1.1. In 1991 PD Dr. Thomas Koppe, then in Rostock, asked the author to allow tomographies of the orang-utan calvaria from the Munich Collections for his project "Sinus maxillaris" (e.g., Koppe et al. 1992, 1995, 1996) to be made. Other partial projects (from Okoyama) then followed - e.g., Alouatta.
1.3. The problems occurring in this context were to be named and described, so that they could be taken into account in the selection of individual tomographies. Since the author started to examine sample surveys of Primates, in 1981, he has been dealing with these and similar problems. The author has become familiar with the influence of the sample composition based on the results through many such individual cases. At the same time he sought and found ways of dealing with this dilemma (e.g., Röhrer-Ertl 1984, 1996a, b, c, 1999). Other mistakes or problems arising within such projects could be diminished or verified, to quantify their influence on potential results.
1.4. When the author was given the responsibility for the Munich Osteological Primates Collection at the State Collection for Anthropology and Paleoanatomy (SAPM) and Zoological State Collection (ZSM) in 1998, therealisation of the project "The Sinus Maxillaris of Primates after CT scans" became possible. A complete recatalogisation and reappraisal of the material, however, was necessary. The collections (the small collection taken over from the LMU Anatomical Depts. plays no decisive role) were not in a very good state due to war and post-war influences.2
1.5. As it seemed necessary for this project to draw the sample from the existing material wherever possible, all information had to be checked or researched in every direction. For this reason many CT appointments had to be delayed as the research about the collection took priority and the tomographical research fell behind (see below).3 After the first steps had been finished the tomographisation was begun in the winter of 1999/2000.
1.6. At first the official route was taken and the work done at the "Radiological Diagnostical Institute of the Inner City Clinics of the LMU" (Dr. Carine Brenner-Maucher and RTA Eva Herzig). When this was no longer possible, Prof. Dr. Karl Schneider, Radiology of the "von Hauner Childrens Hospital of the LMU" generously allowed the remaining tomographies to be made by Dr. Claus-Peter Wallner in his department. The technical problems encountered will be described in another paper (see Wallner 2004).4
1.7. In a total of 50 appointments (1999: 4; 2000: 9; 2001: 22; 2002: 8; 2003: 7) with more than 200 hours at the CT, 450 primate calvaria were completely tomographied (prosthion to opisthocranion) and stored on CD-ROM. All the collaborators so far also have the taxonomically ordered lists of the material in the whole sample survey.
1.8. Due to inquiries, additional material not in the original plan (which was broadened as the project progressed) was also taken into account: fossil Primate material in Munich (Prof. Dr. Kurt Heißig of the "Bavarian State Collection for Paleontology and Geology" generously provided the specimen) and an additional series of Bornean orang-utans were tomographied und are integrated into the "Munich Series".
1.10. All data collected areavailable in Greifswald (on CD-ROM) and in Munich (in the radiological archives of the LMU). After a 12 year run up- if preliminary work is taken into account - the actual work can now start.
2.1. From the beginning, the purpose of this project was to gain processable material from all relevant Primate taxonomic groups. The Munich Collections have their strengths and weaknesses, which had to be alleviated.
2.2. All Prosimiae Haeckel, 1866 - except Nycticebus coucang (Boddaert, 1785) - are to be treated as not completely representative or non-representative for the covered species. Other groups pose similar problems. In all these cases a spectrum of related species as wide as possible was taken into account. In this manner a systematic mistake in the data processing can (as is known) be reduced to irrelevancy if the remaining parameters are correct (see below).
3.1. As implied in the introduction, the finding or drawing of a sample or part of a sample causes problems. This is well known to the "heuristician". It is generally unknown how representative any given heuristic sample is of the relevant population(s). It is however possible to assess the structure of a given sample by an analysis of the parameters of a number of specimen, sex, age-at-death and, if possible, other parameters (for example, Röhrer-Ertl 1984, 1999).
3.2. On the other hand, it should be possible to determine the representativity of a partial sample, that is to be defined, approximatively to sufficiently exact, if the partial sample is drawn under consideration of known parameters from a well known sample. The data available so far suggests that a sample size of n>50 is quite unproblematic. The author considers all partial samples of n=10 to be representative within the parameters described above. According to examinations of the author, the ascertained data is all regularily within standard deviations. The mean, by rule, should only deviate from the real order of the whole sample group by an irrelevant magnitude.
