The best textbook is:
of Art, Routledge, 1999. A reliable and good text book . Worth buying,
along with the Lammarque and Oslen anthology listed below.
. Worth buying, along with the Lammarque and Oslen anthology listed below.(Stephen Davies is finishing a textbook, which will be very good, when it appears.)
Other texts that you might try are are:
(1) Marcia Eaton, Basic Issues in Aesthetics,
(2) Oswald Hanfling (ed.) Philosophical Aesthetics, Blackwell, 1992. This is of very varied quality. Hursthouse is excellent on representation, and Sim is excellent on continental and Marxist aesthetics. Hanfling's ch. 2 on aesthetic qualities and ch. 3 on the ontology of art are okay. This rest is uninspiring, but sometimes informative.
(3) Malcolm Budd, Values of the Arts, Penguin, 1995. Interesting but may be rather dense for some students.
There are also textbooks by Graham and Townsend. Not sure about these.
Those are the most useful texts. Other less inspiring texts are
Anne Sheppard, Aesthetics,
William Charlton, Aesthetics, Hutcheson, 1970.
Ruth Saw, Aesthetics, Macmillan,
1972. (You don't need these.)
(You don't need these.)
(1) Jerrold Levinson, 2 volume, Oxford Companion to Aesthetics, 2002. This is at the right level. Students find this the most useful reference work by far. Especially useful for revision. Now in paperback. So get your college or department library to buy this.
(2) Berys Gaut and Dominic Lopes, Routledge Companion to Aesthetics or some such title. Good useful entries, but not as in-depth as the Levinson. Good for a first orientation on a topic.
(3) Michael Kelley, 4 volume, Encyclopedia of Aesthetics, OUP, 1998. Lots of excellent and useful articles.
(4) There a recent Blackwell Companion type volume, edited by Peter Kivy. Also useful.
(5) The most recent Encyclopedia Britannica has a useful survey article by Roger Scruton, under “Aesthetics”.
(6) A Companion to Aesthetics, (ed.) D. Cooper, Blackwell, 1992.
(1) Stephen Davies, Definitions of Art, Cornell, 1991.
Roger Scruton, Art and
(4) Roger Scruton, The Aesthetic Understanding, Carcanet, 1983.
(5) Roger Scruton, The Aesthetics of Architecture,
The most useful one for this course is:
(1) Peter Lamarque and Stein Haugom Olsen, (eds.) Aesthetics and the Philosophy of Art: the Analytic Tradition: An Anthology (Blackwell, 2003).
Most of the central readings are in there. In fact, you should buy it.
Other useful/interesting ones are:
(2) Alex Neill and Aaron Ridley (eds.), The Philosophy of Art, McGraw-Hill, 1995.
(3) John Bender and Gene Blocker (eds.), Contemporary Philosophy of Art, Prentice Hall, 1993
(4) George Dickie & Scalfari & Roblin (eds.), Aesthetics: A Critical Introduction, St. Martins 1989. This has a good bibliography.
Margolis, Joseph (ed.), Philosophy
Looks at the Arts, Older
“BJA”, is short for the British Journal of Aesthetics; and “JAAC” is short for the Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism.
absolutely essential reading. "*" means
recommended but not essential reading.
"*" means recommended but not essential reading.
Topics 1-7 we shall do other things being equal. For your 8th topic, you can have more choice from the other topics 8-13. Let me know if there is something else you are burning to do… (architecture, gardens, dance, Japanese aesthetics, etc.)
Apologies for the references to my own writings in the readings. Uncool, I know. But it allows students to know my biases.
Is there a useful distinction between aesthetic and non-aesthetic concepts, terms or judgements?
** Frank Sibley, "Aesthetic Concepts", in various Anthologies, or Philosophical Review, 1959.
* Frank Sibley, "Aesthetic and Non-aesthetic", Philosophical Review, 1965.
** Ted Cohen, "A Critique of Sibley's Position", in Dickie et al. (eds) Aesthetics: A Critical Introduction; or in Theoria, 1973.
* Monroe Beardsley, "What is an Aesthetic Quality?", in The Aesthetic Point of View, or Theoria, 1973.
* Peter Kivy, "Aesthetic Aspects and Aesthetic Qualities", Journal of Philosophy, 1968.
* Peter Kivy, "Aesthetic Concepts: Some Fresh Considerations", JAAC, 1979.
* Monroe Beardsley, Aesthetics, Hackett (second edition), postscript 3 (brief).
