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Staff Profile

Dr Richard McWilliam, MEng PhD

Personal web page

Telephone: +44 (0) 191 33 42539
Room number: E391 (Christopherson)

(email at


Richard McWilliam is a research associate in the School of Engineering. He completed a degree in engineering (MEng Electrical & Electronic) at Aberdeen University (1995). He moved to Durham University where he studied for a PhD in Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Technology in the School of Engineering (2003). He then took a Research Associate position in the Centre for Electronic Systems at Durham, where he works on hologram design and non-planar lithography methods for the 3D Interconnect project.

His research interests include novel low power radio communication systems (especially those employing passive transponder configurations), Computer Generated Holography(CGH) and large scale computation methods for CGH. He is currently involved in the design of a novel 3D proximity alignment tool for non-planar lithography.

Further information:

Selected Publications

Chapter in book

  • McWilliam, Richard, Schiefer, Philipp & Purvis, Alan (2015). Building Dependable Electronic Systems for Autonomous Maintenance. In Through-life Engineering Services. Redding, Louis & Roy, Rajkumar Springer International Publishing. 375-394.
  • Jones, David H., McWilliam, Richard. & Purvis, Alan. (2011). Design of Self-Assembling, Self-Repairing 3D Irregular Cellular Automata. In Cellular Automata - Innovative Modelling for Science and Engineering. Alejandro Salcido InTech. 373-394.
  • Jones, David, McWilliam, Richard. & Purvis, Alan. (2010). Design of a self-assembling, repairing and reconfiguring Arithmetic Logic Unit. In New Advanced Technologies. Aleksandar Lazinica Vienna, Austria: Intech Education and Publishing. 161-176.

Journal Article

  • McWilliam, Richard, Williams, Gavin, Cowling, Joshua, Seed, Luke & Purvis, Alan (2016). High contrast pattern reconstructions using a phase-seeded point CGH method. Applied Optics 55(7): 1701-1710.
  • McWilliam, Richard, Schiefer, Philipp & Purvis, Alan (2015). Creating self-configuring logic with built-in resilience to multiple-upset events. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part B: Journal of Engineering Manufacture
  • McWilliam, R., Schiefer, P. & Purvis, A. (2015). Experimental validation of a resilient electronic logic design with autonomous fault discrimination/masking. Procedia CIRP 38: 265-270.
  • Purvis, A., Morris, B. & McWilliam, R. (2015). FlightGear as a Tool for Real Time Fault-injection, Detection and Self-repair. Procedia CIRP 38: 283-288.
  • Carney, T., McWilliam, R. & Purvis, A. (2015). Modelling Electronic Circuit Failures using a Xilinx FPGA System. Procedia CIRP 38: 277-282.
  • Schiefer, Philipp, McWilliam, Richard & Purvis, Alan (2014). Fault Tolerant Quadded Logic Cell Structure with Built-in Adaptive Time Redundancy. Procedia CIRP 22: 127-131.
  • Schiefer, Philipp, McWilliam, Richard & Purvis, Alan (2014). Self-healing Fuel Pump Controller Mapped into Memory Based Finite State Machine. Procedia CIRP 22: 132-137.
  • Cavalcante, Tássio Côrtes, McWilliam, Richard & Purvis, Alan (2014). The Design of Reliable Circuits Using Logic Redundancy. Procedia CIRP 22: 138-141.
  • Bell, Colin, McWilliam, Richard, Purvis, Alan & Tiwari, Ashutosh (2013). Concepts of self-repairing systems. Measurement and Control 46(6): 176-179.
  • Schiefer, Philipp, McWilliam, Richard & Purvis, Alan (2013). Creating a Self-configuring Finite State Machine out of Memory Look-up Tables. Procedia CIRP 11: 363-366.
  • McWilliam, Richard, Schiefer, Philipp & Purvis, Alan (2013). Demonstration of a Self-recovering ALU Using a Convergent Cellular Automata. Procedia CIRP 11: 373-378.
  • Toriz-Garcia, J. J., Cowling, J. J., Williams, G. L., Bai, Q., Seed, N. L., Tennant, A., McWilliam, R., Purvis, A., Soulard, F. B. & Ivey, P. A. (2013). Fabrication of a 3D electrically small antenna using holographic photolithography. Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering 23(5): 055010.
  • Frei, Regina, Mcwilliam, Richard, Derrick, Benjamin, Purvis, Alan, Tiwari, Ashutosh & Di Marzo Serugendo, Gioavanna (2013). Self-healing and self-repairing technologies. The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology 69(5-8): 1033-1061.
  • Jones, D.H., McWilliam, R. & Purvis, A. (2011). Convergence and feedback: a framework for cellular automata design. Journal of Cellular Automata 6(4-5): 399-416.
  • Cowling, J.J., Williams, G.L., Purvis, A., McWilliam, R., Toriz-Garcia, J.J., Seed, N.L., Soulard, F.B. & Ivey, P.A. (2011). Three-dimensional holographic lithography by an iterative algorithm. Optics Letters 36(13): 2495-2497.
  • Toriz-Garcia, J.J., Williams, G.L., McWilliam, R., Seed, N.L., Purvis, A., Soulard, F.B., Cowling, J.J. & Ivey P.A. (2011). Vertical tracks on the sidewall of a silicon die using 3D holographic photolithography. Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering 21(8): 085034.
  • Toriz-Garcia, Jesus J., Williams, Gavin L., McWilliam, Richard., Curry, Richard., Seed, N. L., Purvis, Alan. & Ivey, Peter A. (2010). Controlled-width track in through silicon via using 3D holographic photolithography with modified electrodepositable photoresist. Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering 20(1): 015012.
  • Jones, David, McWilliam, Richard & Purvis, Alan (2008). Designing convergent cellular automata. Biosystems 96(1): 80-85.
  • Purvis, Alan., McWilliam, Richard., Johnson, Simon., Seed, N., Williams, Gavin., Maiden, Andrew. & Ivey, Peter. (2007). Photolithographic Patterning of Bi-Helical Tracks onto Conical Substrates. Journal of Micro/Nanolithography, MEMS and MOEMS 6(4): 043015.
  • McWilliam, R. & Purvis, A. (2006). Potential Uses of Embedded RFID in Appliance Identification. International Appliance Manufacturing 10: 100-107.
  • Williams, G.L., Seed, N.L., Purvis, A., Maiden, A., McWilliam, R., Ivey, P.A. & Johnson, S. (2005). Non-Planar Interconnect. Circuit World 31(2): 10-14.
  • Maiden, A., McWilliam, R., Purvis, A., Johnson, S., Williams, G. L., Seed, N. L. & Ivey, P. A. (2005). Nonplanar photolithography with computer-generated holograms. Optics letters 30(11): 1300-1302.