3.3. In the meantime it has become clear that if one proceeds in the described manner, a partial sample of n<10 is able to produce usable results, esp. if evidence of closely related species is available.5 An example is the Genus Lemur Linnaeus, 1758. At the least, genus-specific results, most of the time species-specific results, can be assertained.
3.4. Only in one case can the Munich Series reach merely subfamily-specific results. This is the subfamily Pitheciinae Mivart, 1865. It alone is so badly represented in Munich and therefore totally included into the Munich Series.
3.5. Other preliminary work that should be taken into account here can be found in examinations of measure attributes by the author (e.g., Röhrer-Ertl 1984, 1996a, b, c, 2001 and in preparation).6 This work explores, inasmuch and to what extent cranial measures are affected by partial sample group size, age and sex and also, inasmuch and to what extent they are connected in biliateral linear correlations. A fundamental result is that all these tested correlations are present. And then it is proven that these correlations form their own, species-specific patterns. Therefore, species also can be distinguished in this way. Indicative values of results gained can be affected by a conscious choice of "basic and related measures", for example.
4.1. Our team was and is of the opinion that the "Munich Series" has not exhausted its potential with the exploration of the short term goal of the "Sinus maxilliaris of Primates". It has been discussed to go over to other questions after the conclusion of this study - mainly new topics relating to the Viscerocranium. All possible avenues of exploration should first be identified. These are then to be explored species-specifically in many different ways. The functional component can only be one amongst many in this process - even if it is found to be more essential than previously claimed. The author completely agrees with this, even if he often shows its dominance in his examinations so far (e.g., Röhrer-Ertl 1989, Röhrer-Ertl et al. 1996).
4.2. The author expects that the examination of the Munich Series will bring essential contributions to facial genesis as an area of research with hitherto often insufficient results. These contributions should then be able to affect practical research and finally the usage stemming from it. In this context one can for instance think of facial operations.
5.1. Within a 12 year preliminary work period, the project "The Sinus Maxilliaris of Primates Linnaeus, 1758" has clarified essential parameters for partial sample grouping as far as was possible. Under these specifications, 450 primate crania - as representative as possible for the species and in taxonomical order - were tomographied completely (440 in "Parisian Horizontal" and 10 in "Frankfurt Horizontal" - OAE) and the data - ordered in taxonomical groups - stored on CD-ROM (for Greifswald).
5.2. This supplies material for exploration better than any other currently in existence. As the lifestyle of every species is known, the series can be used to conduct targeted research into functional aspects.
5.3. It is hoped, that after the inital project "Sinus maxilliaris" others will follow, which will contribute to a better understanding of the genesis of the face. Finally hope is expressed, that this will contribute - via practial research - to a better situation for practical applications (such as jaw and face operations).
Koppe, T., O. Röhrer-Ertl, S. Neugebauer, R. Schulz & D. Hahn. (1992) Beitrag zur Pneumatisation des Os temporale bei den Pongiden. in: W. Künel (Ed.): Verh. d. Anat. Ges., Suppl. d. Anat. Anz. 174, 87. Vers. In Mainz. - Jena: Fischer, 311.
Röhrer-Ertl, O. (1989) Über Schädelwachstum beim Orang-Utan, mit einer Anmerkung zur Rolle der ,Intelligenz in der Evolution". Morphologische Fallstudie zu - primär altersabhängigen - Wachstumsrichtungen innerhalb einer Population von Pongo satyrus borneensis von Wurmb, 1784 aus Skalau, West-Borneo. (Mammalia, Primates: Ponginae) (Germ. with Engl. summary). Zoologische Abh. (Dresden) 44: 155 - 177.
Röhrer-Ertl, O. (1996) Comparative morphological examinations of Ponginae´s Crania. I: Concerning the question of sample comparation relating to sample-composition under the aspect of age-at-death and the infraspecific homogenity (Germ. with Engl. summary). Saegetierkundliche Mittlgn. 37: 29 - 50.
Röhrer-Ertl, O. (1996) Comparative morphological examinations of Ponginae´s Crania. II: Testing of a dependence from age-at-death of selected cranial-measurements (Germ. with Engl. summary). Saeugetierkundl. Mittlgn. 37: 135 - 144.
Röhrer-Ertl, O. (1996) Comparative morphological examinations of Ponginae´s Crania. III: Testing of simple linear correlations between selected cranial-measurements (Germ. with Engl. summary). Saeugetierkundl. Mittlgn. 38: 3 - 18.
