1 Throughout this paper the county division used are those established in the Middle Ages, not the modern administrative boundaries.
2 R.H. Hilton, The Economic Development of some Leicestershire Estates in the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries, Oxford, 1947, pp. 24-7; I. Kershaw, Bolton Priory: The Economy of a Northern Monastery, Oxford, 1973, p. 73.
3 D.L. Farmer,' Marketing the produce of the countryside, 1200-1500', in E. Miller (ed.), The Agrarian History of England and Wales, III: 1348-1500, Cambridge, 1991, p. 374.
4 H.E. Hallam, 'Farming techniques: eastern England', in H.E. Hallam (ed.), The Agrarian History of England and Wales, II: 1042-1350, Cambridge, 1988, pp. 294-8; B.M.S. Campbell, 'Agricultural progres in medieval England: some evidence from eastern Norfolk', in Economic History Review, 2nd series, XXXVI (1983), pp. 26-46.
5 B.M.S. Campbell, 'Measuring the commercialisation of seigneurial agriculture c.1300', in R.H. Britnell and B.M.S. Campbell (eds), A Commercialising Economy: England 1086 to c.1300, Manchester 1995, pp. 155-63. For a more botanical analysis of these crops, see J. Greig,' 'Plant resources', in G. Astill and A. Grant (eds), The Countryside of Medieval England, Oxford, 1988, pp. 108-15.
6 For details concerning the marketing of wool in this period, see N. Denholm-Young, Seignorial Administration in England, Oxford, 1937, pp. 53-66; T.H. Lloyd, The Movement of Wool Prices in Medieval England, Economic History Review Supplement VI, Cambridge, 1973, pp. 5-13.
7 For fuel, however, see D.L. Farmer, 'Disposing of a surplus, or producing for the market? Some reflections on woodland and pasture sales on the Winchester manors in the thirteenth century', in Britnell and Campbell, Commercialising Economy, pp. 102-31.
8 Throughout this study English 'quarters' have been converted into hectolitres at the rate 1 quarter = 2.8 hectolitres.
9 B.M.S. Campbell, J.A. Galloway, D. Keene and M. Murphy, A Medieval Capital and its Grain Supply: Agrarian Production and Distribution in the London Region c. 1300, Historical Geography Research Series XXX, London 1993, pp. 34-5.
10 B. Harvey, Westminster Abbey and its Estates in the Middle Ages, Oxford, 1977, pp. 143-8.
11 M. Beresford and H.P.R. Finberg, English Medieval Boroughs: A Handlist, Newton Abbot, 1973, p. 39.
12 E.A. Kosminsky, Studies in the Agrarian History of England in the Thirteenth Century, trad. ing. Oxford 1956, pp. 92, 228; C. Dyer, Lords and Peasants in a Changing Society: The Estates of the Bishopric of Worcester, 680-1540, Cambridge, 1980, p. 89.
13 M.M. Postan, The Famulus: The Estate Labourer in the XIIth and XIIIth Centuries, Economic History Review Supplement 2, Cambridge, 1954, pp. 22-3.
14 R.H. Britnell, The Commercialisation of English Society, 1000-1500, Cambridge, 1993, pp. 106-7.
15 Postan, The Famulus, pp. 45-6.
16 E. King, Peterborough Abbey, 1086-1310: A Study in the Land Market, Cambridge, 1973, pp. 163-4.
17 R.H. Britnell, 'Production for the market on a small fourteenth-century estate', in Economic History Review, XIX (1966), p. 382.
18 Capmpell, Galloway, Keene and Murphy, Medieval Capital, pp. 8-12.
19 R.M. Smith,'Demographic developments in rural England, 1300-48: a survey', in Campbell, Before the Black Death, pp. 48-50.
20 L.R. Poos, 'The rural population of Essex in the later middle ages', in Economic History Review, 2nd series, XXXVIII, 1985, pp. 515-30.
21 R.H. Britnell, 'The Black Death in English towns', in Urban History, XXI (1994), pp. 196-8.
22 N.J. Mayhew, 'Money and prices in England from Henry II to Edward III', in Agricultural History Review, XXXV (1987), p. 125; idem, 'Numismatic evidence and falling prices in the fourteenth century', in Economic History Review, 2nd series, XXVII (1974), p. 7.
23 M.C. Prestwich, 'Currency and the economy of early fourteenth-century England', in N.J. Mayhew (ed.), Edwardian Monetary Affairs (1279-1344), British Achaeological Reports, XXXVI, Oxford, 1977, pp. 46-7; W.M. Ormrod, 'The crown and the English economy, 1290-1348', in B.M.S. Campbell (ed.), Before the Black Death: Studies in the 'Crisis' of the Early Fourteenth Century, Manchester, 1991, pp. 158-9.
