biogeochemistry 130(3): 191-213.
  • Street, L.E., Dean, J.F., Billet, M.F., Baxter, R., Dinsmore, K.J., Lessels, J.S., Subke, J.A., Tetzlaff, D. & Wookey, P.A. (2016). Redox dynamics in the active layer of an Arctic headwater catchment; examining the potential for transfer of dissolved methane from soils to stream water. Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences 121(11): 2776-2792.
  • Hartley, I.P., Hill, T.C., Wade, T., Clement, R.J., Moncrieff, J.B., Prieto-Blanco, A., Disney, M.I., Huntley, B., Williams, M., Howden, N.J.K., Wookey, P.A. & Baxter, R. (2015). Quantifying landscape-level methane fluxes in subarctic Finland using a multi-scale approach. Global Change Biology 21(10): 3712-3725.
  • Hancock, S., Huntley, B., Ellis, R. & Baxter, R. (2014). Biases in Reanalysis Snowfall Found by Comparing the JULES Land Surface Model to GlobSnow. Journal of Climate 27(2): 624-632.
  • Hancock, S., Essery, R., Reid, T., Carle, J., Baxter, R., Rutter, N. & Huntley, B. (2014). Characterising forest gap fraction with terrestrial lidar and photography: An examination of relative limitations. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 189-190: 105-114.
  • Poyatos, R., Heinemeyer, A., Ineson, P., Evans, J.G., Ward, H.C., Huntley, B. & Baxter, R. (2014). Environmental and vegetation drivers of seasonal CO2 fluxes in a Sub-arctic forest–mire ecotone. Ecosystems 17(3): 377-393.
  • Reid, T.D., Spencer, M., Huntley, B., Essery, R., Carle, J., Holden, R.D., Baxter, R. & Rutter, N. (2014). Spatial quantification of leafless canopy structure in a boreal birch forest. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 188: 1-12.
  • Oakenfull, Rachael J., Baxter, Robert & Knight, Marc R. (2013). A C-Repeat Binding Factor Transcriptional Activator (CBF/DREB1) from European Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) Induces Freezing Tolerance When Expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana. PLoS ONE 8(1): e54119.
  • Hancock, S., Baxter, R., Evans, J. & Huntley, B. (2013). Evaluating global snow water equivalent products for testing land surface models. Remote Sensing of Environment 128: 107-117.
  • Heinemeyer, A., Gornall, J., Baxter, R., Huntley, B. & Ineson, P. (2013). Evaluating the carbon balance estimate from an automated ground-level flux chamber system in artificial grass mesocosms. Ecology and Evolution 3(15): 4998-5010.
  • Kaarlejärvi, E., Baxter, R., Hofgaard, A., Hytteborn, H., Khittun, O., Molau, U., Sjögersten, S., Wookey, P. & Olofsson, J. (2012). Effects of Warming on Shrub Abundance and Chemistry Drive Ecosystem-Level Changes in a Forest-Tundra Ecotone. Ecosystems 15(8): 1219-1233.
  • Subke, J.-A., Heinemeyer, A., Vallack, H.W., Leronni, V., Baxter, R. & Ineson, P. (2012). Fast assimilate turnover revealed by in situ 13CO2 pulse labelling in Subarctic tundra. Polar Biology 35(8): 1209-1219.
  • B.J. Fletcher, J.L. Gornall, R. Poyatos, M.C. Press, P.C. Stoy, B. Huntley, R. Baxter & G.K. Phoenix (2012). Photosynthesis and productivity in heterogeneous arctic tundra: consequences for ecosystem function of mixing vegetation types at stand edges. Journal of Ecology 100(2): 441-451.
  • Poyatos, R., Gornall, J., Mencuccini, M., Huntley, B. & Baxter, R. (2012). Seasonal controls on net branch CO2 assimilation in sub-Arctic Mountain Birch (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii (Orlova) Hamet-Ahti). Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 158-159: 90-100.