Röhrer-Ertl, O. (2001) Über Eigenschaften von Cranial-Maßen bei Primates-Species, insbesondere zur metrischen Alters- und Geschlechtsdiagnose. I: Nycticebus coucang (Boddaert, 1785), Alouatta caraya (Humboldt, 1811), Macaca fascicularis (Raffles, 1821), zwei Populationen von Presbytis cristatus (Raffles, 1821), Hylobates moloch (d´Audebert, 1797) und Symphalangus syndactylus (Raffles, 1821) (Germ. with Engl. summary). - in: E. May & N. Benecke (Eds.): Beiträge zur Archäozoologie und Prähistorischen Anthropologie 3 , pp. 141 - 153. Konstanz: GAPA.
Röhrer-Ertl, O. (in prep) About the properties of Cranial Measures taken from primate species, especially concerning metric age- and gernder-diagnosis. II: Lorisidae Gregory, 1915, Cebidae Swainson, 1835 and Callitrichidae Gray, 1821.
Röhrer-Ertl, O. (in prep) About the properties of Cranial Measures taken from primate species, especially concerning metric age- and gernder-diagnosis. III: Macaca fuscata (Blyth, 1875), Macaca nemestrina (Linnaeus, 1766), Papio cynocephalus (Linnaeus, 1766) and Papio hamadryas (Linnaeus, 1758).
Röhrer-Ertl, O. (in prep) About the properties of Cranial Measures taken from primate species, especially concerning metric age- and gernder-diagnosis. IV: Cercopithecus aethiops Linnaeus, 1758, Cercopithecus campbelli (Waterhouse, 1838), Cercopithecus mitis (Wolf, 1822) and Cercopithecus talapoin (Schreber, 1774).
Röhrer-Ertl, O. (in prep) About the properties of Cranial Measures taken from primate species, especially concerning metric age- and gernder-diagnosis. V: Presbytis melalophos (Raffles, 1821), Presbytis rubicunda (Müller, 1838), Nasalis larvatus (von Wurmb, 1781), Colobus abyssinicus (Oken, 1816), Colobus polykomos (Zimmermann, 1780) and Colobus badius (Kerr, 1792).
Röhrer-Ertl, O. (1999) The Influence of Sample Selection on Results in Empirical Studies and Heuristics. in: T. Koppe, H. Nagai & K.W. Alt (Eds.): The Paranasal Sinusses of Higher Primates. Development, Function, and Evolution, pp. 227 - 234. Chicago: Quintessence.
Röhrer-Ertl, O., T. Koppe & D. Hahn. (1996) On the question of a functional explanation of the Sinus maxillaris at the placental Mammalia on the examinate of the Orang-Utan (germ. With engl. Summary). Saeugetierkundl. Mittlgn. 38: 115 - 132.
Walner, C.-P., Röhrer-Ertl, O., Schneider, K. (2004) State-of-the-art computed tomography of primate skulls - Comparison of different scan protocols. Ann. Anat. 186: 521-524.
2. Actually, an important part of the Munich scientific collections had been evacuated by March 1944 thanks to the efforts of the remaining staff and the SD. (This is remarkable for a scientific collection compared to other cities.) Also, many objects were rescued out of burning buildings during nighttime bombing raids. All catalogues, etc., were destroyed, however. Additionally, many inscriptions were removed during post-war de-greasing and many tags were taken off and not replaced. In this way, a lot of data has irrevocably been lost or marred by wrong transliterations. Some inscriptions could be made visible under ultraviolet light, etc. Approximately half of the data available now had to be reconstructed or researched in this manner.
3. As a side note, the author was made curator of the osteological Primates collection in addition to his other duties. There was therefore no possibility to gain the necessary time via work rationalisation in other fields.
4. For example, data transfer to Greifswald was not possible because of incompatible carrier systems at the time. The tomographisation was continued in the hope that a solution would be found some time in the future. With the e-film program and the transfer of data on CD-ROM, the problem was solved.
5. Here a phenomenon of taxonomy can be drawn on for explanation: A "plus" of species is tolerated more easily than a "minus". The closer a group is taxonomically to Homo Linnaeus 1758, the greater this tolerance seems to be. Amongst the Primates Linnaeus, 1758 even different fur patterns are classified as separate species.