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Durham University

Centre for Resources and Earth Energy Systems (CeREES)

Realising the CO2 Sequestration Potential of Steel and Iron Making Slags

PI: Prof Fred Worrall

Student: Andrew Dobrzanski

CoIs: Prof Jon Gluyas

Sponsor: Larfarge-Tarmac


Due to ongoing climate change there is a need for technologies that can safely and stably sequester CO2. Steel and iron-making slags have that potential via their high divalent cation content which readily produces geologically stable carbonate minerals that permanently trap CO2 on anthropogenic timescales.

The research aims to assess the extent of naturally occurring carbonation within slag-heaps on Lafarge-Tarmac’s Redcar site and to determine the optimal theoretical and practical conditions for the maximum carbonation of iron and steel slags. The project also aims to test the use of supercritical CO2 on slags within field trials to maximise the extent of carbonation by flooding the internal porosity of samples with CO2.

The outcomes of this research will benefit industry by delivering economically-practical results to cut their overall carbon output though using their own industrial by-products. Faster carbonation of material also cuts the time material needs to be stored before it can be sold on as aggregate.