  • J. Olofsson, L. Ericson, M. Torp, S. Stark & R. Baxter (2011). Carbon balance of Arctic tundra under increased snow cover mediated by a plant pathogen. Nature Climate Change 1(4): 220-223.
  • A. Heinemeyer, C. Di Bene, A.R. Lloyd, D. Tortorella, R. Baxter, B. Huntley, A. Gelsomino & P. Ineson (2011). Soil respiration: implications of the plant-soil continuum and respiration chamber collar-insertion depth on measurement and modelling of soil CO2 efflux rates in three ecosystems. European Journal of Soil Science 62(1): 82-94.
  • Bennie, JJ, Wiltshire, AJ, Joyce, AN, Clark, D, Lloyd, AR, Adamson, J, Parr, T, Baxter, R & Huntley, B (2010). Characterising inter-annual variation in the spatial pattern of thermal microclimate in a UK upland using a combined empirical-physical model. Agricultural And Forest Meteorology 150(1): 12-19.
  • Bennie, J, Kubin, E, Wiltshire, A, Huntley, B & Baxter, R (2010). Predicting spatial and temporal patterns of bud-burst and spring frost risk in north-west Europe: the implications of local adaptation to climate. Global Change Biology 16(5): 1503-1514.
  • Torp, M, Olofsson, J, Witzell, J & Baxter, R (2010). Snow-induced changes in dwarf birch chemistry increase moth larval growth rate and level of herbivory. Polar Biology 33(5): 693-702.
  • Torp, M, Witzell, J, Baxter, R & Olofsson, J (2010). The Effect of Snow on Plant Chemistry and Invertebrate Herbivory: Experimental Manipulations Along a Natural Snow Gradient. Ecosystems 13(5): 741-751.
  • Fletcher, BJ, Press, MC, Baxter, R & Phoenix, GK (2010). Transition zones between vegetation patches in a heterogeneous Arctic landscape: how plant growth and photosynthesis change with abundance at small scales. Oecologia 163(1): 47-56.
  • Campioli, M., Samson, R., Michelsen, A., Jonasson, S., Baxter, R. & Lemeur, R. (2009). Nonvascular contribution to ecosystem NPP in a subarctic heath during early and late growing season. Plant Ecology 202(1): 41-53.
  • Essery, R., Rutter, N., Pomeroy, J., Baxter, R., Stähli, M., Gustafsson, D., Barr, A., Bartlett, P. & Elder, K. (2009). SnowMIP2: An evaluation of forest snow process simulations. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 90(8): 1120-1135.
  • Stoy, PC, Williams, M, Disney, M, Prieto-Blanco, A, Huntley, B, Baxter, R & Lewis, P (2009). Upscaling as ecological information transfer: a simple framework with application to Arctic ecosystem carbon exchange. Landscape Ecology 24(7): 971-986.
  • Fox, A.M., Huntley, B., Lloyd, C.R., Williams, M. & Baxter, R. (2008). Net ecosystem exchange over heterogeneous Arctic tundra: Scaling between chamber and eddy covariance measurements. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 22(GB2027): 1-15.
  • Bennie, J., Huntley, B., Wiltshire, A., Hill, M.O. & Baxter, R. (2008). Slope, aspect and climate: Spatially explicit and implicit models of topographic microclimate in chalk grassland. Ecological Modelling 216(1): 47-59.
  • Davey, M.P., Harmens, H., Ashenden, T.W., Edwards, R. & Baxter, R. (2007). Species-specific effects of elevated CO2 on resource allocation in Plantago maritima and Armeria maritima. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 35(3): 121-129.
  • Bennie, Jonathan, Hill, Mark O., Baxter, Robert & Huntley, Brian (2006). Influence of slope and aspect on long-term vegetation change in British chalk grasslands. Journal of Ecology 94(2): 355-368.