Nelson Goodman, Languages of Art, pp. 255-62; or Problems and Projects, pp. 120-21. Compare with Mothersill below.
Mary Mothersill, Beauty Restored, chapter IX.
Nick Zangwill, "The Beautiful, The Dainty, and the Dumpy", BJA, 1995. (Also as chapter 1 of the Metaphysics of Beauty (Cornell UP 2001),
Oswald Hanfling, in Hanfling (ed.) Philosophical Aesthetics, pp. 63-67.
Blackwell Companion entry “Beauty” (by Mary Mothersill).
Marcia Eaton, A Basic Introduction to Aesthetics, pp. 36-37.
To what extent can we support aesthetic ascriptions with reasons? Are there aesthetic laws?
** Kant, Critique of Judgement, sections 32-34, especially 33.
Sibley, "General Criteria and Reasons in Aesthetics", in John Fisher (ed.) Essays on Aesthetics,
* John Bender, "General but Defeasible Reasons in Aesthetic Evaluation: The Particularist/Generalist Dispute," Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism, Vol. 53, No. 4, Fall 1995.
Mary Mothersill, Beauty Restored, chapters III to V.
Alan Goldman, “Aesthetic Qualities and Aesthetic Value”, Journal of Philosophy, 1990.
Eddy Zemach, “Aesthetic Properties, Aesthetic Laws, and Aesthetic Principles”, JAAC, 1987.
Mary Mothersill, “Aesthetic Laws, Principles and Properties”, JAAC, 1989.
George Dickie, Evaluating Art, chs. 5 and 6.
* Roger Scruton, The Aesthetics of Architecture", ch. 5.
Nick Zangwill, “The Concept of The Aesthetic”, European Journal of Philosophy, 1998, or chapter 2 of the Metaphysics of Beauty.
Assess Hume's project in "Of the Standard of Taste".
* Hume, "Of the Standard of Taste", collected in many editions of Hume's essays.
* Peter Kivy, "Hume's Standard: Breaking the Circle", BJA, 1967. Essential reading.
* Jerrold Levinson, “Hume's Standard of Taste: The Real Problem”, JAAC, 2002. Essential reading. (Some such title or other!)
You might also try some of the following (sample to taste):
* Malcolm Budd, Values of the Arts, pp. 16-25.
* Ted Gracyk, "Hume's Aesthetics", here
* Carolyn Korsmeyer, "Hume and the Foundations of Taste", JAAC, 1976.
* Noel Carroll, "Hume's Standard of Taste", JAAC, 1984.
Mothersill, Beauty Restored,
Peter Jones, "Hume's Aesthetics Reassessed", Philosophical Quarterly, 1976.
Dickie, Evaluating Art,
Maybe Nick Zangwill, "Hume, Taste and Teleology", reprinted in The Metaphysics of Beauty.
Very Basic Introductory material:
Marcia Eaton, A Basic Introduction to Aesthetics, pp. 35-36.
Can Kant's Views on Disinterestedness be Defended?
Is there an 'Aesthetic Attitude'?
** Kant, Critique of Judgement, sections 1 to 8. (Hard but persevere.)
* Mary McCloskey, Kant's Aesthetic, chapters 2 to 6.
** George Dickie, "The Myth of the Aesthetic Attitude", in many anthologies and American Philosophical Quarterly, 1964; or Art and the Aesthetic, chapter 4.
Sample to Taste:
* Allen Wood, Kant, Blackwell 2004. The aesthetics chapter is the best available short survey of Kant's aesthetics.
* Roger Scruton, Art and Imagination, ch. 10.
* Roger Scruton, The Aesthetics of Architecture", ch. 4.
Richard Wollheim, Art and its Objects, sections 40-42.
George Dickie, Evaluating Art, pp. 27-33.
Marshall Cohen, "Aesthetic Essence", in Margolis' anthology.
Maybe Nick Zangwill, "UnKantian Notions of Disinterest", BJA, 1992. Short: only 2 pages!
Paul Guyer (ed.), Critical Essays on Kant’s Critique of the Power of Judgment, Rowman & Littlefield, 2003. Sample to taste.
Try this link: http://www.iep.utm.edu/k/kantaest.htm by Burnham.
Blackwell Companion entry “Attitude”
Marcia Eaton, A Basic Introduction to Aesthetics, pp. 41-44.
Selim Kemal, Kant's Aesthetic Theory.
