Publication details for Dr Gordon CheungCheung Gordon C.K. (2004). 'Chinese Diaspora as Virtual-Nation: Interactive Roles between Economic and Social Capital'. Political Studies 52(4): 664-684.
- Publication type: Journal papers: academic
- ISSN/ISBN: 0032-3217, 1467-9248
- DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-9248.2004.00502.x
- Keywords: Globalisation, Southeast Asia, Virtual nation, Economic power, Indonesia, Social capital, Confucianism,
- View online: Online version
- Durham research online: DRO record
Author(s) from Durham
This paper attempts to analyse how and in what ways the Chinese diaspora interacts with globalisation in Southeast Asia through their economic and social capital. It explores the theories of globalisation and contrasts them with the thematic changes of Southeast Asia studies, and it conceptualises the economic power, the geographical dispersal nature and the social networking of Chinese diaspora in order to understand how a virtual nation is being constructed. It then examines empirical studies of that economic power using the specific case of Indonesia; comparative studies of Chinese companies in Southeast Asian countries; and foreign direct investment in China from the Association of Southeast Asian Nations. Finally, it surveys the building of the virtual community through ethnicity, languages, associations and Confucianism, from which social capital has been generated among the Chinese diaspora in Southeast Asia.
Alagappa, M. (1995) Political Legitimacy in Southeast Asia: The Quest for Moral Authority. Stanford CA:
Stanford University Press.
ASEAN–Japan Centre (2002)
Axelrod, R. M. (1984) The Evolution of Cooperation. New York: Basic Books.
Bai, C.-E. and Wang, Y. (1999) ‘The Myth of the East Asian Miracle: The Macroeconomic Implications
of Soft Budgets’, American Economic Review, 89 (2), 432–37.
Berger, P. L. and Hsiao, M. H.-H. (eds) (1993) In Search of an East Asian Development Model. New Brunswick
Berry, A., Rodriguez, E. and Sandee, H. (2001) ‘Small and Medium Enterprise Dynamics in Indonesia’,
Bulletin of Indonesian Economics Studies, 37 (3), 363–84.
Biersteker, T. J. (1999) ‘Eroding Boundaries, Contested Terrain’, International Studies Review, 1 (1), 3–9.
Boix, C. and Posner, D. N. (1998) ‘Social Capital: Explaining Its Origins and Effects on Government
Performance’, British Journal of Political Science, 28 (4), 686–93.
Brecher, M. (1999) ‘International Studies in the Twentieth Century and Beyond: Flawed Dichotomies,
Synthesis, Cumulation’, International Studies Quarterly, 43 (2), 213–64.
Carroll, M. and Stanfield, J. R. (2003) ‘Social Capital, Karl Polanyi, and American Social and
Institutional Economies’, Journal of Economic Issues, 37 (2), 397–404.
Chang, C. Y. (ed.) (2002) Hakka yu Dongnanya [Hakka and Southeast Asia]. Hong Kong: Joint
Cheung, G. C. K. (1999) The International Spread of Ethnic Conflict: Fear, Diffusion, and Escalation [book
review]. International Affairs, 75 (3), 668.
Cheung, G. C. K. (forthcoming) ‘Involuntary Migrants, Political Revolutionary and Economic Energisers:
A Historical Search for Image Building of the Southeast Asian Overseas Chinese’, Journal of Contemporary
China, 14 (42), forthcoming.
Cline, R. S. (1997) World Power Assessment: A Calculus of Strategic Drift. Boulder CO: Westview Press.
Cohen, B. J. (1998) The Geography of Money. Ithaca NY: Cornell University Press.
Cohen, D. (2001) ‘Old Tensions Linger in Malaysia’, South China Morning Post, 10 March, p. 6.
CRS [Congressional Research Services] (1997) ‘CRS Report for Congress: The 1997 Asian Financial Crisis’,
Dombrowski, P. (1998) ‘Haute Finance and High Theory: Recent Scholarship on Global Financial Relations’,
Mershon International Studies Review, 42 (2), 1–28.
Dhume, S. (2001) ‘BCA’s Mysterious Suitors’, Far Eastern Economic Review, 12 July, pp. 42–5.
EAAU [East Asia Analytical Unit] (1995) Chinese Diaspora Business Networks in Asia. Parkes ACT: Department
of Foreign Affairs and Trade.