  • Davey, Matthew P., Bryant, David N., Cummins, Ian, Ashenden, Trevor W., Gates, Phillip, Baxter, Robert & Edwards, Robert (2004). Effects of elevated CO2 on the vasculature and phenolic secondary metabolism of Plantago maritima. Phytochemistry 65(15): 2197-2204.
  • Turner BL, Baxter R, Mahieu R, Sjorgersten S & Whitton BA (2004). Phosphorus compounds in sub-Arctic Fennoscandian soils at the mountain birch (Betula pubescens) – tundra ecotone. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 36: 815-823.
  • Turner BA, Baxter R & Whitton BA (2003). Nitrogen and phosphorus in soil solutions and drainage streams in Upper Teesdale, northern England: implications of organic compounds for biological nutrient limitation. Science of the Total Environment 314-316: 153-170.
  • Turner,BL, Chudek,JA, Whitton,BA & Baxter,R (2003). Phosphorus composition of upland soils polluted by long-term atmospheric nitrogen deposition. Biogeochemistry 65(2): 259-274.
  • Pierce,S., Stirling,CM. & Baxter,R. (2003). Pseudoviviparous reproduction of Poa alpina var. vivipara L. (Poaceae) during long-term exposure to elevated atmospheric CO2. Annals of Botany 91(6): 613-622.
  • Turner BL, Baxter R, Ellwood NTW & Whitton BA (2003). Seasonal phosphatase activities of mosses from Upper Teesdale, northern England. Journal of Bryology 25: 189-200.
  • Skre, O., Baxter, R., Crawford, R.R.M., Callaghan, TV. & Fedorokov, A. (2002). How will the tundra-taiga interface respond to climate change? AMBIO: A Journal of the Human Environment 12: 37-46.
  • Turner BL, Baxter R & Whitton BA (2002). Seasonal phosphatase activity in three characteristic soils of the English uplands. Environmental Pollution 120: 313-317.
  • Turner BL, Baxter R, Ellwood NTW & Whitton BA (2001). Characterisation of the phosphatase activities of mosses in relation to their environment. Plant, Cell and Environment 24: 1165-1176.
  • Hodkinson,ID, Bird,JM, Hill,JK & Baxter,R (2001). Host plant growth characteristics as determinants of abundance and phenology in jumping plant-lice on downy willow. Ecological Entomology 26(4): 376-387.
  • Joyce,AN, Adamson,J, Huntley,B, Parr,T & Baxter,R (2001). Standardisation of temperature observed by automatic weather stations. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 68(2): 127-136.
  • Pierce, S, Stirling, CM & Baxter R (2000). Architectural and physiological heterogeneity within the synflorescence of the pseudoviviparous grass Poa alpina var. vivipara L. Journal of Experimental Botany 51(351): 1705-1712.
  • Pierce, S., Stirling, C.M. & Baxter R. (2000). The influence of secondary senescence processes within the culm of a pseudoviviparous grass (Poa alpina var. vivipara L.) on the supply of water to propagules. Journal of Experimental Botany 51(347): 1067-1075.
  • Baxter R. & Farrar, J.F. (1999). Export of carbon from leaf blades of Poa alpina L. at elevated CO2 and two nutrient regimes. Journal of Experimental Botany 50(336): 1215-1221.
  • Croy, RRD, Baxter, R, Deakin, W, Edwards, R, Gatehouse, JAG, Gates, P, Harris, N, Johnson, SM & Raemekers R (1998). Blackspot bruising in potatoes: Structural and molecular to the identification of factors associated with tuber bruising susceptibility. Aspects of Applied Biology 45: 1-8.
  • Freeman, C, Baxter, R, Farrar, JF, Jones, SE, Plum, S, Ashenden, TW & Stirling, C (1998). Could competition between plants and microbes regulate plant nutrition and atmospheric CO2 concentrations? Science of The Total Environment 220(2-3): 181.