General Guides to Kant’s Aesthetics:
Blackwell Companion entry, “Kant”. Possibly.
The scholarly books by Crawford (Kant's Aesthetic Theory) and Paul Guyer (Kant and the Claims of Taste) are probably best avoided at this level, since you may find them hard going. Roger Scruton, Kant, and Stephan Körner, Kant, both have chapters on very general issues in Kant's aesthetics. Ted Cohen and Paul Guyer have a useful introduction to their edited Essays in Kant's Aesthetics, Chicago, 1982, reprinted in Dickie's anthology. All this is very heavy going.
There's a recent book
by somebody beginning with B. Looks ok.
There's a recent book by somebody beginning with B. Looks ok.
What are beauty and ugliness?
No essential reading!
Remember Hume for this topic.
* Roger Scruton, Art and Imagination, chapter 16.
* Mary Mothersill, Beauty Restored, pp. 342-66.
Frank Sibley and Michael Tanner, “Objectivity in Aesthetics”, Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume, 1968
* Monroe Beardsley, Aesthetics, postscript 10 (brief).
* Mary McCloskey, Kant’s Aesthetic, chapter 9. For Kant's view if you are interested.
Colin Lyas, ch. 8 of Hanfling, Philosophical Aesthetics.
* Entry in
the Levinson volume .
Alan Goldman, Aesthetic Value, Westview, 1995.
Richard Wollheim, Art and its Objects, essay 6. (Not very helpful, I think.)
Assess Dickie's institutional Theory (or theories) of art.
(If you like, you could do Levinson's historical theory instead or as well.)
** George Dickie, Art and the Aesthetic, Cornell, 1974, chapter 1.
* George Dickie, "The New Institutional Theory", in the Dickie or Neill anthologies.
* Arthur Danto, "The Artworld" Journal of Philosophy, 1964, or in various anthologies. Also, his Transfiguration of the Commonplace.
* Richard Wollheim, Art and its Objects, supplementary essay 1.
* Ted Cohen, "The Possibility of Art", Philosophical Review, 1973.
* Kendall Walton, book review of Dickie in the Philosophical Review, 1977.
* A recent Dickie paper in the BJA replies (decisively!) to Wollheim.
* Chapter on art in Carolyn Korsmeyer, Gender and Aesthetics: An Introduction, Routledge, 2004.
Jerry Fodor, "Deja Vu All Over Again", in Danto and his Critics, (ed.) Mark Rollins, Blackwell, 1993.
George Dickie, "A Tale of Two Artworlds", in Danto and his Critics, (ed.) Mark Rollins, Blackwell, 1993.
Robert Stecker and Anita Silvers and Dickie’s Replies in Dickie et al (eds.) Aesthetics: A Critical Introduction.
Maybe Nick Zangwill, "Doughnuts and Dickie", Ratio, 1994.
and Value”, BJA, 2000. (Not very interesting,
attacks two straw-men objections to his theory.)
(Not very interesting, attacks two straw-men objections to his theory.)
Stephen Davies, Definitions of Art, chapter 4. A good bet.
Blackwell Companion entries “Artefact” (by Dickie) and “Artworld”, “Definition of Art” (by Dickie) and “Theories of Art”.
Levinson’s Historical Theory:
Jerry Levinson, "Defining Art Historically", BJA, 1979, or in his Music Art and Metaphysics, Cornell, 1990.
Stephen Davies, Definitions of Art, chapter 7. A good bet.
Crispin Sartwell, “A Counterexample to Levinson’s Historical Theory of Art”, JAAC, 1990.
David Kolak, “Art and Intentionality”, JAAC, 1990.
Jerry Levinson, “A Refiner’s Fire: Reply to Sartwell and Kolak”, JAAC, 1990.
Gregory Currie, "Aliens Too", Analysis, 1993.
Oppy, BJA 1993.
Levinson, replies to Oppy, BJA, 1993.
Stecker BJA, 1996.
Currie, BJA, 2000.
Levinson, BJA, 2002.
Assess aesthetic approaches to the nature of art.
** Monroe Beardsley, "An Aesthetic Definition of Art", in What is
Art?, Hugh Curtler (ed.), Haven 1983.
** Arthur Danto, "Aesthetics and the Work of Art", in The Transfiguration of the Commonplace, Harvard, 1981.
William Tolhurst, "Towards an Aesthetic Definition of Art", JAAC, 1984.
