PHYS4151 Advanced Condensed Matter Physics (2011/12)
Materials and Analysis
12 lectures in Michaelmas Term
Syllabus: Binary and ternary semiconductors, doping, solid solutions and Vegard's law. Qualitative treatment of p-n junction devices including detectors, solar cells, LED's and LASERs. Phase diagrams, (binary isomorphous and eutectic). Crystal growth. Bulk growth by Bridgman and Czochralski methods. Epitaxy by MOVPE and MBE. Growth mechanisms and RHEED. Zone refining, thermodynamics of mixing. Quantum structure of atoms. Atomic energy levels and their use in analysis. Photoelectric effect. XPS, x-ray analysis and Auger analysis. Detection limit, x-ray spectrometers. Imaging principles for optical and electron systems. Geometric optics, Lorentz law and electron lenses. Electron diffraction, reciprocal lattice, Ewald sphere construction. Kikuchi lines. Kinematical theory of diffraction applied to image contrast analysis. Electron beam - specimen interactions, SEM principles, depth of focus, charge collection microscopy, FIB. AFM and STM. Nuclear masses and mass spectroscopy.
Additional: Materials Science and Engineering 5th Edition William D Callister (Wiley)
Additional: Defect Analysis in Electron Microscopy, M. Loretto and R. Smallman (Chapman & Hall)
Additional: Electron Microscopy and Analysis, P.J. Goodhew and F.J. Humphreys (Taylor & Francis)
Additional: Surface Physics, M. Prutton (OUP)
Additional: Electron Microscopy in the Study of Materials, P.J. Grundy and G.A. Jones (Arnold)
12 lectures in Michaelmas and Epiphany Terms
Syllabus: Review of semiconductors and doping p-n Junction : drift and diffusion currents at equilibrium, charge distribution, abrupt junction depletion width, current-voltage characteristics and depletion capacitance. Bipolar Transistor: transistor action, current gain, static characteristics. Field Effect Transistor: JFET principles of operation, current-voltage characteristics and channel conductance. MOS Devices: MOS diode, MOSFET basic characteristics, threshold voltage, device scaling and miniaturisation, integrated circuits and charge-coupled devices. Photonics: Optical properties of semiconductors: Free carrier effect on complex refractive index; compositional effects on refractive index. Optical confinement and slab waveguides. Semiconductor photonic devices: Electro-absorption modulator; photodiode.
Additional: Semiconductor Devices, M. Zambuto (McGraw-Hill)
Additional: Semiconductor Devices: Physics and Technology, S.M. Sze (Wiley)
Additional: Semiconductor Devices, J.J. Sparkes (Chapman and Hall, 2nd Ed.)
Additional: Optoelectronics: An Introduction, J. Wilson and J.F.B. Hawkes (Prentice Hall)
Low Dimensional Solids
12 lectures in Epiphany Term
Syllabus: Length scales of quantum confinement. Infinitely deep quantum well. Two, one and zero dimensional confinement. Density of states. Fabrication techniques: epitaxy and lithography. Energy levels, envelope wavefunction approach, band structure. Finite depth quantum well. Optical properties. Superlattices. Tunnelling through single and double barriers. Two dimensional electron gas, modulation doping, conductance, mobility, Landau levels, quantised Hall effect. Quantum wires, ballistic transport, conductance quantization, quantum point contact. Impact of low dimensional structures on optical and electrical devices. Future developments.
Additional: The Physics of Low Dimensional Semiconductors, J.H. Davies (CUP)
Additional: Quantum Semiconductor Structures, C. Weisbuch and B. Vinter (Academic)
Additional: Low-Dimensional Semiconductors, M.J. Kelly (OUP)
Additional: Physics of Submicron Devices, D.K. Ferry and R.O. Grondin (Plenum)
Additional: Physics of Low-Dimensional Semiconductor Structures, P. Butcher, N.H. March and M.P. Tosi (Plenum)
Additional: Low-Dimensional Semiconductor Structures, K. Barnham and D. Vvedensky (CUP)
3 lectures in Easter Term, one by each lecturer.
Lectures: 2 one-hour lectures per week
Problem exercises: See http://www.dur.ac.uk/physics/students/problems/