  • Tuba, Z., Jones, M.B., Szente, K., Nagy, Z., Garvey, L. & Baxter, R. (1998). Some ecophysiological and production responses of grasslends to long-term elevated CO2 under continental and atlantic climates. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 851: 241-250.
  • Huntley, B, Baxter, R, Lewthwaite, KJ, Willis, SG & Adamson, KJ (1998). Vegetation responses to local climate changes induced by a water-storage reservoir. Global Ecology and Biogeography Letters 7(4): 241-257.
  • Baxter R., Ashenden, T.W. & Farrar, J.F. (1997). Effect of elevated CO2 and nutrient status on growth, dry matter partitioning and nutrient content of Poa alpina var. vivipara L. Journal of Experimental Botany 48(312): 1477-1486.
  • Poorter, H., van berkel, Y., Baxter, R., Den Hertog, J., Dijkstra, P., Gifford, R.M., Griffin, K.L., Roumet, C., Roy, J. & Wong, S.C. (1997). You have free access to this contentThe effect of elevated CO2 on the chemical composition and construction costs of leaves of 27 C3 species. Plant, Cell and Environment 20(4): 472-482.
  • Jones, MB, Jongen, M, Garvey, L & Baxter, R (1996). The physiological responses of a European grassland species to elevated carbon dioxide. Aspects of applied biology 45: 155-161.
  • Baxter, R, Bell, SA, Sparks, TH, Ashenden, TW & Farrar, JF (1995). Effects of elevated carbon dioxide on three grass species from montane pasture III: Source leaf metabolism and whole plant carbon partitioning. Journal of Experimental Botany 46(8): 917-929.
  • Baxter, R, Ashenden, TW, Sparks, TH & Farrar, JF (1994). Effects of elevated carbon dioxide on three grass species from montane pasture I: Growth and dry matter partitioning. Journal of Experimental Botany 45(3): 305.
  • Baxter, R., Gantley, M., Ashenden, T.W. & Farrar, J.F. (1994). Effects of elevated carbon dioxide on three grass species from montane pasture II: Nutrient allocation and efficiency of nutrient use. Journal of Experimental Botany 45(9): 1267-1278.
  • Lee, J.A., Baxter, R. & Parsons, A.N. (1993). Sphagnum species and polluted environments, past and future. Advances in Bryology 5: 297-313.
  • Ashenden, T.W., Baxter, R. & Rafarel, C.R. (1992). An inexpensive system for exposing plants in the field to elevated concentrations of carbon dioxide. Plant, Cell and Environment 15(3): 365-372.
  • Baxter, R, Emes, MJ & Lee, JA (1992). Effects of an experimentally applied increase in ammonium on growth and amino acid metabolism of Sphagnum cuspidatum Ehrh. (ex. Hoffm.). New Phytologist 120(2): 265.
  • Baxter, R., Emes, M.J. & Lee, J.A. (1991). Short-term effects opf bisulphite on pollution-tolerant and pollution-sensitive populations of Sphagnum cuspidatum Ehrh. (ex. Hoffm.). New Phytologist 118(3): 425-431.
  • Baxter, R., Emes, M. J. & Lee, J. A. (1991). Transition metals and the ability of Sphagnum to withstand the phytotoxic effects of the bisulphite ion. New Phytologist 118(3): 433-439.
  • Lee, JA, Baxter, R & Emes, MJ (1990). Responses of Sphagnum species to atmospheric nitrogen and sulphur deposition. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 104(1-3): 255.
  • Baxter, R., Emes, M.J. & Lee, J.A. (1989). Effects of the bisulphite ion on growth and photosynthesis in Sphagnum cuspidatum Ehrh. (ex. Hoffm.). New Phytologist 111(3): 457-462.
  • Baxter, R., Emes, M.J. & Lee, J.A. (1989). The relationship between extracellular metal accumulation and bisulphite tolerance in Sphagnum cuspidatum Ehrh. (ex. Hoffm.). New Phytologist 111(3): 463-472.

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