Timothy Binkley, “Contra Aesthetics”, in Margolis' anthology, or in JAAC, 1977.
* Stephen Davies, Definitions of Art, chapter 3. (On Beardsley.)
Mary McCloskey, Kant’s Aesthetic, chapter 11. (On Kant.)
* Monroe Beardsley, Aesthetics, postscript 1 (brief).
* Malcolm Budd, Values of the Arts, pp. 1-16 & pp. 38-44.
Budd, “Belief and Sincerity in Poetry”, in Eva Schaper (ed.) Pleasure, Preference and Value,
Nick Zangwill, “Are There Counterexamples to Aethetic Theories of Art?”, JAAC, 2002. Or perhaps "The Creative Theory of Art", American Philosophical Quarterly, 1995 and “Art and Audience”, JAAC, 1999.
George Schlesinger, "Aesthetic Experience and the Definition of Art", BJA, 1979. Perhaps.
Blackwell Companion entries, “Definition of Art” (by Dickie) and “Theories of Art”.
Jonathan Friday, Aesthetics and Photography, Ashgate, 2002. Includes a useful more general chapter "Art and Aesthetic Experience".
Is there any essential relation between music and emotion?
Peter Kivy, Introduction to the Philosophy of Music, OUP, 2002. Chapters 1,5,6,7,8 ??
** Hanslick, On
the Beautiful in Music, Hackett press
translation only. Chapter 3 is central.
Chapter 3 is central.
** Roger Scruton, The Aesthetics of Music, chapter 5.
** Roger Scruton, “Understanding Music”, in The Aesthetic Understanding, Carcanet Press, 1983.
* Paul Boghosian, ”On Hearing the Music in the Sound: Scruton on Musical Expression”, paper on Scruton, JAAC 2002.
Kivy,. “Feeling the Musical Emotions”, BJA1999 (or see his New Essays on Human Understanding,
** Jenefer Robinson, “The Expression and Arousal of Emotion in Music”, JAAC, 1994, also reprinted in P. Alperson edited volume on music.
** Jerrold Levinson, “Music and Negative Emotions”, in Music, Art and Metaphysics, Cornell, 1990.
Kivy, “Fine Art of Repetition”, and other essays, in his The Fine Art of Repetition, CUP, 1993.
Malcolm Budd, Values of Art, Penguin, 1995 (chapter on music); or maybe Music and the Emotions, Routledge, 1985.
Malcolm Budd, "Aesthetic Realism and Emotional Qualities of Music", British Journal of Aesthetics, 2005. Discussion of Scruton.
Nick Zangwill, "Against Emotion", BJA 2004.
Davies, Musical Meaning and
Expression, Cornell, 1994. A good source.
A good source.
How important is knowledge of 'context' for understanding a work of art?
** Kendall Walton, "Categories of Art", in most anthologies, and
Philosophical Review, 1970. A classic.
** William Wimsatt and Monroe Beardsley, “The Intentional
Fallacy”, widely anthologized.
* Clive Bell, Art, chapter 1.
Noel Carroll, "Clive Bell's Aesthetic Hypothesis", in Dickie's anthology.
Stephen Davies, Definitions of Art, chapter 8 and pp. 207-11. (On Walton.)
Crispin Sartwell, "Appreciation and Interpretation", Journal of Value Inquiry, 1994.
Dennis Dutton, "Tribal Art and Artifact", JAAC, 1993.
Nick Zangwill, Metaphysics of Beauty, chapters 4-6.
Yuriko Saiko, "Everyday Aesthetics", Philosophy and Literature, 2001. And here: http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/philosophy_and_literature/v025/25.1saito.html
Can a distinction between ‘free’ and ‘dependent’ beauty be defended?
** Kant, Critique of Judgement, sections 16, and maybe 15 and 17.
** Eva Schaper, Studies in Kant's Aesthetics, chapter 4.
You might try:
Ruth Lorand, "Free and Dependent Beauty", BJA, 1989.
Robert Stecker, "Lorand on Free and Dependent Beauty", BJA, 1990. An interesting critique.
Catherine Lord, "A Note on Lorand’s “Free and Dependent Beauty", BJA, 1991. Less interesting than Stecker.
Ruth Lorand, "On ‘Free and Dependent Beauty’: A Rejoinder to Stecker and Lord", BJA, 1992.
Mary McCloskey, Kant's Aesthetic, pp. 74-79.
What is the ontological status of works of art?