24 M.C. Prestwich, War, Politics and Finance under Edward I, London, 1972, pp. 118-19, 120-1, 133-4.
25 I. Kershaw, 'The great famine and the agrarian crisis in England, 1315-1322', in R.H.Hilton (ed.), Peasants, Knights and Heretics: Studies in Medieval English Social History, Cambridge, 1976, p. 129; J.R. Maddicott, 'The English peasantry and the crown, 1294-1341', in T.H. Aston (ed.), Landlords, Peasants and Politics in Medieval England, Cambridge, 1987, pp. 316-7.
26 R.A.L. Smith, Canterbury Cathedral Priory, Cambridge, 1943; idem, Collected Papers, London, 1947, pp. 23-41.
27 Campbell, 'Measuring the commercialisation', pp. 159-60.
28 D. Postles, 'Some differences between seigneurial demesnes in medieval Oxfordshire', in Oxoniensia, LVIII (1993), pp. 219-32.
29 Kosminsky, Studies, pp. 265-6.
30 R.H. Britnell, 'Minor landlords in England and medieval agrarian capitalism', in Past and Present, LXXXIX (1980), 3-22; N. Saul, Scenes from Provincial Life: Knightly Families in Sussex, 1280-1400, Oxford 1986, pp. 104-39.
31 Smith, Canterbury Cathedral Priory, pp. 132-3.
32 Campbell, 'Measuring the commercialisation', pp. 158-9.
33 K. Biddick, The Other Economy: Pastoral Husbandry on a Medieval Estate, Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1989, pp. 72-7.
34 C. Dyer, Standards of Living in the Later Middle Ages: Social Change in England c. 1200-1520, Cambridge, 1989, pp. 117, 119; N. Mayhew, 'Modelling medieval monetisation', in Britnell and Campbell, Commercialising Economy, p. 58.
35 Dyer, Standards of Living, p. 113.
36 Maddicott, 'English peasantry', p. 355.
37 Dyer, Standards of Living, pp. 113, 115.
38 J.Z. Titow, 'Evidence of weather in the account rolls of the bishopric of Winchester, 1209-1350', in Economic History Review, 2nd ser. XII (1960), pp. 360-407.
39 Capmpell, Galloway, Keene and Murphy, Medieval Capital, p. 181; M. Mate, 'The agrarian economy of south-eastern England before the Black Death: depressed or buoyant?', in Campbell, Before the Black Death, pp. 80-2.
40 Campell, Galloway, Keene and Murphy, Medieval Capital, p. 86.
41 T.H. Lloyd, Alien Merchants in England in the High Middle Ages, Brighton, 1982, pp. 44-5, 49, 56.
42 Mate, 'Agrarian economy', p. 105.
43 C. Gross, The Gild Merchant: A Contribution to British Municipal History, 2 vols, Oxford, 1890, II, pp. 182, 227; D.M. Owen (ed.), The Making of King's Lynn: A Documentary Survey, British Academy, Records of Social and Economic History, new series, IX, London, 1984, pp. 14-18, 22-3, 426; H. Swinden, The History and Antiquities of Great Yarmouth, Norwich, 1772, pp. 17-23.
44 J. F. Edwards and B. P. Hindle, 'The transportation system of medieval England and Wales', in Journal of Historical Geography, XVII (1991), pp. 123-34; J. L. Langdon, 'Inland water transport in medieval England', in Journal of Historical Geography, XIX (1993), pp. 1-11; J. F. Edwards - B. P. Hindle (1993), 'Comment: inland water transportation in medieval England', in Journal of Historical Geography, XIX (1993), pp. 12-14.
45 P.D.A. Harvey, A Medieval Oxfordshire Village: Cuxham, 1240 to 1400, Oxford, 1965, p. 103.
46 E. Miller, 'Medieval York' in P.M. Tillott (ed.), A History of Yorkshire: The City of York, The Victoria History of the Counties of England, Oxford 1961, p. 97; W. Hudson and J.C. Tingey (ed.), The Records of the City of Norwich, 2 vols, London and Norwich 1906-10, II, p. cxxix.
47 R.H. Hilton, A Medieval Society: The West Midlands at the End of the Thirteenth Century, 2nd edition, Cambridge, 1983, p. 181.
48 H.M. Cam, 'The City of Cambridge', in J.P.C. Roach (ed.), A History of the County of Cambridge and the Isle of Ely, III: The City and University of Cambridge, Victoria History of the Counties of England, London, 1959, p. 88.
49 R.H. Britnell, Growth and Decline in Colchester, 1300-1525, Cambridge 1986, pp. 41-7.
50 D.L. Farmer, 'Marketing', p. 364; D.L. Farmer, 'Two Wiltshire manors and their markets', in Agricultural History Review, XXXVII (1989), pp. 5-7.