Eichengreen, B. (1996) Globalizing Capital: A History of the International Monetary System. Princeton NJ:
Princeton University Press.
Evans, P. (1997) ‘The Eclipse of the State? Reflections on Stateness in an Era of Globalisation’, World
Politics, 50 (1), 62–87.
FEER [Far Eastern Economic Review] (2003) 26 December–2 January.
Feldstein, M. (1998) ‘Refocusing the IMF’, Foreign Affairs, 77 (2), 20–33.
Friedman, T. (1999) The Lexus and the Olive Tree. London: HarperCollins.
Fukuyama, F. (1995) Trust: The Social Virtues and the Creation of Prosperity. New York: Free Press.
Fukuyama, F. (1999) The Great Disruption: Human Nature and the Reconstitution of Social Order. London:
Garten, J. E. (1997) The Big Ten: The Big Emerging Markets and How They Will Change Our Lives. New York:
Giddens, A. (1998) The Third Way: The Renewal of Social Democracy. Cambridge: Polity.
Giddens, A. (1999) Runaway World: How Globalisation Reshaping Our Lives. London: Profile.
Giddens, A. (2000) The Third Way and Its Critics. Cambridge: Polity.
Habir, A. D. (1999) ‘Conglomerates: All in the Family?’, in D. K. Emmerson (ed.), Indonesia Beyond
Suharto: Polity, Economy, Society and Transition. Armonk NY: M. E. Sharpe, pp. 168–202.
Haggard, S. (2000) ‘The Politics of the Asian Financial Crisis’, Journal of Democracy, 11 (2), 130–44.
Held, D. and McGrew, A. (ed.) (2000) The Global Transformations Reader: An Introduction to the Globalization
Debate. Cambridge: Polity.
Held, D. and McGrew, A. (eds) (2002) Governing Globalization: Power, Authority and Global Governance.
Cambridge: Polity Press.
Held, D., McGrew, A., Goldblatt, D. and Perraton, J. (1999) Global Transformations: Politics, Economics and
Culture. Stanford CA: Stanford University Press.
Hill, A. M. (1998) ‘The Chinese in Northern Thailand: A Preliminary Perspective on Kinship and
Ethnicity’, in F. L. K. Hsu and H. Serrie (eds), The Overseas Chinese: Ethnicity in National Context. Lanham
MD: University Press of America, pp. 43–61.
Hill, H. (1997) ‘Myths about Tigers: Indonesian Development Policy Debates’, Pacific Review, 10 (2),
Huff, W. G. (1994) The Economic Growth of Singapore: Trade and Development in the Twentieth Century.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
IMF (2001) International Financial Statistics. Washington DC: International Monetary Fund.
Jessop, B. (1999) ‘Reflections on Globalisation and Its (Il)logic(s)’, in K. Olds, P. Dicken, P. F. Kelly, L.
Kong and H. W. Yeung (eds), Globalisation and the Asia-Pacific: Contested Territories. London: Routledge:
Kao, J. (1993) ‘The Worldwide Web of Chinese Business’, Harvard Business Review, 71 (2), 24–36.
Kearney, A. T. (2001) ‘Measuring Globalisation’, Foreign Policy, 122, pp. 56–65. (A. T. Kearney is a registered
service mark of A. T. Kearney, Inc.)
Keohane, R. O. (2001) ‘Governance in a Partially Globalized World’, American Political Science Review, 95
Krasner, S. D. (1999) Sovereignty: Organized Hypocrisy. Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press.
Kregel, J. A. (1998) ‘Derivatives and Global Capital Flows: Applications to Asia’, Cambridge Journal of
Economics, 22 (6), 677–92.
Lake, D. A. and Rothchild, D. (1998) The International Spread of Ethnic Conflict: Fear, Diffusion, and
Escalation. Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press.
Lande, C. H. (1999) ‘Ethnic Conflict, Ethnic Accommodation, and Nation-Building in Southeast Asia’,
Studies in Comparative International Development, 33 (4), 89–117.
Lardy, N. R. (2002) Integrating China into the Global Economy. Washington DC: Brookings Institution.
Leung, H.-M. (1998) ‘Productivity of Singapore’s Manufacturing Sector: An Industry Level Non-
Parametric Study’, Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 15, 19–31.
Lim, L. Y. C. (2000) ‘Southeast Asian Chinese Business: Past Success, Recent Crisis and Future
Evolution’, Journal of Asian Business, 16 (1), 1–14.
