Durham astronomers feature strongly in latest announcement from Particle Physics & Astronomy Research Council (PPARC)
(5 November 2004)
Possible origin of Cosmic Rays revealed with Gamma Rays.
A team of UK astronomers, including staff at Durham University, working with international partners has produced the first ever image of an astronomical object using high energy gamma rays, helping to unravel a 100 year old mystery - an origin of cosmic rays. Their research, published in the Journal Nature was carried out using the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.), an array of four telescopes, in Namibia, South-West Africa.
The astronomers studied the remnant of a supernova that exploded some 1,000 years ago, leaving behind an expanding shell of debris which, seen from the Earth, is twice the diameter of the Moon. The resulting image helps to solve a mystery that has been puzzling scientists for almost 100 years - the origin of cosmic rays. Cosmic rays are extremely energetic particles that continually bombard the Earth, thousands of them passing through our bodies every day. The production of gamma rays in this supernova shock wave tells us that it is acting like a giant particle accelerator in space, and thus a likely source of the cosmic rays in our galaxy.
Dr Paula Chadwick, of the University of Durham Physics Department, said: "This picture really is a big step forward for gamma-ray astronomy and the supernova remnant is a fascinating object. If you had gamma-ray eyes and were in the Southern Hemisphere, you could see a large, brightly glowing ring in the sky every night."
Professor Ian Halliday, CEO of PPARC which funds UK participation in H.E.S.S. said "These results provide the first unequivocal proof that supernovae are capable of producing large quantities of galactic cosmic rays - something we have long suspected, but never been able to confirm." Gamma rays are the most penetrating form of radiation we know, around a billion times more energetic than the X-rays produced by a hospital X-ray machine. This makes it very difficult to use them to create an image - they just pass straight through any surface which we might use to reflect them, for instance. However, luckily for life on Earth, gamma rays from objects in outer space are stopped by the atmosphere; when this happens, a faint flash of blue light is produced, lasting for a few billionths of a second. The astronomers used images of these flashes of light, called Cherenkov radiation, to make a gamma ray 'image' for the first time.
Notes for Editors
The H.E.S.S. collaboration
The High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) team consists of scientists from Germany, France, the UK, the Czech Republic, Ireland, Armenia, South Africa and Namibia.
The H.E.S.S. array
Over the last few years, the H.E.S.S. collaboration have been building a system of four telescopes in the Khomas Highland region of Namibia, to study very-high-energy gamma rays from cosmic particle accelerators. The telescopes, known as Cherenkov telescopes, image the light created when high-energy cosmic gamma rays are absorbed in the atmosphere, and have opened a new energy domain for astronomy. The H.E.S.S. telescopes each feature mirrors of area 107 square metres, and are equipped with highly sensitive and very fast 960-pixel light detectors in the focal planes. Construction of the telescope system started in 2001; the fourth telescope was commissioned in December 2003. Observations were being made even while the system was being built, first using a single telescope, then with two and three telescopes. While only the complete four-telescope system provides the full performance, the first H.E.S.S. telescope alone was already superior to any of the instruments operated previously in the southern hemisphere. Among the first targets to be observed with a two-telescope instrument was the Galactic Centre.
Dr. Paula Chadwick
Department of Physics
University of Durham
Tel +44 191 334 3560
Mobile +44 781 202 9934
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Durham Press Office Contact
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Images are available from Julia Maddock.
Gamma ray image:
The first astronomical image in very high energy gamma rays - supernova remnant RXJ1713.7-3946. The remnant is about twice the diameter of the moon. Superimposed for comparison are the contours of the X-ray emission observed with the ASCA satellite.
Supernova images are available from the Hubble website at
Diagram of gamma rays in atmosphere:
Project images at http://www.mpi-hd.mpg.de/hfm/HESS/public/full_images/full_images.htm
For further information, see the project website www.mpi-hd.mpg.de/HESS
The Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council (PPARC) is the UK's strategic science investment agency. It funds research, education and public understanding in four areas of science - particle physics, astronomy, cosmology and space science.
PPARC is government funded and provides research grants and studentships to scientists in British universities, gives researchers access to world-class facilities and funds the UK membership of international bodies such as the European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN), and the European Space Agency. It also contributes money for the UK telescopes overseas on La Palma, Hawaii, Australia and in Chile, the UK Astronomy Technology Centre at the Royal Observatory, Edinburgh and the MERLIN/VLBI National Facility, which includes the Lovell Telescope at Jodrell Bank observatory.
PPARC's Public Understanding of Science and Technology Awards Scheme funds both small local projects and national initiatives aimed at improving public understanding of its areas of science.