Conference Paper

  • McWilliam, R, Schiefer, P & Purvis, A (2016), A Combined Fault Detection and Discrimination Strategy for Resource-Sensitive Platforms, in Silvano, C, Stechele, W & Wong, S eds, 1st Workshop on RESource Awareness and Application Auto-tuning in Adaptive and heterogeNeous compuTing DATE16. Dresden, Germany.
  • McWilliam, R., Schiefer, P. & Purvis, A. (2016), Fault-Tolerant Strategies for Printed Electronics, Innovations in Large-Area Electronics Conference (innoLAE) 1-2 Feb 2016. Cambridge.
  • McWilliam, Richard & Purvis, Alan (2013), Strategies for self-repairing electronic systems, 2nd EPSRC Manufacturing the Future Conference. Cranfield University, Cranfield University.
  • McWilliam, R, Frei, R, Schiefer, P, Purvis, A, Tiwari, A & Zhu, M (2012), Self-repair technologies for maintenance-free mechanical and electronic components and subsystems, 1st EPSRC Conference on Manufacturing the Future. Loughborough, England, EPSRC, Loughborough.
  • McWilliam, R, Purvis, A, Jones, D, Schiefer, P, Frei, R, Tiwari, A & Zhu, M (2012), Self-repairing Electronic Logic Units Based on Convergent Cellular Automata, 1st International Conference on Through-life Engineering Services. Shrivenham, England, Cranfield University Press, Shrivenham, 353-360.
  • McWilliam, R (2012), Self-repairing electronic systems, IeMRC Research to Industry (R2i) Electronics Conference: connecting research to industry. Loughborough, England, Loughborough.
  • Soulard, F., McWilliam, R., Williams, G., Toriz-Garcia, J., Purvis, A. & Seed, N. (2011), Fabricating non-planar antenna structures by a novel 3-D holographic photolithography method, Second UK URSI Festival of Radio Science. University of Leicester, UK, University of Leicester.
  • Soulard, F., McWilliam R., Cowling J., Purvis A., Williams G., Seed N. L., Toriz-Garcia J. & Ivey, P. (2011), Holographic recording of vertical surfaces, Digital Holography and Three-Dimensional Imaging (DH). Tokyo, Japan, Optical Society of America, Tokyo.
  • McWilliam, Richard & Purvis, Alan (2011), Orientation and Field Dampening: Key Physical Factors for Harsh-Environment Passive RFID, RFID Europe 2011. Cambridge, UK, IdTechEx, Cambridge.
  • Jones, David., McWilliam, Richard. & Purvis, Alan. (2009), Mimicking Morphogenesis for Robust Behaviour of Cellular Architectures, BioNanoTechnologies Meeting. Durham, UK, British Biophysical Society (BBS), Durham.
  • Jones, David., Purvis, Alan. & McWilliam, Richard. (2009), Model and Application of the Community Effect, UK Synthetic Biology, Systems Biology and Bioinformatics 2009. University of Cambridge, Cambridge, England., University of Cambridge.
  • McWilliam, Richard., Purvis Alan. , Curry Richard., Williams, Gavin., Seed, Luke., Ivey, Peter. & Toriz-Garcia, Jesus. (2008), 3D maskless holographic photolithography using spatial light modulators, Illumination, Imaging and Projection 2nd International Photonics Cluster Summer School. Adlershof, Berlin, OptecBB, Adlershof, Berlin.