Liu, H. (2000) ‘Globalisation, Institutionalization and the Social Foundation of Chinese Business
Networks’, in H. W. Yeung and K. Olds (eds), Globalisation of Chinese Business Firms. Basingstoke:
Macmillan, pp. 105–25.
Lukauskas, A. (1999) ‘Managing Mobile Capital: Recent Scholarship on the Political Economy of
International Finance’, Review of International Political Economy, 6 (2), 262–87.
Lynn, P. (ed.) (1999) The Encyclopedia of the Chinese Overseas. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press.
Mak, L.-F. and Kung, I.-C. (1999) ‘The Chinese Diaspora Network: Forms and Practices in Southeast
Asia’, PROSEA Occasional Paper No. 26, Academia Sinica, Taiwan, pp. 1–18.
MCA (1994) ‘Malaysian Chinese Association 45 Anniversary Report (1949–1994)’, Malaysian Chinese
Association, Kuala Lumpur.
Malley, M. S. (2002) ‘Indonesia in 2001: Restoring Stability in Jakarta’, Asian Survey, 42 (1), 124–32.
Mayall, J. (1998) ‘Globalisation and International Relations’, Review of International Studies, 24 (2), 239–
Mitchison, L. (1961) The Overseas Chinese: A Background Book. London: Bodley Head.
Mittelman, J. H. (2000) The Globalisation Syndrome: Transformation and Resistance. Princeton NJ: Princeton
McKeown, A. (1999) ‘Conceptualizing Chinese Diasporas, 1842–1949’, Journal of Asian Studies, 58 (2),
McLean, I. (ed.) (1996) The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Nanyang Siang Pau (Malaysia) (1999) 7 April, pp. A12–13.
Nyaw, M.-K., Cheung, G. C. K. and Chang, C. Y. (2001) ‘Money Migration: An Assessment of ASEAN’s
Investment in China with Special Reference to Chinese Diaspora Investment after 1979’, Journal of
World Investment, 2 (3), 339–455.
Ohmae, K. (1993) ‘The Rise of Region State’, Foreign Affairs, 72 (2), 78–87.
Ohmae, K. (1995) The End of the Nation State: The Rise of Regional Economies. New York: Free Press.
Olds, K., Dicken, P., Kelly, P. F., Kong, L. and Yeung, H. W. (1999) Globalisation and the Asia-Pacific:
Contested Territories. London: Routledge.
Porter, M. E. (1998) ‘Clusters and the New Economics of Competition’, Harvard Business Review, 76 (6),
Porter, M. E. (2000) ‘Attitudes, Values, Beliefs and the Microeconomics of Prosperity’, in L. E. Harrison
and S. P. Huntington (eds), Culture Matters: How Values Shape Human Progress. New York: Basic Books,
Prestowitz, C. V. (1988) Trading Places: How We Are Giving Our Future to Japan and How to Reclaim It. New
York: Basic Books.
Putnam, R. D. (1993) Making Democracy Work: Civic Traditions in Modern Italy. Princeton NJ: Princeton
Putnam, R. D. (2000) Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community. New York: Simon &
Putnam, R. D. (ed.) (2002) Democracies in Flux: The Evolution of Social Capital in Contemporary Society. New
York: Oxford University Press.
Putnam, R. D. and Goss, K. A. (2002) ‘Introduction’, in R. A. Putnam (ed.), Democracies in Flux: The
Evolution of Social Capital in Contemporary Society. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 3–19.
Pye, L. W. (1985) Asian Power and Politics: The Cultural Dimensions of Authority. Cambridge MA: Harvard
Redding, S. G. (1993) The Spirit of Chinese Capitalism. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.
Rodrik, D. (1997) Has Globalisation Gone Too Far? Washington DC: Institute for International Economics.
Rosecrance, R. (1999) The Rise of the Virtual State: Wealth and Power in the Coming Century. New York: Basic
Rosecrance, R. (2002) ‘International Security and the Virtual State: States and Firms in World Politics’,
Review of International Studies, 28 (3), 443–55.
Roßteutscher, S. (2002) ‘Advocate or Reflection? Associations and Political Culture’, Political Studies, 50
Roßteutscher, S. (2003) ‘Symposium: Social Capital: Towards a ‘New’ Research Agenda: Introduction’,
European Political Science, 2 (3), 41–3.