51 F.W. Maitland (ed.), The Charters of the Borough of Cambridge, Cambridge 1901, pp. 1-2.
52 G.E. Woodbine (ed.), Bracton de Legibus et Consuetudinibus Anglie, 4 vols, New Haven 1915-42, III, pp. 198-9; R.H. Britnell, 'King John's early grants of markets and fairs', in English Historical Review, XCIV, 1979, pp. 90-6.
53 D.W. Sutherland, Quo Warranto Proceedings in the Reign of Edward I, 1278-1294, Oxford 1963, pp. 2-3.
54 Campell, Galloway, Keene and Murphy, Medieval Capital, pp. 28-31, 35.
55 J.C. Holt, Magna Carta, Cambridge, 1965, p.327.
56 J.L. Cate, 'The English mission of Eustace de Flay (1200-1)', in Études d'histoire dédiées à la mémoire de Henri Pirenne pas ses anciens élèves, Brussels, 1937, pp. 73-6, 88.
57 Public Record Office, London, S.C.6 935/24.
58 H. Grieve, The Sleepers and the Shadows: Chelmsford, a Town, its People and its Past, I, Chelmsford 1988, pp. 1-26.
59 D. Oschinsky (ed.), Walter of Henley and Other Treatises on Estate Management and Accounting, Oxford, 1971, pp. 270-1.
60 Hilton, A Medieval Society, p. 180.
61 C. Dyer, 'The hidden trade of the Middle Ages: evidence from the west midlands of England', in Journal of Historical Geography, XVIII (1992), pp. 141-57.
62 G.T. Lapsley, The County Palatine of Durham: A Study in Constitutional History, New York 1900, p. 62.
63 C.M. Fraser (ed.), Records of Anthony Bek, Bishop and Patriarch, 1283-1311, Surtees Society, CLXII, 1953, no. 89, p. 95.
64 Farmer, 'Two Wiltshire manors', p. 8; idem, 'Marketing', pp. 360-1.
65 R.H. Britnell, 'Advantagium mercatoris: a custom in medieval English trade', in Nottingham Medieval Studies, XXIV, 1980, p. 48.
66 Essex Record Office, Chelmsford, D/DC 2/11.
67 Farmer, 'Two Wiltshire manors', p. 8.
68 Campbell , Galloway, Keene and Murphy, Medieval Capital, p. 99-101; R.H. Hilton, Medieval Society, p. 181.
69 Hilton, Medieval Society, p. 182.
70 C. Noke, 'Agency and the excessus balance in manorial accounts', in Accountancy and Business Research, XXI (1990-1), pp. 339-48.
71 M. Chibnall (ed.), Select Documents of the English Lands of the Abbey of Bec, Camden Society, 3rd series, LXXIII, London, 1951, pp. 146-7, 149, 159, 162.
72 Harvey, Medieval Oxfordshire Village, p. 103.
73 M. Bailey, A Marginal Economy? East Anglian Breckland in the Later Middle Ages, Cambridge, 1989, p. 149; E. Miller, The Abbey and Bishopric of Ely: The Social History of an Ecclesiastical Estate from the Tenth Century to the Early Fourteenth Century, Cambridge, 1951, p. 86.
74 Britnell, Growth and Decline, p. 38.
75 Farmer, 'Two Wiltshire manors', p. 8.
76 Britnell, 'Production for the market', pp. 381-2.
77 Public Record Office, London, S.C.6 840/3
78 F.M. Page (ed.), Wellingborough Manorial Accounts, A.D. 1258-1323, Northamptonshire Record Society, VIII, 1936, p. 130.
79 Britnell, 'Advantagium mercatoris', pp. 37-50.
80 Farmer, 'Marketing', pp. 37-1; G.A. Williams, Medieval London: From Commune to Capital, 2nd edition, London, 1970, pp. 161-3.
81 Capmpell, Galloway, Keene and Murphy, Medieval Capital, pp. 81, 84-5.
82 R.R. Sharpe (ed.), Calendar of Letter Books Preserved among the Archives of the Corporation of the City of London, 1275-1498, 11 vols, London, 1899-1912, book A, pp. 129-30.
83 Capmpell, Galloway, Keene and Murphy, Medieval Capital, p. 92.
84 Farmer, 'Marketing', p. 371.
85 Farmer,'Marketing', p. 372.
86 Capmpell, Galloway, Keene and Murphy, Medieval Capital, pp. 27, 69, 90.
87 Ibid., pp. 89, 101-4.
88 R.R. Mundill, 'Lumbard and Son: the businesses and debtors of two Jewish moneylenders in late thirteenth-century England', in Jewish Quarterly Review, LXXXII (1991), pp. 147-54.
89 J. Hillaby, 'The Hereford Jewry, 1179-1290, III: Aaron le Blund and the last decades of the Hereford Jewry, 1253-90', in Transactions of the Woolhope Naturalists' Field Club, Herefordshire, XLVI (1990), pp. 456-8.