Conference Proceeding

  • McWilliam, R, Khan, S & Purvis, A (2016). Modelling the Positional and Orientation Sensitivity of Proximity Sensors. UkSim2016, Cambridge, UK, IEEE.
  • McWilliam, R., Purvis, A., Williams, G.L., Soulard, F.B. & Seed, N.L. (2015). High contrast patterns generated by phase-seeded CGH extensible to 3-D patterns and binary modulation. Digital Holography and Three-Dimensional Imaging 2015, Shanghai, Optical Society of America.
  • Purvis, A., Toriz-Garcia, H., Cowling, J.J., Williams, G.L., Seed, N.L., McWilliam, R., Soulard, F.B. & Ivey, P.A. (2014). Holographic Lithography. Imaging and Applied Optics 2014, Seattle, Washington, United States, Optical Society of America.
  • Cowling, J.J., Toriz-Garcia, J.J., Williams, G.L., Purvis, A., McWilliam, R., Soulard, F.B., Seed, N.L., Ivey, P.A. & Claus, D. (2013). Holographic lithography on vertical surfaces. Digital Holography and Three-Dimensional Imaging, Optical Society of America.
  • Laskin, Alexander, Williams, Gavin & Richard, McWilliam (2010). Applying refractive beam shapers to improve other beam shaping techniques. Laser Beam Shaping XI, San Diego, California, USA, SPIE.
  • Williams, G., Toriz-Garcia, J., McWilliam, R., Seed, L., Purvis, A. & Ivey, P. (2010). Holographic Photolithography for 3D Integration. Design, Automation & Test in Europe (DATE) 2010, Dresden, Germany, EDAA.
  • McWilliam, Richard., Purvis, Alan., Williams, Gavin L., Toritz-Garcia, J., Seed, Luke, N. & Ivey, Peter, A. (2009). High fidelity microlithography patterning using computer generated holograms. Digital holography and three-dimensional Imaging (DH), Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, The Optical Society, 2010 Massachusetts, Washington DC.
  • Williams, Gavin L., McWilliam, Richard., Toriz-Garcia, Jesus., Curry, Richard., Maiden, Andrew., Seed, Luke N., Purvis, Alan. & Ivey, Peter A. (2008). A photolithographic process for grossly non-planar substrates. Advanced Lithography, San Jose, CA, USA, SPIE.
  • Jones, David, McWilliam, Richard & Purvis, Alan (2008). Mimicking morphogenesis for robust behaviour of cellular architectures. International Conference on Biosciences and Bioengineering 2008, Venice, Italy, World Academy of Science Engineering and Technology.
  • McWilliam, R., Purvis, A., Johnson, S., Maiden, A., Williams, G., Seed, L. & Ivey, P. (2006). Non-Planar Photolithography Using Digital Holograms. Frontiers in Optics 2006 Laser Science XXII, Rochester, New York, Optical Society of America.
  • Ivey, P.A., McWilliam, R., Maiden, A., Williams, G.L., Purvis, A. & Seed, N.L. (2006). Photolithography on Three Dimensional Substrates. 56th Electronic Components and Technology Conference (ECTC 2006), San Diego, California, IEEE.
  • Williams, G. L., McWilliam, R., Maiden, A., Purvis, A., Ivey, P. A. & Seed, N. L. (2005). Photolithography on grossly non-planar substrates. Proceedings of 7th IEEE CPMT Conference on High Density Microsystem Design, Packaging and Failure Analysis, Shanghai, China.
  • McWilliam, R. & Purvis, A. (2002). Mains Appliance Identification for Electrical Safety Test System. Proc. 6th International Symposium on Power-Line Communications and its Applications, Athens, Greece.
  • McWilliam, R. & Purvis, A. (2002). The Potential for Software Radio Techniques in Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Technology. EPSRC PREP 2002, 4th Conference on Postgraduate Research in Electronics, Photonics, Communications and Software, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, England, EPSRC.

Doctoral Thesis

  • McWilliam, R. (2003). Electronic Identification Systems for Asset Management. School of Engineering. Durham University. PhD.


  • Cowling, J., Purvis, A., McWilliam, R., Soulard, F.B., Williams, G., Seed, N.L. & Toriz-Garcia, J. (2011). Improvements In Or Relating To Holography. Application filed: 15 March 2011. Granted: 15 March 2011
  • Purvis, Alan., McWilliam, Richard., Maiden, Andrew., Johnson, Simon., Ivey, Peter., Williams, Gavin. & Seed, N. Luke. (2009). Holographic lithography using geometrical shapes. GB2419501. Application filed: 26 April 2006. Granted: 23 December 2009
  • Jones, David., Purvis, Alan. & McWilliam, Richard. (2009). Self-repairing Electronic Data System. WO2009098521. Application filed: 7 February 2008. Granted: 30 November 1999
  • Purvis, Alan., McWilliam, Richard., Curry, Richard., Maiden Andrew., Williams, Gavin., Seed, Luke., Toriz-Garcia, Jesus. & Ivey, Peter. (2009). Sub-Micron 3d Holographic Lithography. PCT/GB2009/050945. Application filed: 20 July 2009. Granted: 30 November 1999

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