Sassen, S. (1996) Losing Control? New York: Columbia University Press.
Sassen, S. (1998) Globalisation and Its Discontents. New York: New Press.
Sassen, S. (2001) The Global City: New York, London and Tokyo, second edition. Princeton NJ: Princeton
Shambaugh, D. (ed.) (1995) Greater China: The Next Super Power? Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Sing Tao Daily (Hong Kong) (1993) 20 December.
Speth, J. G. (1998) ‘Keep the Focus on Promoting the People of Asia’, International Herald Tribune, 29
January, p. 8.
Strange, S. (1998) ‘Globaloney?’, Review of International Political Economy, 5 (4), 704–20.
Sum, N.-L. (1999) ‘Rethinking Globalisation: Re-articulating the Spatial Scale and Temporal Horizons of
Trans-border Spaces’, in K. Olds, P. Dicken, P. F. Kelly, L. Kong and H. W. Yeung (eds), Globalisation
and the Asia-Pacific: Contested Territories. London: Routledge, pp. 129–45.
Suryadinata, L. (1978) Pribumi Indonesians, the Chinese Minority and China. Kuala Lumpur: Heinemann
Education Books (Asia).
Suryadinata, L. (1997) ‘Ethnic Chinese in Southeast Asia: Overseas Chinese, Chinese Overseas or
Southeast Asians?’, in L. Suryadinata (ed.), Ethnic Chinese as Southeast Asians. Singapore: ISEAS,
Tan, E. K.-B. (2000) ‘Success Amidst Prejudice: Guanxi Networks in Chinese Businesses in Indonesia and
Malaysia’, Journal of Asian Business, 16 (1), 65–83.
Tan, M. G. (1997) ‘The Ethnic Chinese in Indonesia: Issues of Identity’, in L. Suryadinata (ed.), Ethnic
Chinese as Southeast Asians. Singapore: ISEAS, pp. 33–65.
Tang, J. and Ward, A. (2003) The Changing Face of Chinese Management. London: Routledge.
Tarrow, S. (1996) ‘Making Social Science Work across Space and Time: A Critical Reflection on Robert
Putnam’s Making Democracy Work’, American Political Science Review, 90 (2), 389–97.
Tay, L. S. (1999) Malaixiya Huawen Jiaoyu fazhan shi. Kuala Lumpur: United Chinese School Teachers’
Association of Malaysia.
Unger, D. (1998) Building Social Capital in Thailand: Fibers, Finance, and Infrastructure. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press.
United Nations (1997) Economic and Social Survey of Asia and the Pacific 1997. New York: United Nations.
Wang, G. (1991) China and the Chinese Overseas. Singapore: Times Academic Press.
Wang, G. (1999) ‘History of the Chinese Overseas Migration’ (Distinguish Scholar Lecture), Lingnan
University, Hong Kong, 8 November.
Webb, S. and Dolven, B. (2002) ‘Pulp Fiction’, Far Eastern Economic Review, 14 February, pp. 38–43.
Webb, S. and Saywell, T. (2002) ‘Untangling Temasek’, Far Eastern Economic Review, 7 November, pp. 42–5.
Weber, M. (1992 ) The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. London: Routledge.
Wedeen, L. (2002) ‘Conceptualizing Culture: Possibilities for Political Science’, American Political Science
Review, 96 (4), 713–28.
Wilson, T. M. and Donnan, H. (1998) ‘Nation, State and Identity at International Borders’, in T. M. Wilson
and H. Donnan (eds), Border Identities: Nation and State at International Frontiers. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, pp. 1–30.
World Bank (1997) Private Capital Flows to Developing Countries: The Road to Financial Integration. New York:
Oxford University Press.
Wu, Y.-L. (1983) ‘Chinese Entrepreneurs in Southeast Asia’, American Economic Review, 73 (2), 112–17.
Yang, M. M. (1994) Gift, Favors, and Banquets: The Art of Social Relationships in China. Ithaca NY: Cornell
Yao, S. (2002) Confucian Capitalism: Discourse, Practice and the Myth of Chinese Enterprise. London:
Yazhou Zhoukan (1999) 1–7 November.
Yeung, H. W. (1999) ‘Under Siege? Economic Globalisation and Chinese Business in Southeast Asia’,
Economy and Society, 28 (1), 1–29.