90 Mundill, 'Lumbard and Son', pp. 146-7, 169.
91 Britnell, Commercialisation, p. 92.
92 Britnell, 'Production for the market', p. 383.
93 R.H. Britnell, 'Forestall, Forestalling and the Statute of Forestallers', English Historical Review, CII (1987), pp. 89-102.
94 B. Thorpe (ed.), Ancient Laws and Institutes of England, London, 1840, p. 200.
95 For these and similar examples, see A. Ballard and J. Tait (eds), British Borough Charters, 1216-1307, Cambridge, 1923, pp. 293-6.
96 Devon Record Office, Exeter, Exeter Mayor's Court Roll, 48-50 Henry III, 55 Henry III, I Edward II, mm. 5d, 18d.
97 The texts are in A. Luders, T.E. Tomlins, J. France, W.E. Taunton and J. Raithby (eds), Statutes of the Realm (1101-1713), 11 vols. Record Commission, London, 1808-28, I, pp. 201-4. For comments, see Britnell, Forstall, pp. 94-6.
98 Luders, Tomlins, France, Taunton and Raithby, Statutes of the Realm, I, pp. 203-4.
99 A. Smith, An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, ed. R.H. Campbell, A.S. Skinner and W.B. Todd, 2nd edition, 2 vols., Oxford, 1979, I, p. 534.
100 Britnell, Growth and Decline, pp. 40-1.
101 D.L. Farmer, 'Some grain price movements in thirteenth-century England', in Economic History Review, 2nd series, X (1957), pp. 208-9.
102 L.F. Salzman, English Trade in the Middle Ages, Oxford, 1931, pp. 45-8.
103 W. Kula, Measures and Men, Princeton, 1986, pp. 43-50.
104 Britnell, Commercialisation, p. 96.
105 G.C. Brooke, English Coins, 3rd edn, London, 1950, pp. 116-25.
106 N.S.B. Gras, The Evolution of the English Corn Market from the Twelfth to the Eighteenth Century, Cambridge, Mass., 1915, p. 147; Capmpell, Galloway, Keene and Murphy, Medieval Capital, p. 64.
107 D.L. Farmer, 'Prices and wages', in Hallam, Agrarian History, pp. 739-40.
108 Campbell, Galloway, Keene and Murphy, Medieval Capital, pp. 63-9.
109 G.R. Elvey (ed.), Luffield Priory Charters, 2 vols, Buckinghamshire and Northamptonshire Record Societies, 1968-75, II, no. A1, p. 436.
110 Corporation of London Records Office, Letter Book C, fo. 40r (cf. Sharpe, Calendar of Letter-Books, book C, p. 58).
111 Sharpe, Calendar of Letter-Books, book E, p. 56.
112 Corporation of London Records Office, Plea and Memoranda Roll A3, m. 9r: cf. Thomas and Jones, Calendar of Plea and Memoranda Rolls, I (1323-64), p. 115.
113 Sharpe, Calendar of Letter-Books, book F, p. 83.
114 Corporation of London Records Office, Letter Book F, fo. 139r (cf. Sharpe, Calendar of Letter-Books, book F, p. 165).
115 Corporation of London Records Office, Letter Book F, fo. 140r (cf. Sharpe, Calendar of Letter-Books, book F, pp. 166-7).
116 M.M. Postan and J. Titow, 'Heriots and prices in Winchester manors', in M.M. Postan, Essays on Medieval Agriculture and General Problems of the Medieval Economy, Cambridge, 1973, pp. 166-9; Z. Razi, Life, Marriage and Death in a Medieval Parish: Economy, Society and Demography in Halesowen, 1270-1400, Cambridge, 1980, pp. 38-40.
117 I owe this information to Prof. L.R. Poos.
118 A. Sen, Poverty and Famines: An Essay on Entitlement and Deprivation, Oxford, 1981, pp. 7-8, 154-6.
119 R.H. Britnell, 'England and northern Italy in the early fourteenth century: the economic contrasts', in Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 5th series, XXXIX, 1989, pp.167-83.
120 W.C. Jordan, The Great Famine: Northern Europe in the Early Fourteenth Century, Princeton, 1996; H.S. Lucas, 'The great European famine of 1315, 1316, and 1317', in Speculum, V (1930), pp. 343-77.
121 E.g. Kershaw, Bolton Priory, p. 14.
122 Britnell, 'Commercialisation and economic development in England, 1000-1300', in Britnell and Campbell, A Commercialising Economy, pp. 9-12.
123 Postan and Titow, 'Heriots and prices', pp. 172-3.
124 Razi, Life, Marriage and Death, p. 40.
125 Smith, 'Demographic developments', pp. 56-7.
126 Gross, Gild Merchant, II, pp. 184-5.