* Richard Wollheim, Art and its Objects, sections 1 to 15.
* Jerry Levinson, "What a Musical Work Is", Journal of Philosophy, 1980, or in his Music, Art and Metaphysics.
* Peter Kivy discusses Levinson' view in several essays in his The Fine Art of Repetition, Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1993.
* Mark Sagoff, "On Restoring and Reproducing Works of Art, Journal of Philosophy, 1978.
* Eddy Zemach, "No Identity Without Evaluation", BJA, 1986.
Oswald Hanfling, Philosophical Aesthetics, ch.3.
Roger Scruton, Art and Imagination, ch. 11.
Nicholas Wolterstorff, "Towards an Ontology of Artworks", Nous, 1980.
Joseph Margolis, "The Ontological Peculiarity of Works of Art", JAAC, 1977.
Is the meaning of a text fixed in part by the actual intentions of the author?
** Jerrold Levinson on ‘hypothetical intentionalism’: "Artworks and the Future", in Music, Art, and Metaphysics; and "Interpretation and Intention in Literature", in The Pleasures of Aesthetics, Cornell UP, 1996).
** Noel Carroll on 'moderate actual intentionalism’: "Interpretation and Intention", Metaphilosophy, 2000.
Gary Iseminger, "Actual Intentionalism Vs. Hypothetical Intentionalism", Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism, 1996.
Peter Lamarque, "Objects of Interpretation", Metaphilosophy, 2000.
W.J.T. Mitchell (ed.), Against Theory , Chicogo UP, 1985, see especially the two papers by Knapp and Michaels.
Gary Iseminger (edited volume).
Title, not sure. Lots of standard papers
Lots of standard papers in here.
Lingstone, a paper you can find in Levinson’s or Carroll’s footnotes.
He also has just brought out a book on
He also has just brought out a book on this.
Joseph Raz, “Intention and Interpretation”, in R. George (ed.) The Autonomy of Law, 1996.
Dan Dennett, "The Interpretation of Texts, People and Other Artifacts", Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 1990. Available here http://cogprints.org/259/00/intrptxt.htm
For a non-toxic guide to trendy postmodernism, try the two articles by Stuart Sim in O. Hanfling (ed.), Philosophical Aesthetics, Blackwell, 1992.
is one area where we stray into areas discussed by the Derridada people, those
(This is one area where we stray into areas discussed by the Derridada people, those with 'Theorrhea'...)
What, if anything, is distinctive of the aesthetics of nature?
** Ronald Hepburn, "Contemporary Aesthetics and the Neglect of Natural Beauty", in his Wonder and Other Essays (Edinburgh) and in a 1965 volume ("British Philosophy... "?) edited by Bernard Williams.
** Allen Carlson, Aesthetics
and the Environment (Rougtledge 2000). Chapters 1 to 5. Esp. chapter 4.
Chapters 1 to 5. Esp. chapter 4.
* Malcolm Budd, Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, paper 2000ish. And his book The Aesthetic Appreciation of Nature, OUP 2002.
Yuriko Saito, paper, 1984, Journal of Aesthetic Education. Hard to get hold of.
Nick Zangwill, "Formal Natural Beauty", Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, 2001 (also in Metaphysics of Beauty).
Glenn Parsons, paper in BJA, 2004; Allen Carlson and Parsons JAAC 2004.
Allen Carlson and Arnold Berleant (eds.), The Aesthetics of Natural Environments, Broadview 2004. A good collection of papers. Pick and choose what you like from here. There's a good paper by Noel Carroll, for example.
Assess resemblence theories of pictorial representation.
** Richard Wollheim, “Seeing-as, Seeing-in, and
Pictorial Representation”, in Art and its
Objects, second edition,
* Richard Wollheim, chapter of Painting as an art.
* JAAC symposium 1999ish, Levinson, Feagin, wollheim.
Books by, Lopes,
Chapter of Budd’s Values of Art book.
Rosalind Hursthouse, survey paper in Oswald Hanfling (ed.) Philosophical Aesthetics, Blackwell, 1992. Excellent, and useful to students.
Also an entry in the Levinson edited volume.
Useful contrasts with the pictures case:
Roger Scruton, “Photography and Representation”, in his The Aesthetic Understanding.
"Representation in Music", in The
Robinson responds to Scruton’s arguments in “Representation in Music and
Painting”, Philosophy 1981, and also
in “Music as a Representational Art” (in Philip Alperson (ed.), What is Music?,